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Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains – An Update

Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada
Laboratory of Mycology and Phytopathology, All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection (VIZR), St. Petersburg, Pushkin 196608, Russia
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4, Canada
Brandon Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon, MB R7A 5Y3, Canada
Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), Institute of Biotechnology in Plant Production, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Tulln 3430, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 634;
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Their Interactions with Plants)
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins produced by fungi from the order Hypocreales, including members of the Fusarium genus that infect cereal grain crops. Different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species and strains have different trichothecene chemotypes belonging to the Type A and B class. These fungi cause a disease of small grain cereals, called Fusarium head blight, and their toxins contaminate host tissues. As potent inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis, trichothecenes pose a health risk to human and animal consumers of infected cereal grains. In 2009, Foroud and Eudes published a review of trichothecenes in cereal grains for human consumption. As an update to this review, the work herein provides a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary review of the Fusarium trichothecenes covering topics in chemistry and biochemistry, pathogen biology, trichothecene toxicity, molecular mechanisms of resistance or detoxification, genetics of resistance and breeding strategies to reduce their contamination of wheat and barley. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; T-2 toxin; Fusarium; Fusarium head blight (FHB); wheat; barley; resistance deoxynivalenol; T-2 toxin; Fusarium; Fusarium head blight (FHB); wheat; barley; resistance
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Foroud, N.A.; Baines, D.; Gagkaeva, T.Y.; Thakor, N.; Badea, A.; Steiner, B.; Bürstmayr, M.; Bürstmayr, H. Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains – An Update. Toxins 2019, 11, 634.

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