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Open AccessArticle

Transformations of Selected Fusarium Toxins and Their Modified Forms During Malt Loaf Production

Department of Food Analysis, Prof. Waclaw Dabrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, Rakowiecka 36, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Chemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan, Poland
Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210-9501, Japan
Department of Cereal Crop Production, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation—State Research Institute, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
Department of Pesticide Investigation, Institute of Plant Protection—National Research Institute, Wladysława Wegorka 20, 60-318 Poznan, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 385;
Received: 17 May 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 11 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
An increasing number of studies have found that modified mycotoxins, such as free mycotoxins, naturally occur in food, and severely impact food safety. The present study investigated concentrations of trichothecenes nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN), together with their modified forms, nivalenol-3-glucoside (NIV-3G), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G), and zearalenone-14-glucoside (ZEN-14G) and zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEN-14S), respectively, at successive stages of malt loaf production (flour, dough kneading/fermentation, loaf baking). Toxins in bakery products originate in flour produced from wheat grain that is naturally contaminated with Fusarium culmorum. Mycotoxin concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, and did not significantly change during the successive stages of bread production. After the dough kneading/fermentation stage, concentrations of NIV-3G and DON-3G were slightly increased, whereas those of ZEN and ZEN-14S were slightly decreased. The largest average decrease (21%) was found in ZEN-14G. After the baking stage, the average concentrations of NIV-3G, DON-3G, ZEN-14S, and ZEN-14G in the loaf crumb and crust decreased by 23%, 28%, 27%, and 20%, respectively, compared with those in the dough. During this technical process, the concentration of ZEN-14G in loaf crumb significantly decreased by an average of 48%, and those of ZEN, ZEN-14S, and ZEN-14G in loaf crust decreased by an average of 29%, 42%, and 48%, respectively. Considering the possibility of modified mycotoxins degradation to free forms, as well as the ability to synthesize them from free forms during technological processes, it would be prudent to consider them together during analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: baking; malt; bread; Fusarium toxins; trichothecenes; zearalenone; modified mycotoxins baking; malt; bread; Fusarium toxins; trichothecenes; zearalenone; modified mycotoxins
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Bryła, M.; Ksieniewicz-Woźniak, E.; Waśkiewicz, A.; Yoshinari, T.; Szymczyk, K.; Podolska, G.; Gwiazdowski, R.; Kubiak, K. Transformations of Selected Fusarium Toxins and Their Modified Forms During Malt Loaf Production. Toxins 2020, 12, 385.

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