Special Issue "Impact of Naturally Contaminated Mycotoxins in Feedstuffs and Feeds on Animal Growth and Health"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020) | Viewed by 8387

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sung Woo Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University Faculty Scholar, Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, 116 Polk Hall, Campus Box 7621, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Interests: gastrointestinal physiology; nutrition and metabolism; gut microbiota and microbiome
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Special Issue Information

A major portion of feedstuffs is naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins at various levels. Ingestion of feeds contaminated with mycotoxins can affect the growth and health of animals depending on the combination of mycotoxins, their contamination levels, and duration of exposure. Feed producers and animal producers manage mycotoxin contamination by following governmental restrictions or guidelines for certain mycotoxins. However, chronic exposure to multiple mycotoxins can still affect the growth and health of animals even at low levels below the regulatory or guidance levels. This Special Issue will include original research papers investigating the impact of naturally contaminated mycotoxins in feedstuffs and feeds at various levels and combinations on growth of health of animals. The collective efforts on this topic would deepen our understanding of how to handle mycotoxins at practical levels.

Prof. Sung Woo Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • growth
  • health
  • pigs
  • poultry
  • aflatoxin
  • deoxynivalenol
  • fumonisin

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation and Dietary Protein Level on Growth Performance, Serum Chemistry and Immune Response in Weanling Piglets Fed Differing Concentrations of Aflatoxin
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100651 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
Effects of folic acid and protein levels on growth and serum chemistry in pigs fed aflatoxin were determined in two experiments. Increasing aflatoxin (250 to 800 ppb) decreased (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake for both of the 35-day trials. [...] Read more.
Effects of folic acid and protein levels on growth and serum chemistry in pigs fed aflatoxin were determined in two experiments. Increasing aflatoxin (250 to 800 ppb) decreased (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake for both of the 35-day trials. In Experiment 1, increasing aflatoxin (0, 250, 500 ppb), increased linearly (P < 0.05) aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and ɣ-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Folic acid (0, 2.0, 5.0, 12.5 ppm) increased linearly (P < 0.05) serum K, Ca, P, Mg, and AST with the largest effect observed at 12.5 ppm. Folic acid decreased (P < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen (BUN): creatinine and Na:K. In Experiment 2, aflatoxin (800 ppb) increased (P < 0.05) glucose and GGT, and decreased (P < 0.05) Na:K and albumin:globulin. Increasing protein from 15 to 18% elevated BUN: creatinine (P < 0.05), albumin: globulin (P < 0.05), albumin (P < 0.05) and ALKP (P < 0.05). Folic acid (2 ppm) elevated (P < 0.05) BUN, and interacted with both aflatoxin (P < 0.10) and protein (P < 0.05) on BUN. Adding folic acid to aflatoxin contaminated diets improved some measures of clinical chemistry in Experiment 1 but not traditional growth performance measures. The higher protein level reduced the effects of aflatoxicosis on growth. Full article
Article
Impact of Chronic Levels of Naturally Multi-Contaminated Feed with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Broiler Chickens and Evaluation of the Mitigation Properties of Different Titers of Yeast Cell Wall Extract
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100636 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
The chronic intake of naturally multi-mycotoxin contaminated feed by broilers with or without titers of Yeast Cell Wall Extract (YCWE, a.k.a Mycosorb A+®), was investigated. Day-old male Cobb chicks (1600 birds, 64 pens, 25 birds/pen) were randomly allocated to diets of [...] Read more.
The chronic intake of naturally multi-mycotoxin contaminated feed by broilers with or without titers of Yeast Cell Wall Extract (YCWE, a.k.a Mycosorb A+®), was investigated. Day-old male Cobb chicks (1600 birds, 64 pens, 25 birds/pen) were randomly allocated to diets of control (CON); diet containing mycotoxins (MT); CON + 0.2% YCWE; MT + 0.025% YCWE; MT + 0.05% YCWE; MT + 0.1% YCWE; MT + 0.2% YCWE; and MT + 0.4% YCWE. Growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and gut health were recorded over 42 days. Compared with CON, MT had reduced body weight (BW) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) on days 35 and 42 with increased duodenal crypt depth and fewer goblet cells. Furthermore, European Poultry Production Efficiency (EPEF) was reduced for MT versus CON. Feeding MT + 0.2% YCWE improved BW, lowered FCR, reduced crypt depth, increased goblet cell count and improved EPEF. Considering titration of YCWE (0 to 0.4%) during mycotoxin challenge, a cubic effect was observed for FCR with NC + 0.2% YCWE having the lowest FCR. These findings suggest that chronic consumption of multiple Fusarium mycotoxins present in common field concentrations can negatively impact broiler performance and gut health while inclusion of YCWE, particularly 0.2%, could be effective in counteracting mycotoxins. Full article
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Article
Effects of Fumonisin-Contaminated Corn on Growth Performance of 9 to 28 kg Nursery Pigs
Toxins 2020, 12(9), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090604 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Fumonisin contamination in corn is an emerging issue in animal feed production. Fumonisin disrupts the metabolism of sphingolipids and reduces growth performance. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding fumonisin-contaminated corn on growth performance and sphinganine (SA) to sphingosine (SO) [...] Read more.
Fumonisin contamination in corn is an emerging issue in animal feed production. Fumonisin disrupts the metabolism of sphingolipids and reduces growth performance. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding fumonisin-contaminated corn on growth performance and sphinganine (SA) to sphingosine (SO) ratios of 9 to 28 kg pigs. A total of 350 pigs, were used with 5 pigs/pen and 14 pens/treatment. Dietary treatments contained fumonisin-contaminated corn (50 mg/kg of fumonisin B1 + B2) blended with low fumonisin corn (10 mg/kg of fumonisin B1 + B2) to provide dietary fumonisin concentrations of 7.2, 14.7, 21.9, 32.7, and 35.1 mg/kg. From day 0 to 28, increasing fumonisin concentration decreased (linear, p < 0.001) average daily gain, average daily feed intake (linear, p = 0.055), and gain:feed ratio (linear, p = 0.016). Although these response criteria tested linear, the greatest reduction in performance was in pigs fed with 32.7 and 35.1 mg/kg of fumonisin (B1 + B2). Increasing fumonisin concentration increased the serum SA:SO ratio (linear, p < 0.001) on day 14 and 28. In summary, for 9 to 28 kg nursery pigs, increasing fumonisin linearly decreased average daily gain and gain:feed ratio. However, despite the linear response, diets containing up to 21.9 mg/kg of fumonisin did not have as dramatic a decrease in growth performance as those fed more than 32.7 mg/kg. Further research is warranted to determine the effect of fumonisin concentrations between 21.9 and 32.7 mg/kg. Full article
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Article
The Assessment of Diet Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 in Juvenile Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and the Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mitigation of a Yeast Cell Wall Extract
Toxins 2020, 12(9), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090597 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary AFB1 on growth performance, health, intestinal microbiota communities and AFB1 tissue residues of turbot and evaluate the mitigation efficacy of yeast cell wall extract, Mycosorb® (YCWE) toward AFB1 contaminated dietary [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary AFB1 on growth performance, health, intestinal microbiota communities and AFB1 tissue residues of turbot and evaluate the mitigation efficacy of yeast cell wall extract, Mycosorb® (YCWE) toward AFB1 contaminated dietary treatments. Nine experimental diets were formulated: Diet 1 (control): AFB1 free; Diets 2–5 or Diets 6–9: 20 μg AFB1/kg diet or 500 μg AFB1/kg diet + 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.4% YCWE, respectively). The results showed that Diet 6 significantly decreased the concentrations of TP, GLB, C3, C4, T-CHO, TG but increased the activities of AST, ALT in serum, decreased the expressions of CAT, SOD, GPx, CYP1A but increased the expressions of CYP3A, GST-ζ1, p53 in liver. Diet 6 increased the AFB1 residues in serum and muscle, altered the intestinal microbiota composition, decreased the bacterial community diversity and the abundance of some potential probiotics. However, Diet 8 and Diet 9 restored the immune response, relieved adverse effects in liver, lowered the AFB1 residues in turbot tissues, promoted intestinal microbiota diversity and lowered the abundance of potentially pathogens. In conclusion, YCWE supplementation decreased the health effects of AFB1 on turbot, restoring biomarkers closer to the mycotoxin-free control diet. Full article
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Article
Investigation of the Efficacy of a Postbiotic Yeast Cell Wall-Based Blend on Newly-Weaned Pigs under a Dietary Challenge of Multiple Mycotoxins with Emphasis on Deoxynivalenol
Toxins 2020, 12(8), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12080504 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
Pigs are highly susceptible to mycotoxins. This study investigated the effects of a postbiotic yeast cell wall-based blend (PYCW; Nicholasville, KY, USA) on growth and health of newly-weaned pigs under dietary challenge of multiple mycotoxins. Forty-eight newly-weaned pigs (21 d old) were individually [...] Read more.
Pigs are highly susceptible to mycotoxins. This study investigated the effects of a postbiotic yeast cell wall-based blend (PYCW; Nicholasville, KY, USA) on growth and health of newly-weaned pigs under dietary challenge of multiple mycotoxins. Forty-eight newly-weaned pigs (21 d old) were individually allotted to four dietary treatments, based on a three phase-feeding, in a randomized complete block design (sex; initial BW) with two factors for 36 d. Two factors were dietary mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol: 2000 μg/kg supplemented in three phases; and aflatoxin: 200 μg/kg supplemented only in phase 3) and PYCW (0.2%). Growth performance (weekly), blood serum (d 34), and jejunal mucosa immune and oxidative stress markers (d 36) data were analyzed using MIXED procedure of SAS. Mycotoxins reduced (p < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) during the entire period whereas PYCW did not affect growth performance. Mycotoxins reduced (p < 0.05) serum protein, albumin, creatinine, and alanine aminotransferase whereas PYCW decreased (p < 0.05) serum creatine phosphokinase. Neither mycotoxins nor PYCW affected pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage markers in the jejunal mucosa. No interaction was observed indicating that PYCW improved hepatic enzymes regardless of mycotoxin challenge. In conclusion, deoxynivalenol (2000 μg/kg, for 7 to 25 kg body weight) and aflatoxin B1 (200 μg/kg, for 16 to 25 kg body weight) impaired growth performance and nutrient digestibility of newly-weaned pigs, whereas PYCW could partially improve health of pigs regardless of mycotoxin challenge. Full article
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Article
Efficacy of Mycotoxin Detoxifiers on Health and Growth of Newly-Weaned Pigs under Chronic Dietary Challenge of Deoxynivalenol
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12050311 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
The efficacy of yeast-based mycotoxin detoxifiers on health and growth performance of newly-weaned pigs (27-d-old) fed diets naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol was investigated. Sixty pigs were individually assigned to five treatments for 34 d: NC (negative control, 1.2 mg/kg of deoxynivalenol); PC (positive [...] Read more.
The efficacy of yeast-based mycotoxin detoxifiers on health and growth performance of newly-weaned pigs (27-d-old) fed diets naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol was investigated. Sixty pigs were individually assigned to five treatments for 34 d: NC (negative control, 1.2 mg/kg of deoxynivalenol); PC (positive control, 3.2 mg/kg of deoxynivalenol); CYC (PC + clay/yeast culture-based product, 0.2%); CYE (PC + clay/yeast cell wall/plant extracts/antioxidants-based product, 0.2%); and CYB (PC + clay/inactivated yeast/botanicals/antioxidants-based product, 0.2%). Blood and jejunal mucosa were sampled, and data were analyzed using Proc Mixed of SAS with pre-planned contrasts. Deoxynivalenol reduced the average daily gain (ADG) in phase 3. Pigs fed CYC had greater overall ADG, average daily feed intake during phase 3, and gain to feed ratio during phase 2 than PC. At d 14, deoxynivalenol reduced blood urea nitrogen/creatinine and tended to reduce blood urea nitrogen. Pigs fed CYB tended to have greater aspartate aminotransferase than PC. At d 34, pigs fed CYC and CYB tended to have lower serum creatine phosphokinase than PC. Pigs fed CYE had lower blood urea nitrogen/creatinine than PC. In jejunal mucosa, deoxynivalenol tended to increase malondialdehydes and decrease glutathione. Pigs fed CYE and CYB had lower malondialdehydes, pigs fed CYB had greater glutathione and tended to have lower immunoglobulin A than PC. Pigs fed CYC and CYE tended to have lower interleukin 8 than PC. In summary, deoxynivalenol challenge (1.2 vs. 3.2 mg/kg) mildly compromised growth performance and increased the oxidative stress of pigs. Mycotoxin detoxifiers could partially overcome deoxynivalenol toxicity enhancing liver health, whereas CYE and CYB reduced oxidative stress, and CYC and CYB reduced immune activation. In conclusion, yeast-based detoxifiers with functional components as clay/inactivated yeast/botanicals/antioxidants had increased detoxifying properties in newly-weaned pigs challenged with deoxynivalenol, potentially by enhancing adsorbability, immune function, gut health, and reducing oxidative stress. Full article
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