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A Recent Overview of Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Aflatoxins

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanskeho 62, CZ-50003 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Center for Health, Nutrition and Food in Brno, National Institute of Public Health in Prague, Palackeho 3a, CZ-61242 Brno, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 186;
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 26 February 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Aflatoxins (AFs) are some of the most agriculturally important and harmful mycotoxins. At least 20 AFs have been identified to this date. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most potent fungal toxin, can cause toxicity in many species, including humans. AFs are produced by 22 species of Aspergillus section Flavi, 4 species of A. section Nidulantes, and 2 species of A. section Ochraceorosei. The most important and well-known AF-producing species of section Flavi are Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius. AFs contaminate a wide range of crops (mainly groundnuts, pistachio nuts, dried figs, hazelnuts, spices, almonds, rice, melon seeds, Brazil nuts, and maize). Foods of animal origin (milk and animal tissues) are less likely contributors to human AF exposure. Despite the efforts to mitigate the AF concentrations in foods, and thus enhance food safety, AFs continue to be present, even at high levels. AFs thus remain a current and continuously pressing problem in the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxigenic microfungi; aflatoxins; food aflatoxigenic microfungi; aflatoxins; food
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pickova, D.; Ostry, V.; Malir, F. A Recent Overview of Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Aflatoxins. Toxins 2021, 13, 186.

AMA Style

Pickova D, Ostry V, Malir F. A Recent Overview of Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Aflatoxins. Toxins. 2021; 13(3):186.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pickova, Darina; Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek. 2021. "A Recent Overview of Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Aflatoxins" Toxins 13, no. 3: 186.

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