Special Issue "Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Magdalena Twarużek
Website
Guest Editor
Kazimierz Wielki University, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Department of Physiology and Toxicology, Chodkiewicza 30, PL-85-064 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: mycotoxins; mycology; food; feed; human biological samples; cytotoxicity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue on Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins, papers describing the worldwide levels and occurrence of mycotoxins modified mycotoxins, masked mycotoxins) in various commodities are welcome, as are papers on the occurrence and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in human food and animal feed.

The control of mycotoxins in food and feed is a constantly evolving process, and the data we have obtained so far are very important for the realization the dietary exposure assessment and health risk assessment to mycotoxins in human and animal. Multiple mycotoxins in feed and food have been recognized by European regulatory bodies as emerging risks in food safety and security with regard to animal and human health. Beyond the most studied ones, though, the number of other mycotoxins and metabolites of potential but largely unknown risk in animals is formidable, and also, knowledge of combined exposure to mycotoxins in highly needed. Surveys using advanced analytic tools are welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions for this Special Issue, in the form of original research, case studies, or review papers, shedding light on perspectives on occurrence and control of mycotoxins of various mycotoxins in different commodities and risk assessment.

Prof. Magdalena Twarużek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food, food safety
  • Diet supplements
  • Feed, feed security
  • Biological fluids
  • Occupational environmental samples
  • Risk assessment

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Winter Rye Varieties Cultivated in Poland (2017–2019)
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060423 - 26 Jun 2020
Abstract
Rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most important cereals and is used in both the food and feed industries. It is produced mainly in a belt extending from Russia through Poland to Germany. Despite the great economic importance of [...] Read more.
Rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most important cereals and is used in both the food and feed industries. It is produced mainly in a belt extending from Russia through Poland to Germany. Despite the great economic importance of this cereal, there is little research on rye contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, the occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, monoacetoxyscirpenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and zearalenone), as well as ochratoxin A, in 60 winter rye samples of four varieties (KWS Binntto, KWS Serafino, Dańkowskie Granat and Farm Saved Seed) cultivated in three consecutive growing seasons in five different regions of Poland was determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and fluorescence detection. Deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and zearalenone had the highest occurrence in samples (90%, 63%, 57%, and 45% positive results, respectively). The mean concentrations of these analytes were 28.8 µg/kg (maximum 354.1 µg/kg), 0.98 µg/kg (maximum 6.63 µg/kg), 2.98 µg/kg (maximum 29.8 µg/kg), and 0.69 µg/kg (maximum 10.2 µg/kg), respectively. The mean concentrations for individual mycotoxins were highest in the 2016/2017 growing season. In the 2016/2017 growing season, at least two mycotoxins were detected in 95% of the samples, while in the 2018/2019 growing season, 70% of samples contained one or no mycotoxins. The frequencies of mycotoxin occurrence in different rye varieties were similar. Although a high frequency of mycotoxin occurrence was noted (especially deoxynivalenol), their concentrations were low, and none of the analyzed rye samples exceeded the maximum acceptable mycotoxin level set by the European Commission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle
Transformations of Selected Fusarium Toxins and Their Modified Forms During Malt Loaf Production
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060385 - 11 Jun 2020
Abstract
An increasing number of studies have found that modified mycotoxins, such as free mycotoxins, naturally occur in food, and severely impact food safety. The present study investigated concentrations of trichothecenes nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN), together with their modified forms, nivalenol-3-glucoside [...] Read more.
An increasing number of studies have found that modified mycotoxins, such as free mycotoxins, naturally occur in food, and severely impact food safety. The present study investigated concentrations of trichothecenes nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN), together with their modified forms, nivalenol-3-glucoside (NIV-3G), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G), and zearalenone-14-glucoside (ZEN-14G) and zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEN-14S), respectively, at successive stages of malt loaf production (flour, dough kneading/fermentation, loaf baking). Toxins in bakery products originate in flour produced from wheat grain that is naturally contaminated with Fusarium culmorum. Mycotoxin concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, and did not significantly change during the successive stages of bread production. After the dough kneading/fermentation stage, concentrations of NIV-3G and DON-3G were slightly increased, whereas those of ZEN and ZEN-14S were slightly decreased. The largest average decrease (21%) was found in ZEN-14G. After the baking stage, the average concentrations of NIV-3G, DON-3G, ZEN-14S, and ZEN-14G in the loaf crumb and crust decreased by 23%, 28%, 27%, and 20%, respectively, compared with those in the dough. During this technical process, the concentration of ZEN-14G in loaf crumb significantly decreased by an average of 48%, and those of ZEN, ZEN-14S, and ZEN-14G in loaf crust decreased by an average of 29%, 42%, and 48%, respectively. Considering the possibility of modified mycotoxins degradation to free forms, as well as the ability to synthesize them from free forms during technological processes, it would be prudent to consider them together during analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
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