Special Issue "Towards a Sustainable Life: Smart and Green Design in Buildings and Community"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mi Jeong Kim
Website
Guest Editor
School of Architecture, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Interests: Sensing architecture; human–computer interaction; design computing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Han Jong Jun
Website
Guest Editor
School of Architecture, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea
Interests: Affective computing; building information modeling; sensing architecture
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainability is a principal value in our environment and lives and does not simply involve sustaining the original environment or reducing the consumption of resources. Sustainable development can also relate to the healthy and smart development of buildings and communities towards a sustainable life. This Special Issue is interested in how sustainable life can be achieved in terms of sustainable architecture and positive technology. Green design is often used interchangeably with environmental sustainability and is mainly considered for sustainable development. However, this Special Issue considers user-centered smart design for sustainable life because our living spaces are integrated with technologies to support people’s activities, and such integration can support sustainable development. Positive technology could improve overall quality of life by promoting occupants’ wellbeing and satisfaction. This Special Issue welcomes research contributions on sustainable life in buildings and communities. The aim is to highlight issues on the sustainable development of our environments and lives by emphasizing smart and green design perspectives. We solicit interdisciplinary articles concerning sustainable life and propose to bring together expertise from environmental psychology, architecture, engineering, social sciences, and technologies to share their approaches to sustainable life. The following are some example keywords, but submissions are not limited to these.

Prof. Dr. Mi Jeong Kim
Prof. Dr. Han Jong Jun
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Environmental sustainability
  • Sustainable development
  • Sustainable architecture
  • Sustainable life
  • Smart and green design
  • Positive technology
  • Buildings and sustainability
  • Community and sustainability

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Framework of Smart-Home Service for Elderly’s Biophilic Experience
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8572; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208572 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
Smart-home technology and related services can reinforce a person’s experiential nature, promoting sustainable living among the elderly. It is crucial in the housing industry that support “Aging in Place”, contributing to the contact, control, and simulation of nature at home as well as [...] Read more.
Smart-home technology and related services can reinforce a person’s experiential nature, promoting sustainable living among the elderly. It is crucial in the housing industry that support “Aging in Place”, contributing to the contact, control, and simulation of nature at home as well as the creation of a high-quality living space instead of mechanical achievement. Further, biophilic experience, the strengthening of inherent human propensity to nature for optimal health and well-being, supports the elderly’s physical, mental, and sociological health. However, despite the continuing emphasis on the benefits of residential nature experiences for the elderly, the application of smart-home technology and services is insufficient. This study presents a theoretical basis for combining biophilia and smart-home technology, providing a framework for smart-home services to ensure elderly residents can have biophilic experiences. In this study, smart-home components and related studies that can support the biophilic experience and the corresponding technology are analyzed. The results suggest the type and content of smart-home service for ensuring a biophilic experience, while also indicating the configuration of supportive input and output devices according to the service framework. Moreover, we recommend the interaction characteristics of smart-home devices from the perspective of residents, space, efficient service provision, and physical application. This paper broadens our understanding of the sustainable, residential-environment nature experience and informs the expansion of the aged-friendly smart-home industry, contributing to smart-home services trends and development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Design Alternatives and Energy Efficiency for Public Rental Housing in Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8456; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208456 - 14 Oct 2020
Abstract
The orientation and shape of a building can influence energy efficiency in both heating and cooling mechanisms. Given the climatic conditions of Korea, many people are concerned about housing orientation and prefer south-oriented locations. As such, many housing complexes consist of a series [...] Read more.
The orientation and shape of a building can influence energy efficiency in both heating and cooling mechanisms. Given the climatic conditions of Korea, many people are concerned about housing orientation and prefer south-oriented locations. As such, many housing complexes consist of a series of long narrow units that are south-facing. The purpose of this study is to investigate design alternatives for the layout of a building complex, size of households, width to depth ratios of floorplans, and design and type of façade; to examine energy efficiency using energy simulation programs; and to suggest diverse design alternatives for public rental housing, as well as energy-efficient options. The alternative housing units, which are more square-shaped than the typical long and rectangular type, resulted in higher energy costs. Simulation results show that as the solar radiation load increases or the window area increases due to plan alteration, there is simultaneously a significant increase and decrease in the cooling and heating loads, respectively. The performance of the suggested layout alteration greatly increased the heating load and slightly decreased the cooling load with similar total energy costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Workplace Disability Facilities on Job Retention Wishes among People with Physical Disabilities in South Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7489; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187489 - 11 Sep 2020
Abstract
The 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable Development aims to end poverty “in all forms” and achieve sustainable development by 2030, while ensuring that “no one is left behind”, including people with disabilities. Disability is referenced eleven times in the Agenda. Disabled people face [...] Read more.
The 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable Development aims to end poverty “in all forms” and achieve sustainable development by 2030, while ensuring that “no one is left behind”, including people with disabilities. Disability is referenced eleven times in the Agenda. Disabled people face high risks of poverty because of barriers such as lack of workplace disability facilities. The goal of the study was to examine how workplace disability facilities affect job retention plans among workers with physical disabilities in South Korea and how perceived workplace safety and work satisfaction act as mediators. The 2018 Panel Survey of Employment for the Disabled was used, and we examined 1023 workers with physical disabilities. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships. Results showed that workers whose workplaces provided more disability facilities were significantly more likely to perceive their workplaces as safe and had higher work satisfaction; hence, they were more likely to wish to maintain their present jobs than those whose workplaces offered fewer facilities. However, many workplaces in Korea did not provide any disability facilities. The study provides empirical evidence to support development of policies for improved workplace facilities and work environments for disabled people, in accordance with the UN Agenda. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Measure Environmental Factors Affecting Street Robbery Decision-Making in Virtual Environments
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7419; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187419 - 09 Sep 2020
Abstract
There is a lack of quantitative data regarding how offenders make decisions about committing a crime or how situational factors influence such decisions. Detailed crime data on decision-making among criminals are required to improve the accuracy of research. Demonstrating a new methodology for [...] Read more.
There is a lack of quantitative data regarding how offenders make decisions about committing a crime or how situational factors influence such decisions. Detailed crime data on decision-making among criminals are required to improve the accuracy of research. Demonstrating a new methodology for assessing the factors impacting criminal decision-making among street robbery offenders, this study identifies visual data that influence criminal decision-making, and verifies the significance of the measured data. To this end, this study first identified and organized the physical aspects affecting criminal decision-making based on the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) literature. Next, participants were informed of a street crime scenario and asked to replicate the behaviors of criminals in the virtual environment of Grand Theft Auto 5. Factors affecting criminals’ decision-making were then quantitatively assessed using eye-tracking technology. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to verify the significance of the measured data. Results show that windows placed adjacent to the street, balconies and verandas, and signs indicating territoriality have a significant effect on criminals’ decision-making. Confirming the influence of CPTED factors on the occurrence of street robbery, this study advances a new way of acquiring quantitative data through eye-tracker technology, a method hitherto unexplored by existing research on street robbery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Human Behavior Simulation on Usability Factors of Social Sustainability in Architectural Design Education
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7111; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177111 - 31 Aug 2020
Abstract
While the social sustainability of built environments is an essential aspect of architectural design education, systemic experiments still lack empirical pedagogy. Therefore, factors of social sustainability are hardly reflected in students’ projects seamlessly. To overcome such limitations, this study investigates the applicability and [...] Read more.
While the social sustainability of built environments is an essential aspect of architectural design education, systemic experiments still lack empirical pedagogy. Therefore, factors of social sustainability are hardly reflected in students’ projects seamlessly. To overcome such limitations, this study investigates the applicability and effectiveness of human behavior simulation. To ensure authentic architectural design, the projects were equipped with autonomous, rational anthropomorphic computer agents called virtual users (VUsers). This study compared the performance scores on social sustainability factors, assessed by the students who conducted design projects both before (without) and after (with) using the simulation. A one-way analysis of variance indicated that human behavior simulation promoted the performance of projects with respect to the parameters of accessibility and safety, ergonomic usability for heterogeneous users and supportability of social interactions. However, the simulation was not found to be effective in promoting the physical attractiveness of built environments and in ensuring the completeness of design solutions. Based on previous studies, the present study interpreted the reasons why the operability of VUsers and built environments, representations of emerging interactions of VUsers and whole-and-part analytics promoted explicit experimentation, but the factors of physical attractiveness and completeness were irrelevant to the rational examinations in the use of the simulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“SeoulHouse2Vec”: An Embedding-Based Collaborative Filtering Housing Recommender System for Analyzing Housing Preference
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6964; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176964 - 26 Aug 2020
Abstract
Housing preference is the subjective and relative preference of users toward housing alternatives and studies in the field have been conducted to analyze the housing preferences of groups with sharing the same socio-demographic attributes. However, previous studies may not suggest the preference of [...] Read more.
Housing preference is the subjective and relative preference of users toward housing alternatives and studies in the field have been conducted to analyze the housing preferences of groups with sharing the same socio-demographic attributes. However, previous studies may not suggest the preference of individuals. In this regard, this study proposes “SeoulHouse2Vec,” an embedding-based collaborative filtering housing recommendation system for analyzing atypical and nonlinear housing preference of individuals. The model maps users and items in each dense vector space which are called embedding layers. This model may reflect trade-offs between the alternatives and recommend unexpected housing items and thus improve rational housing decision-making. The model expanded the search scope of housing alternatives to the entire city of Seoul utilizing public big data and GIS data. The preferences derived from the results can be used by suppliers, individual investors, and policymakers. Especially for architects, the architectural planning and design process will reflect users’ perspective and preferences, and provide quantitative data in the housing decision-making process for urban planning and administrative units. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Deep-Learning-Based Stress-Ratio Prediction Model Using Virtual Reality with Electroencephalography Data
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6716; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176716 - 19 Aug 2020
Abstract
The Reich Chancellery, built by Albert Speer, was designed with an overwhelming ambience to represent the worldview of Hitler. The interior of the Reich Chancellery comprised high-ceiling and low-ceiling spaces. In this study, the change in a person’s emotions according to the ceiling [...] Read more.
The Reich Chancellery, built by Albert Speer, was designed with an overwhelming ambience to represent the worldview of Hitler. The interior of the Reich Chancellery comprised high-ceiling and low-ceiling spaces. In this study, the change in a person’s emotions according to the ceiling height while moving was examined through brain wave experiments to understand the stress index for each building space. The Reich Chancellery was recreated through VR, and brain wave data collected per space were processed through a first and second analysis. In the first analysis, beta wave changes related to the stress index were calculated, and the space with the highest fluctuation was analyzed. In the second analysis, the correlation between 10 different types of brain waves and waveforms was analyzed; deep-learning algorithms were used to verify the accuracy and analyze spaces with a high stress index. Subsequently, a deep-learning platform for calculating such a value was developed. The results showed that the change in stress index scores was the highest when entering from the Mosaic Hall (15 m floor height) to the Führerbunker (3 m floor height), which had the largest floor height difference. Accordingly, a stress-ratio prediction model for selecting a space with a high stress level was established by monitoring the architectural space based on brain wave information in a VR space. In the architectural design process, the ratio can be used to reflect user sensibility in the design and improve the efficiency of the design process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Visualized Co-Simulation of Adaptive Human Behavior and Dynamic Building Performance: An Agent-Based Model (ABM) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) Approach for Smart Architectural Design
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6672; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166672 - 18 Aug 2020
Abstract
Human (occupant) behavior has been a topic of active research in the study of architecture and energy. To integrate the work of architectural design with techniques of building performance simulation in the presence of responsive human behavior, this study proposes a computational framework [...] Read more.
Human (occupant) behavior has been a topic of active research in the study of architecture and energy. To integrate the work of architectural design with techniques of building performance simulation in the presence of responsive human behavior, this study proposes a computational framework that can visualize and evaluate space occupancy, energy use, and generative envelope design given a space outline. A design simulation platform based on the visual programming language (VPL) of Rhino Grasshopper (GH) and Python is presented so that users (architects) can monitor real-time occupant response to space morphology, environmental building operation, and the formal optimization of three-dimensional (3D) building space. For dynamic co-simulation, the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed, Energy Plus, and Radiance were interfaced, and the agent-based model (ABM) approach and Gaussian process (GP) were applied to represent agents’ self-learning adaptation, feedback, and impact on room temperature and illuminance. Hypothetical behavior scenarios of virtual agents with experimental building geometry were produced to validate the framework and its effectiveness in supporting dynamic simulation. The study’s findings show that building energy and temperature largely depend on ABMs and geometry configuration, which demonstrates the importance of coupled simulation in design decision-making. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reinterpreting Sustainable Architecture: What Does It Mean Syntactically?
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6566; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166566 - 13 Aug 2020
Abstract
How can sustainable architecture be described spatially? Is there any way of looking at sustainable architecture from a spatial perspective? This paper aims to explore whether a syntactical viewpoint would be an appropriate focus, and attempts to address how a configurational approach contributes [...] Read more.
How can sustainable architecture be described spatially? Is there any way of looking at sustainable architecture from a spatial perspective? This paper aims to explore whether a syntactical viewpoint would be an appropriate focus, and attempts to address how a configurational approach contributes to our understanding of sustainable architecture. To explore the possible theoretical framework in understanding sustainable architecture from a spatial perspective, three buildings (namely, Olympic House, SK Chemicals R&D, and the Epson Innovation Center), which are recognized as the most sustainable buildings by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency, are selected and analyzed by using visibility graph analysis, a useful analytical tool in space syntax. The in-depth theoretical studies and literature reviews have suggested that the atria in sustainable architecture play a substantial role in maximizing energy efficiency, minimizing negative impacts on the environment, and generating spatial integration. Thus, it is concluded that sustainable architecture is economical in technological, environmental, and spatial ways as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design Elements in Apartments for Adapting to Climate: A Comparison between Korea and Singapore
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083244 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Currently, almost 80% and 50% of Singapore’s and Korea’s residents, respectively, live in apartments. Despite their earlier unfamiliarity with apartments compared with traditional housing, they have accepted apartments for the convenience they offer and as a symbol of modernity. However, the climatic conditions [...] Read more.
Currently, almost 80% and 50% of Singapore’s and Korea’s residents, respectively, live in apartments. Despite their earlier unfamiliarity with apartments compared with traditional housing, they have accepted apartments for the convenience they offer and as a symbol of modernity. However, the climatic conditions of these countries are extremely different. Hence, this study first examined the critical regionalism that should be considered from the environmental context, such as the geography, climate, and topography, when building apartments. Reviewing the transformation process of apartments, we can determine the types of design elements and principles developed under different climatic conditions. The representative unit plans from 1960 to 2010 were collected for analysis from Singapore’s Housing and Development Board and the private sector in Korea. The analysis revealed that Singapore’s apartments have evolved to facilitate natural ventilation. Irregular unit forms, an atrium, and the location of the utility space are unique elements. The atrium-type apartment can be considered the most regionalized design. Conversely, in Korea, the focus is on heat gain and cross-ventilation, resulting in simple square-form units oriented toward the south and double enveloped by additional windows. The staircase-type apartment predominates. Thus, this study shows that apartments evolved differently in each country, resulting in unique regionalized forms primarily determined by climatic conditions. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Past, Present, and Future of Social Housing in Seoul: Where Is Social Housing Heading to?
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 8165; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198165 - 03 Oct 2020
Abstract
In Seoul, a metropolitan city, affordable housing is a major issue. Since 2012, social housing has been implemented as a means to solve housing shortages in the South Korean capital. Various policies in different times have been applied, and Seoul came up with [...] Read more.
In Seoul, a metropolitan city, affordable housing is a major issue. Since 2012, social housing has been implemented as a means to solve housing shortages in the South Korean capital. Various policies in different times have been applied, and Seoul came up with a unique form of social housing: providing housing to those in need. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of social housing in Seoul and to discuss policy implications. First, this paper defines the concept of social housing in Seoul by comparing that of social housing in Western countries. The major differences in the concept of social housing between Seoul and Western countries lies in the provider of social housing. The providers of social housing in Seoul are social economy actors, including non-private organizations and cooperative unions that work as agencies to pursue the public interest. In addition, this paper presents an overview of the historical development and specific features of social housing. Finally, a discussion is presented on the implications for social housings, including the need for the allocation of social housing throughout the city, the extended length of residence, and reliable financial support to social housing providers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Smart Design Based on Interactive Experience in Building Systems
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6760; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176760 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Smart building is the result of the penetration of information technology and control technology into traditional buildings, and is the future development direction of buildings. User-centric building smart design can achieve a sustainable life, and smart technology integration based on smart design can [...] Read more.
Smart building is the result of the penetration of information technology and control technology into traditional buildings, and is the future development direction of buildings. User-centric building smart design can achieve a sustainable life, and smart technology integration based on smart design can support sustainable development and improve user satisfaction, happiness, and overall quality of life. In intelligent design, researchers focus on the “people-oriented” approach, designed to bring users the ultimate interactive experience. Based on the interactive experience principle of smart design in the smart building system, this article classifies and summarizes intelligent design from the “five senses” interaction, including visual interaction, voice interaction, tactile interaction, cognitive interaction, and emotional interaction. We analyze the application of smart design in architecture and discuss how to embody the principles of user-centered interactive experience design in the process of smart design. This article provides a comprehensive and systematic literature review, clarifies the importance of the “people-oriented” approach in the smart design of buildings, and summarizes how to improve the sustainability of intelligent buildings from the perspective of a “people-oriented” approach. This paper proposes future research suggestions and directions and promotes the sustainable development of the smart building. Full article
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