Special Issue "Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Laura Gámiz-Gracia
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: Development of analytical methods based on separative techniques, as LC-MS/MS, for determination of food contaminants, focusing on mycotoxins
Prof. Dr. Ana M. García-Campaña
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Interests: Targeted and untargeted analytical approaches based on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for determination of known and unknown fungal secondary metabolites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi of different species, mainly Aspergillus, Fusarium or Penicillium, that can contaminate food and feed with toxic effects for humans and animals. Notifications on the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) concerning mycotoxins are becoming frequent, being among the “top 10” hazards reported on food products, mainly cereals and nuts. Regulations around the world have established maximum levels for different mycotoxins in foodstuffs, including aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, ochratoxin A, patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins B1 and B2, HT-2 and T-2 toxins, citrinin, and ergot alkaloids. However, there are other “emerging mycotoxins” that have been considered as relevant as they could contribute to the risk posed to humans and animals. This group includes Alternaria toxins, sterigmatocystin, Fusarium toxins (as enniantins and beauvericin), phomopsins and others. Moreover, the so-called “modified mycotoxins” (produced as a consequence of a detoxification strategy of the host plant of the fungus or during food processing in mammals) can be more or less toxics than the original mycotoxin, and should also be taken into account.

All these facts make necessary the development of analytical methods for the accurate determination of mycotoxins in different food matrices and feeds. In this sense, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a powerful tool for the unique identification and quantification of analytes, being the technique of choice when a multimycotoxin determination is required. Moreover, the use of high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has allowed the identification of novel mycotoxins and a targeted / untargeted approaches for their study, including metabolomics.

This issue is dedicated to recent applications of LC-MS/MS in mycotoxin studies, including development of new analytical methods for their extraction in different matrices, identification and quantification, occurrence studies and metabolomics, or review articles about this topic.

Prof. Dr. Laura Gámiz-Gracia
Prof. Dr. Ana M. García-Campaña
Prof. Dr. Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Emerging mycotoxins
  • Modified mycotoxins
  • Liquid chromatography
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Food
  • Feed
  • Metabolomic

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Application of LC–MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040272 - 23 Apr 2020
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi of different species (mainly Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium) with toxic effects for humans and animals that can contaminate food and feed [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Combined (d)SPE-QuEChERS Extraction of Mycotoxins in Mixed Feed Rations and Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030206 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of this work was the development of a methodology capable of simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in mixed feed rations collected in 20 dairy farms. A sample preparation methodology based on a combination of (d)SPE and QuEChERS extractions was used. Liquid chromatography-high [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was the development of a methodology capable of simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in mixed feed rations collected in 20 dairy farms. A sample preparation methodology based on a combination of (d)SPE and QuEChERS extractions was used. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was employed for both identification and quantification purposes. To this respect, a powerful workflow based on data-independent acquisition, consisting of fragmenting all precursor ions entering the mass spectrometer in narrow m/z isolation windows (SWATH), was implemented. SWATH data file then contains all the information that would be acquired in a multitude of different experimental approaches in a single all-encompassing dataset. Analytical method performance was evaluated in terms of linearity, repeatability and matrix effect. Relative recoveries were also measured, giving values above 80% for most compounds. Matrix-matched calibration was carried out and enabled reaching the low ng mL−1 level for many mycotoxins. The observed matrix effect, in most cases suppressive, reached even values higher than 60%. The repeatability was also adequate, showing a relative standard deviation lower than 10%. All unified samples analyzed showed co-occurrence of two or more mycotoxins, recurrently zearalenone, fumonisin B1, and β-zearalenol, with an occurrence frequency ranging from 60% to 90%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence and Exposure Assessment Approach in Foodstuffs from Algeria
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030194 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A survey on 120 cereal samples (barley, maize, rice and wheat) from Algerian markets has been carried out to evaluate the presence of 15 mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and B2, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone, fusarenon X, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, enniatins A, [...] Read more.
A survey on 120 cereal samples (barley, maize, rice and wheat) from Algerian markets has been carried out to evaluate the presence of 15 mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and B2, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone, fusarenon X, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, enniatins A, A1, B and B1, and beauvericin). With this purpose, a QuEChERS-based extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) were used. Analytical results showed that 78 cereal samples (65%) were contaminated with at least one toxin, while 50% were contaminated with three to nine mycotoxins. T-2 toxin, citrinin, beauvericin and deoxynivalenol were the most commonly found mycotoxins (frequency of 50%, 41.6%, 40.8% and 33.3%, respectively). Fumonisins (B1 + B2), enniatins B and B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone registered high concentrations (289–48878 µg/kg, 1.2–5288 µg/kg, 15–4569 µg/kg, 48–2055 µg/kg and 10.4–579 µg/kg, respectively). Furthermore, concentrations higher than those allowed by the European Union (EU) were observed in 21, 8 and 1 samples for fumonisins, zearalenone and deoxinivalenol, respectively. As a conclusion, the high levels of fumonisins (B1 + B2) in maize and deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and HT-2 + T-2 toxins in wheat, represent a health risk for the average adult consumer in Algeria. These results pointed out the necessity of a consistent control and the definition of maximum allowed levels for mycotoxins in Algerian foodstuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Variation of Fusarium Free, Masked, and Emerging Mycotoxin Metabolites in Maize from Agriculture Regions of South Africa
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030149 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The presence of mycotoxins in cereal grain is a very important food safety issue with the occurrence of masked mycotoxins extensively investigated in recent years. This study investigated the variation of different Fusarium metabolites (including the related regulated, masked, and emerging mycotoxin) in [...] Read more.
The presence of mycotoxins in cereal grain is a very important food safety issue with the occurrence of masked mycotoxins extensively investigated in recent years. This study investigated the variation of different Fusarium metabolites (including the related regulated, masked, and emerging mycotoxin) in maize from various agriculture regions of South Africa. The relationship between the maize producing regions, the maize type, as well as the mycotoxins was established. A total of 123 maize samples was analyzed by a LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method. The results revealed that all maize types exhibited a mixture of free, masked, and emerging mycotoxins contamination across the regions with an average of 5 and up to 24 out of 42 investigated Fusarium mycotoxins, including 1 to 3 masked forms at the same time. Data obtained show that fumonisin B1, B2, B3, B4, and A1 were the most prevalent mycotoxins and had maximum contamination levels of 8908, 3383, 990, 1014, and 51.5 µg/kg, respectively. Deoxynivalenol occurred in 50% of the samples with a mean concentration of 152 µg/kg (max 1380 µg/kg). Thirty-three percent of the samples were contaminated with zearalenone at a mean concentration of 13.6 µg/kg (max 146 µg/kg). Of the masked mycotoxins, DON-3-glucoside occurred at a high incidence level of 53%. Among emerging toxins, moniliformin, fusarinolic acid, and beauvericin showed high occurrences at 98%, 98%, and 83%, and had maximum contamination levels of 1130, 3422, and 142 µg/kg, respectively. Significant differences in the contamination pattern were observed between the agricultural regions and maize types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
Open AccessArticle
Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Orbitrap High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Multi-Residue Analysis of Mycotoxins and Pesticides in Botanical Nutraceuticals
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020114 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) food supplements made of Cannabis sativa L. extracts have quickly become popular products due to their health-promoting effects. However, potential contaminants, such as mycotoxins and pesticides, can be coextracted during the manufacturing process and placed into the final product. Accordingly, a [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol (CBD) food supplements made of Cannabis sativa L. extracts have quickly become popular products due to their health-promoting effects. However, potential contaminants, such as mycotoxins and pesticides, can be coextracted during the manufacturing process and placed into the final product. Accordingly, a novel methodology using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was developed to quantify 16 mycotoxins produced by major C. sativa fungi, followed by a post-target screening of 283 pesticides based on a comprehensive spectral library. The validated procedure was applied to ten CBD-based products. Up to six different Fusarium mycotoxins were found in seven samples, the most prevalent being zearalenone (60%) and enniatin B1 (30%), both found at a maximum level of 11.6 ng/g. Co-occurrence was observed in four samples, including one with enniatin B1, enniatin A and enniatin A1. On the other hand, 46 different pesticides were detected after retrospective analysis. Ethoxyquin (50%), piperonyl butoxide (40%), simazine (30%) and cyanazine (30%) were the major residues found. These results highlight the necessity of monitoring contaminants in food supplements in order to ensure a safe consumption, even more considering the increase trend in their use. Furthermore, the developed procedure is proposed as a powerful analytical tool to evaluate the potential mycotoxin profile of these particular products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction using Magnetic Carbon Nanotube Composite for the Determination of Emergent Mycotoxins in Urine Samples
Toxins 2020, 12(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12010051 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction (DMSPE) has received growing attention for sample treatment preconcentration prior to the separation of analytes due to its many advantages. In the present work, the potential of DMSPE for the determination of emergent mycotoxins (enniatins A, A1, B and [...] Read more.
Dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction (DMSPE) has received growing attention for sample treatment preconcentration prior to the separation of analytes due to its many advantages. In the present work, the potential of DMSPE for the determination of emergent mycotoxins (enniatins A, A1, B and B1, and beauvericin) is investigated for the first time. Different magnetic nanoparticles were tested and a magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube (Fe3O4@MWCNT) composite was selected for the extraction and preconcentration of the five target mycotoxins in human urine samples before their analysis by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The nanocomposite was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and X-ray diffraction. Several parameters affecting the adsorption and desorption of DMSPE steps were optimized and the method was fully validated. Due to a matrix effect, matrix-matched calibration curves were necessary to carry out quantification. In this way, limits of quantification of between 0.04 and 0.1 μg/L, relative standard deviation values lower than 12% and recoveries between 89.3% and 98.9% were obtained. Finally, a study of the reuse of the Fe3O4@MWCNT composite was carried out, confirming that it can be reused at least four times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Mycotoxins Determination in Food by LC-MS/MS: An International Collaborative Study
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110658 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
An intercollaborative study was organized to evaluate the performance characteristics of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry procedure for the simultaneous determination of 12 mycotoxins in food, which were ochratoxin A, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins B1 and [...] Read more.
An intercollaborative study was organized to evaluate the performance characteristics of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry procedure for the simultaneous determination of 12 mycotoxins in food, which were ochratoxin A, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins B1 and B2, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins. The method combined the simplicity of the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Efficient, Rugged and Safe) approach with the efficiency of immunoaffinity column cleanup (the step used to enhance sensitivity and sample cleanup for some matrices only). Twenty-three entities were enrolled and were European reference laboratories for mycotoxin analysis, U.S. and European service laboratories, and Nestlé laboratories. Each participant analyzed 28 incurred and/or spiked blind samples composed of spices, nuts, milk powder, dried fruits, cereals, and baby food using the protocol given. Method performances were assessed according to ISO 5725-2. Relative standard deviations of repeatability and reproducibility and trueness values for each of the 115 mycotoxin/sample combinations ranged from 5% to 23%, 7% to 26%, and 85% to 129%, respectively, in line with requirements defined in EC 401/2006. The overall set of data gathered demonstrated that the method offered a unique platform to ensure compliance with EC 1881/2006 and EC 165/2013 regulations setting maximum limits for mycotoxins in food samples, even at low regulated levels for foods intended for infants and young children. The method was applicable regardless of the food, the regulated mycotoxin, and the concentration level, and thus is an excellent candidate for future standardization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
LC-MS/MS and LC-UV Determination of Moniliformin by Adding Lanthanide Ions to the Mobile Phase
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100570 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
An innovative chromatographic analysis was developed for the determination of moniliformin (MON). Because of its ionic nature, MON is weakly retained in reversed-phase chromatography and the separation may be tricky. Nevertheless, this technique is normally used either with the formation of ion pairs [...] Read more.
An innovative chromatographic analysis was developed for the determination of moniliformin (MON). Because of its ionic nature, MON is weakly retained in reversed-phase chromatography and the separation may be tricky. Nevertheless, this technique is normally used either with the formation of ion pairs or employing specific RP columns for polar compounds, or combining anion exchange and hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was also used, but a non-negligible peak tailing was observed. Besides its ionic nature, MON is a di-ketone and di-ketones, mainly β-di-ketones, can easily form complexes with lanthanide ions. Then, in this work the addition of lanthanide ions to the mobile phase was investigated, aiming at improving peak shape and MON separation. La3+, Tb3+ or Eu3+ aqueous solutions were used as mobile phase and MON was chromatographed using a LC-NH2 column. The probable formation of coordination complexes lanthanide-MON in the HPLC mobile phase allowed to obtain a symmetrical peak shape and a satisfactory chromatographic separation by both mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and UV detection. Finally, a suitable extraction and purification method for MON determination in cereal samples was developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an UPLC-MS/MS Method for the Analysis of Mycotoxins in Rumen Fluid with and without Maize Silage Emphasizes the Importance of Using Matrix-Matched Calibration
Toxins 2019, 11(9), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11090519 - 07 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Ruminants are less susceptible to the effects of mycotoxins than monogastric animals as their rumen microbiota are claimed to degrade and/or deactivate at least some of these toxic compounds. However, the mycotoxin degradation is not well-known yet. For this, a sensitive, specific, and [...] Read more.
Ruminants are less susceptible to the effects of mycotoxins than monogastric animals as their rumen microbiota are claimed to degrade and/or deactivate at least some of these toxic compounds. However, the mycotoxin degradation is not well-known yet. For this, a sensitive, specific, and accurate analytical method is needed to determine mycotoxins in the rumen fluid. This study aims to develop and thoroughly validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination in the rumen fluid of some of the most relevant mycotoxins found in maize silage in Western Europe: deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEN), mycophenolic acid (MPA), roquefortine C (ROQ-C) and enniatin B (ENN B), as well as their metabolites deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAN), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL). As feed is often present in the rumen fluid samples, the potential interaction of feed particles with the mycotoxin extraction and analysis was investigated. Extraction recovery and matrix effects were determined in the rumen fluid with and without maize silage. Differences in those parameters between rumen fluid alone and rumen fluid with maize silage highlight the importance of using matrix-matched calibration curves for the quantification of mycotoxins in rumen fluid samples. A cross-validation of the method with rumen fluid and maize silage demonstrates that this analytical method can be applied in research on rumen fluid samples to investigate the degradation of the reported mycotoxins by rumen microbiota if matrix-matched calibration is performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Phase I and Glucuronide Phase II Metabolites of 17 Mycotoxins Using Liquid Chromatography—High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080433 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Routine mycotoxin biomonitoring methods do not include many mycotoxin phase I and phase II metabolites, which may significantly underestimate mycotoxin exposure especially for heavily metabolized mycotoxins. Additional research efforts are also needed to measure metabolites in vivo after exposure and to establish which [...] Read more.
Routine mycotoxin biomonitoring methods do not include many mycotoxin phase I and phase II metabolites, which may significantly underestimate mycotoxin exposure especially for heavily metabolized mycotoxins. Additional research efforts are also needed to measure metabolites in vivo after exposure and to establish which mycotoxin metabolites should be prioritized for the inclusion during large-scale biomonitoring efforts. The objective of this study was to perform human in vitro microsomal incubations of 17 mycotoxins and systematically characterize all resulting metabolites using liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The results obtained were then used to build a comprehensive LC-MS library and expand a validated 17-mycotoxin method for exposure monitoring to screening of additional 188 metabolites, including 100 metabolites reported for the first time. The final method represents one of the most comprehensive LC-HRMS methods for mycotoxin biomonitoring or metabolism/fate studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060342 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
A survey including 228 pig feed samples from Spain has been developed, exploring the occurrence of 19 mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B1 and B2, citrinin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, enniatins A, A1, [...] Read more.
A survey including 228 pig feed samples from Spain has been developed, exploring the occurrence of 19 mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B1 and B2, citrinin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, enniatins A, A1, B and B2, and beauvericin). The samples were analysed by solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence or mass spectrometry detection. Enniatin B was found in 100% of the samples (up to 1200 µg/kg) and beauvericin in more than 90%. Moreover, 40% of samples were contaminated with more than five mycotoxins. This high occurrence is insurmountable and surpasses all previous studies, probably due to the inclusion of emerging mycotoxins, scarcely explored. The majority of the samples (96.9%) were in accordance with EU regulations, which do not address emerging mycotoxins or co-occurrence. These results show that in order to ensure mycotoxin absence, emerging mycotoxins should always be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Fusarium Mycotoxins Stability during the Malting and Brewing Processes
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050257 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Mycotoxins are widely studied by many research groups in all aspects, but the stability of these compounds needs further research for clarification. The objective of this study is to evaluate deoxynivalenol and zearalenone stability during all steps of the malting and brewing processes. [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are widely studied by many research groups in all aspects, but the stability of these compounds needs further research for clarification. The objective of this study is to evaluate deoxynivalenol and zearalenone stability during all steps of the malting and brewing processes. The levels of these compounds decreased significantly during the production process (barley to beer). During the malting process, the DON levels decreased significantly in the steeping, germination, and malting steps (62%, 51.5%, and 68%, respectively). Considering ZEN, when the levels were compared between barley and the last step of the process, a significant decrease was observed. Most of the mycotoxins produced were transferred to the rootlets and spent grains, which is advantageous considering the final product. Furthermore, the mycotoxin dietary intake estimation was included in this study. The results proved that if the concentrations of target mycotoxins in raw material are under the limits established by the regulations, the levels decrease during the malting and brewing processes and make the beer secure for consumers. The quality of the five commodities involved in the beer process plays a decisive role in the creation of a safe final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS Methods for Determination of 24 Mycotoxins including Major Phase I and II Biomarker Metabolites in Biological Matrices from Pigs and Broiler Chickens
Toxins 2019, 11(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030171 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
A reliable and practical multi-method was developed for the quantification of mycotoxins in plasma, urine, and feces of pigs, and plasma and excreta of broiler chickens using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The targeted mycotoxins belong to the regulated groups, i.e., aflatoxins, ochratoxin A [...] Read more.
A reliable and practical multi-method was developed for the quantification of mycotoxins in plasma, urine, and feces of pigs, and plasma and excreta of broiler chickens using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The targeted mycotoxins belong to the regulated groups, i.e., aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium mycotoxins, and to two groups of emerging mycotoxins, i.e., Alternaria mycotoxins and enniatins. In addition, the developed method was transferred to a LC-high resolution mass spectrometry instrument to qualitatively determine phase I and II metabolites, for which analytical standards are not always commercially available. Sample preparation of plasma was simple and generic and was accomplished by precipitation of proteins alone (pig) or in combination with removal of phospholipids (chicken). A more intensive sample clean-up of the other matrices was needed and consisted of a pH-dependent liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate (pig urine), methanol/ethyl acetate/formic acid (75/24/1, v/v/v) (pig feces) or acetonitrile (chicken excreta). For the extraction of pig feces, additionally a combination of LLE using acetone and filtration of the supernatant on a HybridSPE-phospholipid cartridge was applied. The LC-MS/MS method was in-house validated according to guidelines defined by the European and international community. Finally, the multi-methods were successfully applied in a specific toxicokinetic study and a screening study to monitor the exposure of individual animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Variation of Fungal Metabolites in Sorghum Malts Used to Prepare Namibian Traditional Fermented Beverages Omalodu and Otombo
Toxins 2019, 11(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030165 - 16 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Sorghum malts, which are important ingredients in traditional fermented beverages, are commonly infected by mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins may transfer into the beverages, risking consumers’ health. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine variation of fungal metabolites in 81 sorghum malts processed [...] Read more.
Sorghum malts, which are important ingredients in traditional fermented beverages, are commonly infected by mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins may transfer into the beverages, risking consumers’ health. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine variation of fungal metabolites in 81 sorghum malts processed for brewing of Namibian beverages, otombo (n = 45) and omalodu (n = 36). Co-occurrence of European Union (EU)-regulated mycotoxins, such as patulin, aflatoxins (B1, B2, and G2), and fumonisins (B1, B2, and B3) was detected in both malts with a prevalence range of 2–84%. Aflatoxin B1 was quantified in omalodu (44%) and otombo malts (14%), with 20% of omalodu malts and 40% of otombo malts having levels above the EU allowable limit. Fumonisin B1 was quantified in both omalodu (84%) and otombo (42%) malts. Emerging mycotoxins, aflatoxin precursors, and ergot alkaloids were quantified in both malts. Notably, 102 metabolites were quantified in both malts, with 96% in omalodu malts and 93% in otombo malts. An average of 48 metabolites were quantified in otombo malts while an average of 67 metabolites were quantified in omalodu malts. The study accentuates the need to monitor mycotoxins in sorghum malts intended for brewing and to determine their fate in the beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
Open AccessArticle
Development of a QuEChERS-Based UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Six Alternaria Toxins in Grapes
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020087 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
A simple and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of alternariol (AOH), altenuene (ALT), tentoxin (TEN), altenusin (ALS), tenuazonic acid (TeA), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in grapes was developed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, [...] Read more.
A simple and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of alternariol (AOH), altenuene (ALT), tentoxin (TEN), altenusin (ALS), tenuazonic acid (TeA), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in grapes was developed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure with the extraction by acetonitrile and purification by sodium chloride (0.5 g) and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (0.5 g) was established to recover the six Alternaria toxins. After validation by determining the linearity (R2 > 0.99), recovery (77.8–101.6%), sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.03–0.21 μg kg−1, and limit of quantification in the range of 0.09–0.48 μg kg−1), and precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 12.9%), the analytical method was successfully applied to reveal the contamination state of Alternaria toxins in grapes. Among 56 grape samples, 40 (incidence of 71.4%) were contaminated with Alternaria toxins. TEN was the most frequently found mycotoxin (37.5%), with a concentration range of 0.10–1.64 μg kg−1, followed by TeA (28.6%) and AOH (26.8%). ALT (10.7%), AME (3.6%), and ALS (5.4%) were also detected in some samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the Alternaria toxins contamination in grapes in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Regional Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria Reveals the Presence of 164 Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Foods
Toxins 2019, 11(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010054 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 14Correction
Abstract
In the framework of the first multi-centre Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study (SSA-TDS), 2328 commonly consumed foods were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 194 composite samples of cereals, tubers, legumes, vegetables, nuts and seeds, dairy, oils, beverages and miscellaneous. Those core [...] Read more.
In the framework of the first multi-centre Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study (SSA-TDS), 2328 commonly consumed foods were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 194 composite samples of cereals, tubers, legumes, vegetables, nuts and seeds, dairy, oils, beverages and miscellaneous. Those core foods were tested for mycotoxins and other fungal, bacterial and plant secondary metabolites by liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The highest aflatoxin concentrations were quantified in peanuts, peanut oil and maize. The mean concentration of the sum of aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 (AFtot) in peanut samples (56.4 µg/kg) exceeded EU (4 µg/kg) and Codex (15 µg/kg) standards. The AFtot concentration (max: 246.0 µg/kg) was associated with seasonal and geographic patterns and comprised, on average, 80% AFB1, the most potent aflatoxin. Although ochratoxin A concentrations rarely exceeded existing Codex standards, it was detected in unregulated foods. One palm oil composite sample contained 98 different metabolites, including 35.4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A. In total, 164 different metabolites were detected, with unspecific metabolites like asperglaucide, cyclo(L-pro-L-val), cyclo (L-pro-L-tyr), flavoglaucin, emodin and tryptophol occurring in more than 50% of composite samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), sterigmatocystin (STC), ochratoxin A (OTA), citrinin (CIT) and many other secondary fungal metabolites are frequent co-contaminants in staple foods, such as maize and sorghum. Populations from North Cameroon and from Benin may, therefore, suffer chronic and simultaneous exposure to AFB1, FB1, STC, OTA and CIT, which are prevalent in their diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Toxigenic Fusarium Species and Their Mycotoxins in Brewing Barley Grains
Toxins 2019, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010031 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Fusarium species threaten yield and quality of cereals worldwide due to their ability to produce mycotoxins and cause plant diseases. Trichothecenes and zearalenone are the most economically significant mycotoxins and are of particular concern in barley, maize and wheat. For this reason, the [...] Read more.
Fusarium species threaten yield and quality of cereals worldwide due to their ability to produce mycotoxins and cause plant diseases. Trichothecenes and zearalenone are the most economically significant mycotoxins and are of particular concern in barley, maize and wheat. For this reason, the aim of this study was to characterize the Fusarium isolates from brewing barley and to assess deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contamination in grains. Characterization of the Fusarium strains was carried out by the phylogeny based on two loci (EF-1α and RPB2). Mycotoxin detection and quantification were performed by LC-MS. The results show that Fusarium was the predominant genus. Phylogenetic study demonstrated that the majority of the strains clustered within the Fusarium sambucinum species complex followed by the Fusarium tricinctum species complex. The results revealed high incidence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) contamination (90.6% and 87.5%, respectively). It was observed that 86% of the samples contaminated with ZEA were above the limits set by the EU and Brazilian regulations. These results may highlight the importance of controlling Fusarium toxins in barley, mainly because of its use in the brewing industry and the resistance of various mycotoxins to food processing treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Ingenbleek, L. et al. Regional Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali, and Nigeria Reveals the Presence of 164 Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Foods
Toxins 2019, 11(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030134 - 28 Feb 2019
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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