Next Article in Journal
Plant and Fungal Hepatotoxicities of Cattle in Australia, with a Focus on Minimally Understood Toxins
Next Article in Special Issue
Laser Ablation Remote-Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (LARESI MSI) Imaging—New Method for Detection and Spatial Localization of Metabolites and Mycotoxins Produced by Moulds
Previous Article in Journal
Melittin Induces Local Order Changes in Artificial and Biological Membranes as Revealed by Spectral Analysis of Laurdan Fluorescence
Previous Article in Special Issue
Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Winter Rye Varieties Cultivated in Poland (2017–2019)
Open AccessArticle

Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Italy

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, 80137 Naples, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 706;
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 4 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 8 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium, capable of contaminating several foodstuffs. OTA damages primarily the kidneys, and is suspected to be a carcinogenic substance, thus maximum levels for OTA in foodstuffs have been established in the EU. Italian Ministry of Health suggested a maximum level of 1 μg/kg OTA in pork meat and derived products. In this study, OTA concentrations in liver, kidney, and muscle of 64 wild boars (Sus scrofa) killed in two areas (area A and B) of Parma province (northern Italy), characterized by different habitat types, were assessed by HPLC-FLD technique. OTA was detected in 54% liver, 52% kidney, and 16% muscle samples. OTA levels were significantly higher in liver and kidney compared with muscle, and were above 1 μg/kg in 19 liver, 17 kidney, and 4 muscle samples. OTA levels in wild boars from area A resulted significantly higher with respect to those from area B, suggesting an environmental influence on OTA contamination in wild boars. This study seems to confirm that wild boar meat is a potential source of OTA, thus monitoring the presence of this mycotoxin in game meat might be recommended to prevent risks for human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; wild boar; HPLC; liver; muscle; kidney ochratoxin A; wild boar; HPLC; liver; muscle; kidney
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Iemmi, T.; Menozzi, A.; Meucci, V.; Magnini, I.; Battaglia, F.; Severino, L.; Ariano, A.; Bertini, S. Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Italy. Toxins 2020, 12, 706.

AMA Style

Iemmi T, Menozzi A, Meucci V, Magnini I, Battaglia F, Severino L, Ariano A, Bertini S. Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Italy. Toxins. 2020; 12(11):706.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iemmi, Tiziano; Menozzi, Alessandro; Meucci, Valentina; Magnini, Irene; Battaglia, Federica; Severino, Lorella; Ariano, Andrea; Bertini, Simone. 2020. "Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Italy" Toxins 12, no. 11: 706.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop