Special Issue "Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Their Interactions with Plants"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Gretchen A. Kuldau
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology; University Park, PA 16802, USA
Interests: Role of mycotoxins in fungal biology, genetics and molecular biology, prevention of mycotoxin accumulation in feeds and forages; genetics and biology of endophytic fungi
Prof. Dr. Geert Haesaert
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plants and Crops, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
Interests: Effect of control measurements on fungi–host interaction and mycotoxin production Physiological aspects of mycotoxins in the interaction with the host plant; Role of mycotoxins in infection and colonization process; Plant resistance mechanisms in relation to infection process of mycotoxigenic fungi

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxigenic fungi and their mycotoxin are a long-standing problem in food and feed production systems worldwide. Mycotoxin are secondary metabolites, and accumulating evidence has shown that the production of these secondary metabolites is highly variable and can be triggered by diverse environmental and cellular signals, from fungi as well as from hosts. The complex interplay between environmental conditions, fungus metabolism, and host determine the outcome of the fungal infection and colonization process. Certain mycotoxins play a dominant role in the infection and colonization process (e.g., DON), while the role of other mycotoxins remains unclear. A good understanding of the plant–mycotoxigenic fungus interaction can be the first step in the development of a durable control system for mycotoxin contamination in our food systems.

This Special Issue aims to gain insight in the interaction between mycotoxigenic fungi and their host plants. Submissions dealing with the physiological aspects of mycotoxins in the interaction with the host plant, plant resistance mechanisms in relation to the infection process of mycotoxigenic fungi, and molecular cross-talk between plants and mycotoxigenic fungi are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Gretchen A. Kuldau
Prof. Dr. Geert Haesaert
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxin
  • secondary metabolites
  • physiological
  • host plant
  • control measurements

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Phytotoxic Effects of Culmorin and Trichothecene Mycotoxins
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100555 - 20 Sep 2019
Abstract
Species of the fungus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereal crops and contaminate grain with sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins, including culmorin (CUL) and trichothecenes. While the phytotoxicity of trichothecenes, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), and their role in virulence are well characterized, less is [...] Read more.
Species of the fungus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereal crops and contaminate grain with sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins, including culmorin (CUL) and trichothecenes. While the phytotoxicity of trichothecenes, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), and their role in virulence are well characterized, less is known about the phytotoxicity of CUL and its role in the development of FHB. Herein, we evaluated the phytotoxic effects of purified CUL and CUL-trichothecene mixtures using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growth and Triticum aestivum (wheat) root elongation assays. By itself, CUL did not affect growth in either system. However, mixtures of CUL with DON, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, or NX-3, but not with nivalenol, inhibited growth in a synergistic manner. Synergistic phytotoxic effects of CUL and DON were also observed on multiple plant varieties and species. The severity of wheat FHB caused by 15 isolates of Fusarium graminearum was negatively correlated with the CUL/DON ratio, but positively correlated with the sum of both CUL and DON. Additionally, during the first week of infection, CUL biosynthetic genes were more highly expressed than the TRI5 trichothecene biosynthetic gene. Furthermore, genomic analysis of Fusarium species revealed that CUL and trichothecene biosynthetic genes consistently co-occur among species closely related to F. graminearum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Their Interactions with Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Antagonists on Mycotoxins of Seedborne Fusarium spp. in Sweet Corn
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080438 - 25 Jul 2019
Abstract
Fusarium species coexist as toxigenic, systemic pathogens in sweet corn seed production in southwestern Idaho, USA. We hypothesized that fungal antagonists of seedborne Fusarium would differentially alter production of Fusarium mycotoxins directly and/or systemically. We challenged the Fusarium complex by in vitro antagonism [...] Read more.
Fusarium species coexist as toxigenic, systemic pathogens in sweet corn seed production in southwestern Idaho, USA. We hypothesized that fungal antagonists of seedborne Fusarium would differentially alter production of Fusarium mycotoxins directly and/or systemically. We challenged the Fusarium complex by in vitro antagonism trials and in situ silk and seed inoculations with fungal antagonists. Fungal antagonists reduced growth and sporulation of Fusarium species in vitro from 40.5% to as much as 100%. Pichia membranifaciens and Penicillium griseolum reduced fumonisin production by F. verticillioides by 73% and 49%, respectively, while P. membranifaciens and a novel Penicillium sp. (WPT) reduced fumonisins by F. proliferatum 56% and 78%, respectively. In situ, pre-planting inoculation of seeds with Penicillium WPT systemically increased fumonisins in the resulting crop. Morchella snyderi applied to silks of an F1 cross systemically reduced deoxynivalenol by 47% in mature seeds of the F2. Antagonists failed to suppress Fusarium in mature kernels following silk inoculations, although the ratio of F. verticillioides to total Fusarium double with some inoculants. Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations in sweet corn seed change systemically, as well as locally, in response to the presence of fungal antagonists, although in Fusarium presence in situ was not changed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Their Interactions with Plants)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains – An Update
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110634 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins produced by fungi from the order Hypocreales, including members of the Fusarium genus that infect cereal grain crops. Different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species and strains have different trichothecene chemotypes belonging to the Type A and B class. These fungi cause [...] Read more.
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins produced by fungi from the order Hypocreales, including members of the Fusarium genus that infect cereal grain crops. Different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species and strains have different trichothecene chemotypes belonging to the Type A and B class. These fungi cause a disease of small grain cereals, called Fusarium head blight, and their toxins contaminate host tissues. As potent inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis, trichothecenes pose a health risk to human and animal consumers of infected cereal grains. In 2009, Foroud and Eudes published a review of trichothecenes in cereal grains for human consumption. As an update to this review, the work herein provides a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary review of the Fusarium trichothecenes covering topics in chemistry and biochemistry, pathogen biology, trichothecene toxicity, molecular mechanisms of resistance or detoxification, genetics of resistance and breeding strategies to reduce their contamination of wheat and barley. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Their Interactions with Plants)
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