E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Laura Gámiz-Gracia

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Phone: 34 958 248594
Interests: Development of analytical methods based on separative techniques, as LC-MS/MS, for determination of food contaminants, focusing on mycotoxins
Guest Editor
Prof. Ana M. García-Campaña

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares

Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Targeted and untargeted analytical approaches based on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for determination of known and unknown fungal secondary metabolites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi of different species, mainly Aspergillus, Fusarium or Penicillium, that can contaminate food and feed with toxic effects for humans and animals. Notifications on the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) concerning mycotoxins are becoming frequent, being among the “top 10” hazards reported on food products, mainly cereals and nuts. Regulations around the world have established maximum levels for different mycotoxins in foodstuffs, including aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, ochratoxin A, patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins B1 and B2, HT-2 and T-2 toxins, citrinin, and ergot alkaloids. However, there are other “emerging mycotoxins” that have been considered as relevant as they could contribute to the risk posed to humans and animals. This group includes Alternaria toxins, sterigmatocystin, Fusarium toxins (as enniantins and beauvericin), phomopsins and others. Moreover, the so-called “modified mycotoxins” (produced as a consequence of a detoxification strategy of the host plant of the fungus or during food processing in mammals) can be more or less toxics than the original mycotoxin, and should also be taken into account.

All these facts make necessary the development of analytical methods for the accurate determination of mycotoxins in different food matrices and feeds. In this sense, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a powerful tool for the unique identification and quantification of analytes, being the technique of choice when a multimycotoxin determination is required. Moreover, the use of high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has allowed the identification of novel mycotoxins and a targeted / untargeted approaches for their study, including metabolomics.

This issue is dedicated to recent applications of LC-MS/MS in mycotoxin studies, including development of new analytical methods for their extraction in different matrices, identification and quantification, occurrence studies and metabolomics, or review articles about this topic.

Prof. Dr. Laura Gámiz-Gracia
Prof. Dr. Ana M. García-Campaña
Prof. Dr. Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Emerging mycotoxins
  • Modified mycotoxins
  • Liquid chromatography
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Food
  • Feed
  • Metabolomic

Published Papers (3 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-3
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Development of a QuEChERS-Based UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Six Alternaria Toxins in Grapes
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
PDF Full-text (3633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A simple and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of alternariol (AOH), altenuene (ALT), tentoxin (TEN), altenusin (ALS), tenuazonic acid (TeA), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in grapes was developed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, [...] Read more.
A simple and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of alternariol (AOH), altenuene (ALT), tentoxin (TEN), altenusin (ALS), tenuazonic acid (TeA), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in grapes was developed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure with the extraction by acetonitrile and purification by sodium chloride (0.5 g) and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (0.5 g) was established to recover the six Alternaria toxins. After validation by determining the linearity (R2 > 0.99), recovery (77.8–101.6%), sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.03–0.21 μg kg−1, and limit of quantification in the range of 0.09–0.48 μg kg−1), and precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 12.9%), the analytical method was successfully applied to reveal the contamination state of Alternaria toxins in grapes. Among 56 grape samples, 40 (incidence of 71.4%) were contaminated with Alternaria toxins. TEN was the most frequently found mycotoxin (37.5%), with a concentration range of 0.10–1.64 μg kg−1, followed by TeA (28.6%) and AOH (26.8%). ALT (10.7%), AME (3.6%), and ALS (5.4%) were also detected in some samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the Alternaria toxins contamination in grapes in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Regional Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria Reveals the Presence of 164 Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Foods
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the framework of the first multi-centre Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study (SSA-TDS), 2328 commonly consumed foods were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 194 composite samples of cereals, tubers, legumes, vegetables, nuts and seeds, dairy, oils, beverages and miscellaneous. Those core [...] Read more.
In the framework of the first multi-centre Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study (SSA-TDS), 2328 commonly consumed foods were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 194 composite samples of cereals, tubers, legumes, vegetables, nuts and seeds, dairy, oils, beverages and miscellaneous. Those core foods were tested for mycotoxins and other fungal, bacterial and plant secondary metabolites by liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The highest aflatoxin concentrations were quantified in peanuts, peanut oil and maize. The mean concentration of the sum of aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 (AFtot) in peanut samples (56.4 µg/kg) exceeded EU (4 µg/kg) and Codex (15 µg/kg) standards. The AFtot concentration (max: 246.0 µg/kg) was associated with seasonal and geographic patterns and comprised, on average, 80% AFB1, the most potent aflatoxin. Although ochratoxin A concentrations rarely exceeded existing Codex standards, it was detected in unregulated foods. One palm oil composite sample contained 98 different metabolites, including 35.4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A. In total, 164 different metabolites were detected, with unspecific metabolites like asperglaucide, cyclo(L-pro-L-val), cyclo (L-pro-L-tyr), flavoglaucin, emodin and tryptophol occurring in more than 50% of composite samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), sterigmatocystin (STC), ochratoxin A (OTA), citrinin (CIT) and many other secondary fungal metabolites are frequent co-contaminants in staple foods, such as maize and sorghum. Populations from North Cameroon and from Benin may, therefore, suffer chronic and simultaneous exposure to AFB1, FB1, STC, OTA and CIT, which are prevalent in their diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Toxigenic Fusarium Species and Their Mycotoxins in Brewing Barley Grains
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
PDF Full-text (893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fusarium species threaten yield and quality of cereals worldwide due to their ability to produce mycotoxins and cause plant diseases. Trichothecenes and zearalenone are the most economically significant mycotoxins and are of particular concern in barley, maize and wheat. For this reason, the [...] Read more.
Fusarium species threaten yield and quality of cereals worldwide due to their ability to produce mycotoxins and cause plant diseases. Trichothecenes and zearalenone are the most economically significant mycotoxins and are of particular concern in barley, maize and wheat. For this reason, the aim of this study was to characterize the Fusarium isolates from brewing barley and to assess deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contamination in grains. Characterization of the Fusarium strains was carried out by the phylogeny based on two loci (EF-1α and RPB2). Mycotoxin detection and quantification were performed by LC-MS. The results show that Fusarium was the predominant genus. Phylogenetic study demonstrated that the majority of the strains clustered within the Fusarium sambucinum species complex followed by the Fusarium tricinctum species complex. The results revealed high incidence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) contamination (90.6% and 87.5%, respectively). It was observed that 86% of the samples contaminated with ZEA were above the limits set by the EU and Brazilian regulations. These results may highlight the importance of controlling Fusarium toxins in barley, mainly because of its use in the brewing industry and the resistance of various mycotoxins to food processing treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top