Special Issue "Selected Papers from the V Workshop of the Spanish National Network on Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi and Their Decontamination Processes (MICOFOOD), 10–11 December 2020"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Laura Gámiz-Gracia
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: food contaminants; mycotoxins; liquid chromatography; sample treatment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ana M. García-Campaña
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: Proposal of analytical methodologies for the control of residues and contaminants, including natural toxins, in food and environmental samples, using liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with different detection techniques
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

The Spanish National Network on Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi and their Decontamination Processes (MICOFOOD) (http://micofood.es) is a multidisciplinary Excellence Network created in 2014. MICOFOOD is led by Dr. Jordi Mañes Vinuesa (Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology of the University of Valencia) and includes different research groups from the universities of Lleida, Valencia, Extremadura, Granada, Santiago de Compostela, Zaragoza, Navarra, Complutense University of Madrid, Autonomous University of Barcelona, and Postharvest Fungal Pathogens and Food Spoilage Fungi Lab (CSIC).

Research interests covered by the Network include, among others:

  • Isolation and characterization of mycotoxin-producing fungi (as Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium spp), in food and feed;
  • Development of new analytical methodologies for the determination of mycotoxins in foods and biological matrices;
  • Toxicological characterization of individual and combination of mycotoxins. Risk assessment;
  • Evaluation of the effects of thermal treatments on the stability and on mycotoxin content during food production, processing, and storage;
  • Decontamination processes.

One of the aims of MICOFOOD is the interchange of knowledge about mycotoxins between these Spanish research groups, public administrations, the industry, and other international groups. With this purpose, four workshops have been organized so far in different venues: University of Valencia (2015), University of Extremadura (2016), University of Zaragoza (2018) and University of Navarra (2019). This year, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the workshop will be virtual. This Special Issue aims to compile some of the research developed by the components of MICOFOOD, contributing to the diffusion of their results among the scientific community.

Prof. Dr. Laura Gámiz-Gracia
Prof. Dr. Ana M. García-Campaña
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • MICOFOOD
  • mycotoxins
  • national network
  • Spain

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Diversity of Mycobiota in Spanish Grape Berries and Selection of Hanseniaspora uvarum U1 to Prevent Mycotoxin Contamination
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090649 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 868
Abstract
The occurrence of mycotoxins on grapes poses a high risk for food safety; thus, it is necessary to implement effective prevention methods. In this work, a metagenomic approach revealed the presence of important mycotoxigenic fungi in grape berries, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus [...] Read more.
The occurrence of mycotoxins on grapes poses a high risk for food safety; thus, it is necessary to implement effective prevention methods. In this work, a metagenomic approach revealed the presence of important mycotoxigenic fungi in grape berries, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger aggregate species, or Aspergillus section Circumdati. However, A. carbonarius was not detected in any sample. One of the samples was not contaminated by any mycotoxigenic species, and, therefore, it was selected for the isolation of potential biocontrol agents. In this context, Hanseniaspora uvarum U1 was selected for biocontrol in vitro assays. The results showed that this yeast is able to reduce the growth rate of the main ochratoxigenic and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. occurring on grapes. Moreover, H. uvarum U1 seems to be an effective detoxifying agent for aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, probably mediated by the mechanisms of adsorption to the cell wall and other active mechanisms. Therefore, H. uvarum U1 should be considered in an integrated approach to preventing AFB1 and OTA in grapes due to its potential as a biocontrol and detoxifying agent. Full article
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Article
Cytotoxicity of Mycotoxins Frequently Present in Aquafeeds to the Fish Cell Line RTGill-W1
Toxins 2021, 13(8), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13080581 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 688
Abstract
In the last decades, the aquaculture industry has introduced plant-based ingredients as a source of protein in aquafeeds. This has led to mycotoxin contaminations, representing an ecological, health and economic problem. The aim of this study was to determine in the RTgill-W1 fish [...] Read more.
In the last decades, the aquaculture industry has introduced plant-based ingredients as a source of protein in aquafeeds. This has led to mycotoxin contaminations, representing an ecological, health and economic problem. The aim of this study was to determine in the RTgill-W1 fish cell line the toxicity of fifteen mycotoxins of common occurrence in aquafeeds. To identify the most sensitive endpoint of toxicity, the triple assay was used. It consisted of three assays: alamarBlue, Neutral Red Uptake and CFDA-AM, which revealed the mitochondrial activity, the lysosomal integrity and the plasma membrane integrity, respectively. Most of the assayed mycotoxins were toxic predominantly at lysosomal level (enniatins, beauvericin, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated metabolites 15-O-acetyl-DON and 3-acetyl-DON). Aflatoxins B1 and B2 exerted the greatest effects at mitochondrial level, while fumonisins B1 and B2 and nivalenol were not toxic up to 100 µg/mL. In general, low toxicity was observed at plasma membrane level. The vast majority of the mycotoxins assayed exerted a pronounced acute effect in the fish RTgill-W1 cell line, emphasizing the need for further studies to ascertain the impact of mycotoxin contamination of fish feeds in the aquaculture industry and to establish safe limits in aquafeeds. Full article
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Article
Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning Methods to Predict Growth of F. sporotrichioides and Production of T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Treatments with Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Films Containing Pure Components of Essential Oils
Toxins 2021, 13(8), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13080545 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 886
Abstract
The efficacy of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer films (EVOH) incorporating the essential oil components cinnamaldehyde (CINHO), citral (CIT), isoeugenol (IEG), or linalool (LIN) to control growth rate (GR) and production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins by Fusarium sporotrichioides cultured on oat grains under different [...] Read more.
The efficacy of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer films (EVOH) incorporating the essential oil components cinnamaldehyde (CINHO), citral (CIT), isoeugenol (IEG), or linalool (LIN) to control growth rate (GR) and production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins by Fusarium sporotrichioides cultured on oat grains under different temperature (28, 20, and 15 °C) and water activity (aw) (0.99 and 0.96) regimes was assayed. GR in controls/treatments usually increased with increasing temperature, regardless of aw, but no significant differences concerning aw were found. Toxin production decreased with increasing temperature. The effectiveness of films to control fungal GR and toxin production was as follows: EVOH-CIT > EVOH-CINHO > EVOH-IEG > EVOH-LIN. With few exceptions, effective doses of EVOH-CIT, EVOH-CINHO, and EVOH-IEG films to reduce/inhibit GR by 50%, 90%, and 100% (ED50, ED90, and ED100) ranged from 515 to 3330 µg/culture in Petri dish (25 g oat grains) depending on film type, aw, and temperature. ED90 and ED100 of EVOH-LIN were >3330 µg/fungal culture. The potential of several machine learning (ML) methods to predict F. sporotrichioides GR and T-2 and HT-2 toxin production under the assayed conditions was comparatively analyzed. XGBoost and random forest attained the best performance, support vector machine and neural network ranked third or fourth depending on the output, while multiple linear regression proved to be the worst. Full article
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Article
Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins through Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages in Valencia, Spain
Toxins 2021, 13(7), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070438 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
The present study investigated the presence of 30 mycotoxins in 110 beverage samples of beer, wine, cava, and cider purchased in Valencia (Spain). A validated method based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and chromatographic methods coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was applied. The method [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the presence of 30 mycotoxins in 110 beverage samples of beer, wine, cava, and cider purchased in Valencia (Spain). A validated method based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and chromatographic methods coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was applied. The method showed satisfactory recoveries ranging from 61 to 116% for the different beverages studied. The detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.03 to 2.34 µg/L and 0.1 to 7.81 µg/L, respectively. The results showed that beer samples were the most contaminated, even with concentrations ranging from 0.24 to 54.76 µg/L. A significant presence of alternariol was found in wine, which reached concentrations up to 26.86 µg/L. Patulin and ochratoxin A were the most frequently detected mycotoxins in cava and cider samples, with incidences of 40% and 26%, respectively. Ochratoxin A exceeded the maximum level set by the EU in one wine sample. The results obtained were statistically validated. The combined exposure was assessed by the sum of mycotoxin concentrations contaminating the same samples to provide information on the extent of dietary exposure to mycotoxins. No significant health risk to consumers was associated with the mycotoxin levels detected in the beverages tested. Full article
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Article
Potential Health Risk Associated with Mycotoxins in Oat Grains Consumed in Spain
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060421 - 13 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Spain is a relevant producer of oats (Avena sativa), but to date there has been no study on the occurrence/co-occurrence of mycotoxins in oats marketed in Spain. The present study is addressed to overcome this lack of knowledge. One hundred oat [...] Read more.
Spain is a relevant producer of oats (Avena sativa), but to date there has been no study on the occurrence/co-occurrence of mycotoxins in oats marketed in Spain. The present study is addressed to overcome this lack of knowledge. One hundred oat kernel samples were acquired across different Spanish geographic regions during the years 2015–2019 and analyzed for mycotoxin content using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–ESI–MS/MS) method and matrix-matched calibration. The focus was on the regulated mycotoxins although other relevant mycotoxins were considered. The percentage of incidence (levels ≥ limit of detection), mean and range (ng/g) of mycotoxins were as follows: zearalenone (66%, mean 39.1, range 28.1–153), HT-2 toxin (47%, mean 37.1, range 4.98–439), deoxynivalenol, (34%, mean 81.4, range 19.1–736), fumonisin B1 (29%, mean 157.5, range 63.2–217.4), and T-2 toxin, (24%, mean 49.9, range 12.3–321). Fumonisin B2, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, aflatoxins B1, B2, and G2, and ochratoxin A were also detected at low levels, but aflatoxin G1 was not. The maximum limits established by the European Commission for unprocessed oats were not exceeded, except for zearalenone (in one sample), and the sum of aflatoxins (in two samples). Mycotoxin co-occurrence at quantifiable levels in the same sample (two to five combinations) was found in 31% of samples. The most common mixtures were those of HT-2 + T-2 toxins alone or together with deoxynivalenol and/or zearalenone. Full article
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Article
Bio-Preservative Potential of Microorganisms Isolated from Red Grape against Food Contaminant Fungi
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060412 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Fungal spoilage is one of the main reasons of economic losses in the food industry, especially in the wine sector. Consequently, the search for safer and new preservation techniques has gained importance in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate [...] Read more.
Fungal spoilage is one of the main reasons of economic losses in the food industry, especially in the wine sector. Consequently, the search for safer and new preservation techniques has gained importance in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic activity from 28 microorganisms (MO) isolated from red grape. The antifungal activity of a cell free supernatant of fermented medium by the isolated MO (CFS) was tested with the agar diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) assay. Additionally, different antifungal compounds from the CFS were identified and quantified (organic acids, phenolic compounds, and volatile organic compounds). Finally, the most active CFS were tested as red grape bio-preservative agents. Results evidenced that CFS fermented by the strain UTA 6 had the highest antifungal activity, above all isolates, and produced a wide pool of antifungal compounds. The use of UTA 6 CFS as bio-preservative agent showed a reduction of 0.4 and 0.6 log10 spores per gram of fruit in grapes contaminated by A. flavus and B. cinerea, respectively. Moreover, UTA 6 CFS treatment reduced the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin (B2, B3, and B4) production in grapes contaminated by 28–100%. Full article
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Article
Occurrence of Ergot Alkaloids in Barley and Wheat from Algeria
Toxins 2021, 13(5), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050316 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
The natural occurrence of six major ergot alkaloids, ergometrine, ergosine, ergotamine, ergocornine, ergokryptine and ergocristine, as well as their corresponding epimers, were investigated in 60 cereal samples (barley and wheat) from Algeria. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and [...] Read more.
The natural occurrence of six major ergot alkaloids, ergometrine, ergosine, ergotamine, ergocornine, ergokryptine and ergocristine, as well as their corresponding epimers, were investigated in 60 cereal samples (barley and wheat) from Algeria. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a QuEChERS extraction method were used for sample analysis. The results revealed that 12 out of 60 samples (20%) were contaminated with ergot alkaloids. Wheat was the most contaminated matrix, with an incidence of 26.7% (8 out of 30 samples). The concentration of total ergot alkaloids ranged from 17.8 to 53.9 µg/kg for barley and from 3.66 to 76.0 μg/kg for wheat samples. Ergosine, ergokryptine and ergocristine showed the highest incidences in wheat, while ergometrine was the most common ergot in barley. Full article
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Article
Field Monitoring of Aflatoxins in Feed and Milk of High-Yielding Dairy Cows under Two Feeding Systems
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030201 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 498
Abstract
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that can be excreted in milk of cows after consuming contaminated feed. The aim of this study consisted of a field monitoring to assess the contamination levels of AFB1 in 60 feed [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that can be excreted in milk of cows after consuming contaminated feed. The aim of this study consisted of a field monitoring to assess the contamination levels of AFB1 in 60 feed samples from two feeding systems for high-yielding dairy cows and of AFM1 in the corresponding raw milk samples. The aflatoxins were analyzed by in-house validated methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. AFB1 was detected in 55% of feed samples (mean 0.61 μg/kg, with 2 samples exceeding the European Union (EU) maximum level set at 5 μg/kg), with greater incidence and concentration in compound feed than in unifeed rations (p < 0.05). AFM1 was detected in 38.3% milk samples (mean 12.6 ng/kg, with 5 samples exceeding the EU maximum level set at 50 ng/kg), with a higher occurrence in milk of cows fed compound feed, as well as in spring milk compared to that produced in winter. The overall transfer ratio of aflatoxins from feed to milk was 3.22%, being higher in cows fed with compound feed and in spring milkings. In a selection of positive matched samples (n = 22), the ratio AFM1/AFB1 exceeded the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) estimated 6% threshold for high-yielding dairy cows. Full article

Review

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Review
Evaluation of Mycotoxins in Infant Breast Milk and Infant Food, Reviewing the Literature Data
Toxins 2021, 13(8), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13080535 - 30 Jul 2021
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Abstract
In this review, an analysis focusing on mycotoxin determination in infant breast milk and infant food has been summarised for the last fifteen years of research focused on the intended population group of 1–9 months. The objective was to know the level of [...] Read more.
In this review, an analysis focusing on mycotoxin determination in infant breast milk and infant food has been summarised for the last fifteen years of research focused on the intended population group of 1–9 months. The objective was to know the level of exposure of the child population to an estimated daily intake (EDI) of mycotoxins from the consumption of habitual foods. The EDI was compared with the tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by EFSA to estimate risk. In breast milk, the high prevalence and levels were for samples from Africa (Egypt and Tanzania) with aflatoxin M1 (1.9 μg/L and 10%), and Asia (Iran) with ochratoxin-A (7.3 μg/L and 100%). In infant formulas, high incidences and values were for samples with aflatoxin M1 from Burkina Faso (167 samples, 84%, 87 μg/kg). In cereal products, the highest incidence was for DON from the United States (96 samples), and the highest value was an Italian sample (0.83 μg/kg of enniatin B). In fruit products, patulin was the most detected in Italian (78) and Spanish (24) samples. The highest risk was observed in breast milk during the first month of age, the highest EDI for aflatoxin M1 was reported for Egypt (344–595 ng/kg bw/day) and ochratoxin-A for Iran (97–167ng/kg bw/day), representing a public health problem. Full article

Other

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Conference Report
Report of the Vth Workshop of the Spanish National Network on Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi and Their Decontamination Processes (MICOFOOD), 10–11 December 2020
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010056 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1216
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