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Open AccessArticle

Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Italy

1
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy
2
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, 80137 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12110706
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 4 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 8 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium, capable of contaminating several foodstuffs. OTA damages primarily the kidneys, and is suspected to be a carcinogenic substance, thus maximum levels for OTA in foodstuffs have been established in the EU. Italian Ministry of Health suggested a maximum level of 1 μg/kg OTA in pork meat and derived products. In this study, OTA concentrations in liver, kidney, and muscle of 64 wild boars (Sus scrofa) killed in two areas (area A and B) of Parma province (northern Italy), characterized by different habitat types, were assessed by HPLC-FLD technique. OTA was detected in 54% liver, 52% kidney, and 16% muscle samples. OTA levels were significantly higher in liver and kidney compared with muscle, and were above 1 μg/kg in 19 liver, 17 kidney, and 4 muscle samples. OTA levels in wild boars from area A resulted significantly higher with respect to those from area B, suggesting an environmental influence on OTA contamination in wild boars. This study seems to confirm that wild boar meat is a potential source of OTA, thus monitoring the presence of this mycotoxin in game meat might be recommended to prevent risks for human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; wild boar; HPLC; liver; muscle; kidney ochratoxin A; wild boar; HPLC; liver; muscle; kidney
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iemmi, T.; Menozzi, A.; Meucci, V.; Magnini, I.; Battaglia, F.; Severino, L.; Ariano, A.; Bertini, S. Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Italy. Toxins 2020, 12, 706.

AMA Style

Iemmi T, Menozzi A, Meucci V, Magnini I, Battaglia F, Severino L, Ariano A, Bertini S. Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Italy. Toxins. 2020; 12(11):706.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iemmi, Tiziano; Menozzi, Alessandro; Meucci, Valentina; Magnini, Irene; Battaglia, Federica; Severino, Lorella; Ariano, Andrea; Bertini, Simone. 2020. "Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Italy" Toxins 12, no. 11: 706.

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