Special Issue "Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry"

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Computer and Engineering Science and Symmetry/Asymmetry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mostafa S. Shadloo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CORIA Lab., INSA Rouen/ CNRS (UMR 6614), Rouen, France
Interests: turbulence; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); multiphase flows; meshless methods; high performance computing (HPC)
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Amin Rahmat
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Interests: computational fluid dynamics (CFD); multiphase flows; fluid-solid interactions (FSI); particle-based methods
Prof. Dr. Mehmet Yildiz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Research and Application Center, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Tuzla/İstanbul, Turkey
Interests: multiphase flows; Meshless computational fluid mechanics (smoothed particle hydrodynamics); polymer based composite materials; nano composites; transport phenomena in materials processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current Special Issue aims to attract original high-quality papers of recent developments in the fields of turbulence, multiphase flows, and fluid–solid interactions (FSI). Research papers may incorporate one or a combination of computational, experimental, and analytical approaches and include at least one of the following research themes: (i) a cutting-edge physical investigation in the field of turbulence, multiphase flows or FSI with regards to fluid flow and structural symmetry breaking phenomena, (ii) extending current numerical models and algorithm development and/or development of novel experimental techniques to visualize such phenomena and illustrate the forces causing them,  (iii) addressing solutions for complex challenges  causes by these symmetry breaking in relevant applications, and (iv) illustration of their impacts on industrial and/or environmental issues.

The present Special Issue covers a wide range of research topics to align with at least one of the above general themes. The topic of research papers may include but are not limited to one of the following topics:

  • Bubble and droplet symmetry breaking in break-up, separation, and coalescence phenomena;
  • Droplets’ wake interactions in symmetry and asymmetry flows;
  • Atomization and spray;
  • Multiphase treatment of nanofluidic applications;
  • Boiling and condensation
  • Phase-change and crystallization;
  • Ensation;
  • Aerodynamics and hydrodynamics of symmetric flows;
  • Implementation, application, and influence of electro-hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics;
  • Sedimentation, aggregation, flocculation, and agglomeration of solid particles;
  • Numerical development of RANS, URANS, LES, and DNS for the asymmetry and chaotic fluid flow simulations;
  • Immersed boundary method;
  • Lattice–Boltzmann method and particle-based methods, such as SPH, MPS, DEM, CGMD, etc.

This Special Issue will emphasize the industrial and environmental impact of research. Thus, Research papers with special industrial (i.e., pharmaceutical, biomedical, petroleum, automotive, fuel cells, etc.) and environmental (i.e., global warming, water and wastewater, desalination, etc.) impacts are particularly invited for submission.

Prof. Dr. Mostafa S. Shadloo
Dr. Amin Rahmat
Prof. Dr. Mehmet Yildiz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

turbulence vs symmetry;
multiphase flows;
fluid–solid interactions (FSI);
periodic von-karmen vs symmetric vortices behind obstacles;
computational fluid dynamics (CFD);
experimental design;
industrial and environmental impacts.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Three-Dimensional Investigation of Hydraulic Properties of Vertical Drop in the Presence of Step and Grid Dissipators
Symmetry 2021, 13(5), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13050895 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 591
Abstract
In irrigation and drainage channels, vertical drops are generally used to transfer water from a higher elevation to a lower level. Downstream of these structures, measures are taken to prevent the destruction of the channel bed by the flow and reduce its destructive [...] Read more.
In irrigation and drainage channels, vertical drops are generally used to transfer water from a higher elevation to a lower level. Downstream of these structures, measures are taken to prevent the destruction of the channel bed by the flow and reduce its destructive kinetic energy. In this study, the effect of use steps and grid dissipators on hydraulic characteristics regarding flow pattern, relative downstream depth, relative pool depth, and energy dissipation of a vertical drop was investigated by numerical simulation following the symmetry law. Two relative step heights and two grid dissipator cell sizes were used. The hydraulic model describes fully coupled three-dimensional flow with axial symmetry. For the simulation, critical depths ranging from 0.24 to 0.5 were considered. Values of low relative depth obtained from the numerical results are in satisfactory agreement with the laboratory data. The simultaneous use of step and grid dissipators increases the relative energy dissipation compared to a simple vertical drop and a vertical drop equipped with steps. By using the grid dissipators and the steps downstream of the vertical drop, the relative pool depth increases. Changing the pore size of the grid dissipators does not affect the relative depth of the pool. The simultaneous use of steps and grid dissipators reduces the downstream Froude number of the vertical drop from 3.83–5.20 to 1.46–2.00. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry)
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Article
The Effect of Iterative Procedures on the Robustness and Fidelity of Augmented Lagrangian SPH
Symmetry 2021, 13(3), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13030472 - 13 Mar 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
The Augmented Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ALSPH) method is a novel incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach that solves Navier–Stokes equations by an iterative augmented Lagrangian scheme through enforcing the divergence-free coupling of velocity and pressure fields. This study aims to systematically investigate [...] Read more.
The Augmented Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ALSPH) method is a novel incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach that solves Navier–Stokes equations by an iterative augmented Lagrangian scheme through enforcing the divergence-free coupling of velocity and pressure fields. This study aims to systematically investigate the time step size and the number of inner iteration parameters to boost the performance of the ALSPH method. Additionally, the effects of computing spatial derivatives with two alternative schemes on the accuracy of numerical results are also scrutinized. Namely, the first scheme computes spatial derivatives on the updated particle positions at each iteration, whereas the second one employs the updated pressure and velocity fields on the initial particle positions to compute the gradients and divergences throughout the iterations. These two schemes are implemented to the solution of a flow over a circular cylinder at Reynolds numbers of 200 in two dimensions. Initially, simulations are performed in order to determine the optimum time step sizes by utilizing a maximum number of five iterations per time step. Subsequently, the optimum number of inner iterations is investigated by employing the predetermined optimum time step size under the same flow conditions. Finally, the schemes are tested on the same flow problem with different Reynolds numbers using the best performing combination of the aforementioned parameters. It is observed that the ALSPH method can enable one to increase the time step size without deteriorating the numerical accuracy as a consequence of imposing larger ALSPH penalty terms in larger time step sizes, which, overall, leads to improved computational efficiency. When considering the hydrodynamic flow characteristics, it can be stated that two spatial derivative schemes perform very similarly. However, the results indicate that the derivative operation with the updated particle positions produces slightly lower velocity divergence magnitudes at larger time step sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry)
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Article
Numerical Investigation on Forced Hybrid Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer Inside a Three-Dimensional Annulus Equipped with Hot and Cold Rods: Using Symmetry Simulation
Symmetry 2020, 12(11), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111873 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 425
Abstract
A 3D computational fluid dynamics method is used in the current study to investigate the hybrid nanofluid (HNF) flow and heat transfer in an annulus with hot and cold rods. The chief goal of the current study is to examine the influences of [...] Read more.
A 3D computational fluid dynamics method is used in the current study to investigate the hybrid nanofluid (HNF) flow and heat transfer in an annulus with hot and cold rods. The chief goal of the current study is to examine the influences of dissimilar Reynolds numbers, emissivity coefficients, and dissimilar volume fractions of nanoparticles on hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the studied annulus. In this way, the geometry is modeled using a symmetry scheme. The heat transfer fluid is a water, ethylene–glycol, or water/ethylene–glycol mixture-based Cu-Al2O3 HNF, which is a Newtonian NF. According to the findings for the model at Re = 3000 and ϕ1 = 0.05, all studied cases with different base fluids have similar behavior. ϕ1 and ϕ2 are the volume concentration of Al2O3 and Cu nanoparticles, respectively. For all studied cases, the total average Nusselt number (Nuave) reduces firstly by an increment of the volume concentrations of Cu nanoparticles until ϕ2 = 0.01 or 0.02 and then, the total Nuave rises by an increment of the volume concentrations of Cu nanoparticles. Additionally, for the case with water as the base fluid, the total Nuave at ϕ2 = 0.05 is higher than the values at ϕ2 = 0.00. On the other hand, for the other cases, the total Nuave at ϕ2 = 0.05 is lower than the values at ϕ2 = 0.00. For all studied cases, the case with water as the base fluid has the maximum Nuave. Plus, for the model at Re = 4000 and ϕ1 = 0.05, all studied cases with different base fluids have similar behavior. For all studied cases, the total Nuave reduces firstly by an increment of the volume concentrations of Cu nanoparticles until ϕ2 = 0.01 and then, the total Nuave rises by an increment of the volume concentrations of Cu nanoparticles. The Nuave augments are found by an increment of Reynolds numbers. Higher emissivity values should lead to higher radiation heat transfer, but the portion of radiative heat transfer in the studied annulus is low and therefore, has no observable increment in HNF flow and heat transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry)
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Article
Heat Transfer Improvement in a Double Backward-Facing Expanding Channel Using Different Working Fluids
Symmetry 2020, 12(7), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071088 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
This paper reports a numerical study on heat transfer improvement in a double backward-facing expanding channel using different convectional fluids. A finite volume method with the k-ε standard model is used to investigate the effects of step, Reynolds number and type of liquid [...] Read more.
This paper reports a numerical study on heat transfer improvement in a double backward-facing expanding channel using different convectional fluids. A finite volume method with the k-ε standard model is used to investigate the effects of step, Reynolds number and type of liquid on heat transfer enhancement. Three types of conventional fluids (water, ammonia liquid and ethylene glycol) with Reynolds numbers varying from 98.5 to 512 and three cases for different step heights at a constant heat flux (q = 2000 W/m2) are examined. The top wall of the passage and the bottom wall of the upstream section are adiabatic, while the walls of both the first and second steps downstream are heated. The results show that the local Nusselt number rises with the augmentation of the Reynolds number, and the critical effects are seen in the entrance area of the first and second steps. The maximum average Nusselt number, which represents the thermal performance, can be seen clearly in case 1 for EG in comparison to water and ammonia. Due to the expanding of the passage, separation flow is generated, which causes a rapid increment in the local skin friction coefficient, especially at the first and second steps of the downstream section for water, ammonia liquid and EG. The maximum skin friction coefficient is detected in case 1 for water with Re = 512. Trends of velocities for positions (X/H1 = 2.01, X/H2 = 2.51) at the first and second steps for all the studied cases with different types of convectional fluids are indicated in this paper. The presented findings also include the contour of velocity, which shows the recirculation zones at the first and second steps to demonstrate the improvement in the thermal performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry)
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Article
Symmetric MHD Channel Flow of Nonlocal Fractional Model of BTF Containing Hybrid Nanoparticles
Symmetry 2020, 12(4), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12040663 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
A nonlocal fractional model of Brinkman type fluid (BTF) containing a hybrid nanostructure was examined. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of the hybrid nanofluid was studied using the fractional calculus approach. Hybridized silver (Ag) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were dissolved in [...] Read more.
A nonlocal fractional model of Brinkman type fluid (BTF) containing a hybrid nanostructure was examined. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of the hybrid nanofluid was studied using the fractional calculus approach. Hybridized silver (Ag) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were dissolved in base fluid water (H2O) to form a hybrid nanofluid. The MHD free convection flow of the nanofluid (Ag-TiO2-H2O) was considered in a microchannel (flow with a bounded domain). The BTF model was generalized using a nonlocal Caputo-Fabrizio fractional operator (CFFO) without a singular kernel of order α with effective thermophysical properties. The governing equations of the model were subjected to physical initial and boundary conditions. The exact solutions for the nonlocal fractional model without a singular kernel were developed via the fractional Laplace transform technique. The fractional solutions were reduced to local solutions by limiting α 1 . To understand the rheological behavior of the fluid, the obtained solutions were numerically computed and plotted on various graphs. Finally, the influence of pertinent parameters was physically studied. It was found that the solutions were general, reliable, realistic and fixable. For the fractional parameter, the velocity and temperature profiles showed a decreasing trend for a constant time. By setting the values of the fractional parameter, excellent agreement between the theoretical and experimental results could be attained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry)
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Article
Numerical Modeling of Sloshing Frequencies in Tanks with Structure Using New Presented DQM-BEM Technique
Symmetry 2020, 12(4), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12040655 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
The sloshing behavior of systems is influenced by different factors related to the liquid level and tank specifications. Different approaches are applicable for the assessment of sloshing behavior in a tank. In this paper, a new numerical model based on the differential quadrature [...] Read more.
The sloshing behavior of systems is influenced by different factors related to the liquid level and tank specifications. Different approaches are applicable for the assessment of sloshing behavior in a tank. In this paper, a new numerical model based on the differential quadrature method and boundary element approaches is adopted to investigate the sloshing behavior of a tank with an elastic thin-walled beam. The model is developed based on small slope considerations of the free surface. The main assumption of fluid modeling is homogeneity, isotropy, inviscid, and only limited compressibility of the liquid. Indeed, the formulation is represented based on the reduced-order method and then is employed for simulating the coupling between structure and fluid in symmetric test cases. The results are verified with the ANSYS and literature for symmetric rigid structural walls and then the code is employed to study the behavior of fluid-structure interaction in a symmetric tank with new and efficient immersed structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry)
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Article
Numerical Simulation of Micromixing of Particles and Fluids with Galloping Cylinder
Symmetry 2020, 12(4), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12040580 - 06 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 644
Abstract
Micromixers are significant segments inside miniaturized scale biomedical frameworks. Numerical investigation of the effects of galloping cylinder characteristics inside a microchannel Newtonian, incompressible fluid in nonstationary condition is performed. Governing equations of the system include the continuity equation, and Navier–Stokes equations are solved [...] Read more.
Micromixers are significant segments inside miniaturized scale biomedical frameworks. Numerical investigation of the effects of galloping cylinder characteristics inside a microchannel Newtonian, incompressible fluid in nonstationary condition is performed. Governing equations of the system include the continuity equation, and Navier–Stokes equations are solved within a moving mesh domain. The symmetry of laminar entering the channel is broken by the self-sustained motion of the cylinder. A parameter study on the amplitude and frequency of passive moving cylinder on the mixing of tiny particles in the fluid is performed. The results show a significant increase to the index of mixing uses of the galloping body in biomedical frameworks in the course of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry)
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Article
Effects of Stefan Blowing and Slip Conditions on Unsteady MHD Casson Nanofluid Flow Over an Unsteady Shrinking Sheet: Dual Solutions
Symmetry 2020, 12(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12030487 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
In this article, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of Casson nanofluid with thermal radiation over an unsteady shrinking surface is investigated. The equation of momentum is derived from the Navier–Stokes model for non-Newtonian fluid where components of the viscous terms are symmetric. The effect [...] Read more.
In this article, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of Casson nanofluid with thermal radiation over an unsteady shrinking surface is investigated. The equation of momentum is derived from the Navier–Stokes model for non-Newtonian fluid where components of the viscous terms are symmetric. The effect of Stefan blowing with partial slip conditions of velocity, concentration, and temperature on the velocity, concentration, and temperature distributions is also taken into account. The modeled equations of partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into the equivalent boundary value problems (BVPs) of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by employing similarity transformations. These similarity transformations can be obtained by using symmetry analysis. The resultant BVPs are reduced into initial value problems (IVPs) by using the shooting method and then solved by using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta (RK) technique. The numerical results reveal that dual solutions exist in some ranges of different physical parameters such as unsteadiness and suction/injection parameters. The thickness of the velocity boundary layer is enhanced in the second solution by increasing the magnetic and velocity slip factor effect in the boundary layer. Increment in the Prandtl number and Brownian motion parameter is caused by a reduction of the thickness of the thermal boundary layer and temperature. Moreover, stability analysis performed by employing the three-stage Lobatto IIIA formula in the BVP4C solver with the help of MATLAB software reveals that only the first solution is stable and physically realizable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry)
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Article
Dual Solutions and Stability Analysis of a Hybrid Nanofluid over a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet Executing MHD Flow
Symmetry 2020, 12(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12020276 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
In this paper, the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of hybrid nanofluid (HNF) composed of C u A l 2 O 3 /water in the presence of a thermal radiation effect over the stretching/shrinking sheet is investigated. Using similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which are then solved by using a shooting method. In order to validate the obtained numerical results, the comparison of the results with the published literature is made numerically as well as graphically and is found in good agreements. In addition, the effects of many emerging physical governing parameters on the profiles of velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient, and heat transfer rate are demonstrated graphically and are elucidated theoretically. Based on the numerical results, dual solutions exist in a specific range of magnetic, suction, and unsteadiness parameters. It was also found that the values of f ( 0 ) rise in the first solution and reduce in the second solution when the solid volume fraction ϕ C u is increased. Finally, the temporal stability analysis of the solutions is conducted, and it is concluded that only the first solution is stable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Multiphase Flows and Symmetry)
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