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Article

The Assessment of Diet Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 in Juvenile Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and the Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mitigation of a Yeast Cell Wall Extract

1
The Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed (Ministry of Agriculture), the Key Laboratory of Mariculture (Ministry of Education), Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
2
Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agricultural Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
3
College of Agriculture, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, China
4
Beijing Alltech Biological Products (China) Co., Ltd., Beijing 100600, China
5
Alltech Inc., Center for Animal Nutrigenomics and Applied Animal Nutrition, 3031 Catnip Hill Road, Nicholasville, KY 40356, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(9), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090597
Received: 25 August 2020 / Revised: 12 September 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 15 September 2020
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary AFB1 on growth performance, health, intestinal microbiota communities and AFB1 tissue residues of turbot and evaluate the mitigation efficacy of yeast cell wall extract, Mycosorb® (YCWE) toward AFB1 contaminated dietary treatments. Nine experimental diets were formulated: Diet 1 (control): AFB1 free; Diets 2–5 or Diets 6–9: 20 μg AFB1/kg diet or 500 μg AFB1/kg diet + 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.4% YCWE, respectively). The results showed that Diet 6 significantly decreased the concentrations of TP, GLB, C3, C4, T-CHO, TG but increased the activities of AST, ALT in serum, decreased the expressions of CAT, SOD, GPx, CYP1A but increased the expressions of CYP3A, GST-ζ1, p53 in liver. Diet 6 increased the AFB1 residues in serum and muscle, altered the intestinal microbiota composition, decreased the bacterial community diversity and the abundance of some potential probiotics. However, Diet 8 and Diet 9 restored the immune response, relieved adverse effects in liver, lowered the AFB1 residues in turbot tissues, promoted intestinal microbiota diversity and lowered the abundance of potentially pathogens. In conclusion, YCWE supplementation decreased the health effects of AFB1 on turbot, restoring biomarkers closer to the mycotoxin-free control diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aflatoxin B1; adsorbent; physiological effects; intestinal microbiota; AFB1 residues; turbot; yeast cell wall extract Aflatoxin B1; adsorbent; physiological effects; intestinal microbiota; AFB1 residues; turbot; yeast cell wall extract
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.; Wang, T.; Lin, G.; Li, M.; Zhu, R.; Yiannikouris, A.; Zhang, Y.; Mai, K. The Assessment of Diet Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 in Juvenile Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and the Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mitigation of a Yeast Cell Wall Extract. Toxins 2020, 12, 597. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090597

AMA Style

Yang J, Wang T, Lin G, Li M, Zhu R, Yiannikouris A, Zhang Y, Mai K. The Assessment of Diet Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 in Juvenile Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and the Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mitigation of a Yeast Cell Wall Extract. Toxins. 2020; 12(9):597. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090597

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Jinzhu, Tiantian Wang, Gang Lin, Mingzhu Li, Ronghua Zhu, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Yanjiao Zhang, and Kangsen Mai. 2020. "The Assessment of Diet Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 in Juvenile Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and the Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mitigation of a Yeast Cell Wall Extract" Toxins 12, no. 9: 597. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090597

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