Special Issue "Rapid Detection of Mycotoxin Contamination"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. András Székács
Website
Guest Editor
Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Herman O. u. 15, H-1022 Budapest, Hungary
Interests: environmental and food safety; organic microcontaminants (pesticide residues and mycotoxins); environmental analysis; agricultural ecotoxicology; genetic safety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxin contamination in crops, and the subsequent mycotoxin contamination in food and feed is currently a major concern in environmental and food safety, affecting both crop production and animal husbandry. In turn, the rapid detection of mycotoxin levels in food and feed, as well as in other biological and environmental matrices, is of key importance both in mycotoxin monitoring and exposure assessment.

Mycotoxin occurrence in produce is mostly as a result of improper harvest or storage conditions that favour the emergence of toxinogenic fungi (e.g., Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and other species). Target mycotoxins include the most hazardous aflatoxins, trichothecenes (e.g., T-2, deoxynivalenol), resorcilactones (e.g., zearalenone), fumonisins, and ochratoxins, as well as recently identified compounds (e.g., sterigmatocystin, moniliformin, and others). The meteorological conditions prior to harvest strongly affect fungal growth and mycotoxin production; moreover, climate change also exerts its impact, as toxinogenic fungal strains may now emerge at climatic zones where they could not colonise before.

Our Special Issue of Toxins aims to summarise the importance of mycotoxin detection in various matrices by reporting diverse aspects, hopefully covering a wide range of application, including (but not limited to) the following:

- monitoring the occurrence of mycotoxins in crops and produce, as related to meteorological conditions, including the assessment of the potential effects of climate change trends on mycotoxin occurrence;

- a particular issue related to the abovementioned point is the general and repeatedly refuted allegation of ecological farming, of being a source of mycotoxin contamination because of the prohibition of the use of synthetic fungicides; therefore, the submission of comparative monitoring studies of mycotoxins in conventional and ecological agriculture are welcome;

- decomposition of mycotoxins in biological matrices, because of the effects of natural or artificially accelerated enzymatic conditions;

- effect-based monitoring of mycotoxins in affected animals, as well as veterinary mycotoxin analyses;

- assessment of mycotoxin decontamination methods aiming to suppress emerging mycotoxin poisoning;

- novel or inventive methods of mycotoxin analysis, including chromatography, immunoassay, molecular biology, sensorics, and other means, including novel sample preparation methods (e.g., QuEChERS and immunoaffinity pre-purification);

- methods of toxicological or ecotoxicological assessment, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and endocrine disruption, combined with chemical analysis.

Prof. András Székács
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxin analysis
  • monitoring
  • decomposition/metabolism
  • decontamination
  • instrumental and immunoanalysis
  • sensorics
  • cytotoxicity
  • genotoxicity
  • mutagenicity
  • endocrine disruption

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Determination of Deoxynivalenol, Its Modified Forms, Nivalenol and Fusarenone-X in Feedstuffs by the Liquid Hromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060362 (registering DOI) - 01 Jun 2020
Abstract
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3Ac-DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15Ac-DON), DON-3-glucoside (DON-3Glc) nivalenol and fusarenone-X in feedstuffs. Different techniques of sample preparation were tested: solid-liquid-extraction, QuEChERS, solid phase extraction with OASIS HLB columns or immunoaffinity [...] Read more.
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3Ac-DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15Ac-DON), DON-3-glucoside (DON-3Glc) nivalenol and fusarenone-X in feedstuffs. Different techniques of sample preparation were tested: solid-liquid-extraction, QuEChERS, solid phase extraction with OASIS HLB columns or immunoaffinity columns and a Mycosep 225 Trich column. None of the six immunoaffinity columns tested showed cross-reactivity to all of the mycotoxins. Surprisingly, the results show that if the immunoaffinity columns bound 3Ac-DON, then they did not bind 15Ac-DON. The most efficient sample preparation was achieved with a Mycosep 225 Trich column clean-up. The chromatography was optimised to obtain full separation of all analytes (including 3Ac-DON and 15Ac-DON isomeric form). The validation results show the relative standard deviations for repeatability and reproducibility varied from 4% to 24%. The apparent recovery ranged between 92% and 97%, and the limit of quantification described a 1.30 to 50 µg/kg range. The method trueness was satisfactory, as assessed by a proficiency test and analysis of reference material. A total of 99 feed samples were analysed by the developed method, revealing the presence of DON and DON-3Glc in 85% and 86% of examined animal feeds, respectively at concentrations between 1.70 and 1709 µg/kg. The ratios DON-3Glc to DON in the surveyed feedstuffs were from a low of 3% to high of 59%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection of Mycotoxin Contamination)
Open AccessArticle
Sensitive Aflatoxin B1 Detection Using Nanoparticle-Based Competitive Magnetic Immunodetection
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12050337 - 20 May 2020
Abstract
Food and crop contaminations with mycotoxins are a severe health risk for consumers and cause high economic losses worldwide. Currently, different chromatographic- and immuno-based methods are used to detect mycotoxins within different sample matrices. There is a need for novel, highly sensitive detection [...] Read more.
Food and crop contaminations with mycotoxins are a severe health risk for consumers and cause high economic losses worldwide. Currently, different chromatographic- and immuno-based methods are used to detect mycotoxins within different sample matrices. There is a need for novel, highly sensitive detection technologies that avoid time-consuming procedures and expensive laboratory equipment but still provide sufficient sensitivity to achieve the mandated detection limit for mycotoxin content. Here we describe a novel, highly sensitive, and portable aflatoxin B1 detection approach using competitive magnetic immunodetection (cMID). As a reference method, a competitive ELISA optimized by checkerboard titration was established. For the novel cMID procedure, immunofiltration columns, coated with aflatoxin B1-BSA conjugate were used for competitive enrichment of biotinylated aflatoxin B1-specific antibodies. Subsequently, magnetic particles functionalized with streptavidin can be applied to magnetically label retained antibodies. By means of frequency mixing technology, particles were detected and quantified corresponding to the aflatoxin content in the sample. After the optimization of assay conditions, we successfully demonstrated the new competitive magnetic detection approach with a comparable detection limit of 1.1 ng aflatoxin B1 per mL sample to the cELISA reference method. Our results indicate that the cMID is a promising method reducing the risks of processing contaminated commodities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection of Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Open AccessArticle
A Liquid Chromatographic Method for Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Aflatoxins in Laboratory Fungal Cultures
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020093 - 30 Jan 2020
Abstract
Culture methods supplemented with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique provide a rapid and simple tool for detecting levels of aflatoxins (AFs) produced by fungi. This study presents a robust method for simultaneous quantification of aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 levels in [...] Read more.
Culture methods supplemented with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique provide a rapid and simple tool for detecting levels of aflatoxins (AFs) produced by fungi. This study presents a robust method for simultaneous quantification of aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 levels in several fungal cultivation states: submerged shake culture, liquid slant culture, and solid-state culture. The recovery of the method was evaluated by spiking a mixture of AFs at several concentrations to the test medium. The applicability of the method was evaluated by using aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergilli. A HPLC coupled with the diode array (DAD) and fluorescence (FLD) detectors was used to determine the presence and amounts of AFs. Both detectors showed high sensitivity in detecting spiked AFs or AFs produced in situ by toxigenic fungi. Our methods showed 76%–88% recovery from medium spiked with 2.5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/mL AFs. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for AFs were 2.5 to 5.0 ng/mL with DAD and 0.025 to 2.5 ng/mL with FLD. In this work, we described in detail a protocol, which can be considered the foremost and only verified method, to extract, detect, and quantify AFs employing both aflatoxigenic and non-toxigenic Aspergilli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection of Mycotoxin Contamination)
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