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Special Issue "Carbon Input into Agricultural Soils"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Martin Wiesmeier

Chair of Soil Science, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354 Freising, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: soil organic matter; soil carbon stocks; distribution and drivers of SOC; soil fractionation; carbon input; carbon sequestration; sustainable soil management; digital soil mapping; temperate agroecosystems; semi-arid grasslands
Guest Editor
Dr. Christopher Poeplau

Thünen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
E-Mail
Interests: soil carbon fluxes; stocks and quality and their drivers in agricultural ecosystems; human impact on soil carbon (land management and land-use change); soil carbon dynamic (modeling, stable isotopes); interaction of nutrient cycles and the carbon cycle

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In agricultural soils, plant-derived input of carbon from above- and below-ground crop residues and rhizodeposition is of major importance for soil organic matter formation and related soil functions. Precise estimations of carbon inputs are mandatory to monitor the supply of soil organic matter in agricultural soils and model soil carbon dynamics under a changing climate. However, reliable quantitative data on the carbon input into cropland and grassland soils is still barely available. In particular, knowledge on root-derived carbon input is scarce.  We invite researchers to contribute original research, as well as review articles, that address aspects related to carbon input into agricultural soils.

Dr. Martin Wiesmeier
Dr. Christopher Poeplau
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Rhizodeposition
  • Root biomass
  • Soil organic carbon
  • Root/shoot ratio

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Effects of Biochar on the Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions under Continuous Flooding and Water-Saving Irrigation Conditions in Paddy Soils
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051403
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we investigated the greenhouse gas emission under different application of biochar in the conditions of continuous flooding and water-saving irrigation in paddy fields, whereas, plant and soil carbon sequestration were considered in the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions. The
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In this study, we investigated the greenhouse gas emission under different application of biochar in the conditions of continuous flooding and water-saving irrigation in paddy fields, whereas, plant and soil carbon sequestration were considered in the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions. The emission rates of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases were simultaneously monitored once every 7–10 days using the closed-chamber method. As a whole, the net greenhouse gas emission in the water-saving irrigation was more than that of the continuous flooding irrigation conditions. Compared with the water-saving irrigation, the continuous flooding irrigation significantly increased the CH4 in the control (CK) and chemical fertilizer treatments (NPK). The CO2 emissions increased in each treatment of the water-saving irrigation condition, especially in the chemical fertilizer treatments (NPKFW). Similarly, the soil N2O emission was very sensitive to the water-saving irrigation condition. An interesting finding is that the biochar application in soils cut down the soil N2O emission more significantly than NPKFW in the water-saving irrigation condition while the effect of biochar increased under the continuous flooding irrigation condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Input into Agricultural Soils)
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Open AccessArticle The Short-Term Effects of Rice Straw Biochar, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Rice Yield and Soil Properties in a Cold Waterlogged Paddy Field
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020537
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crop productivity in cold waterlogged paddy fields can be constrained by chronic flooding stress and low temperature. Farmers typically use chemical fertilizer to improve crop production, but this conventional fertilization is not very effective in a cold waterlogged paddy field. Biochar amendment has
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Crop productivity in cold waterlogged paddy fields can be constrained by chronic flooding stress and low temperature. Farmers typically use chemical fertilizer to improve crop production, but this conventional fertilization is not very effective in a cold waterlogged paddy field. Biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising management approach to eliminating these obstacles. However, little is known about the performance of biochar when combined with N fertilizer and P fertilizer in cold waterlogged soils. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the main effects and interactive effects of rice straw biochar, N and P fertilizer on rice growth and soil properties in a cold waterlogged paddy field. The field treatments consisted of a factorial combination of two biochar levels (0 and 2.25 t ha−1), two N fertilizer levels (120.0 and 180.0 kg ha−1) and two P fertilizer levels (37.5 and 67.5 kg ha−1) which were arranged in a randomized block design, with three replicates. Results confirmed that biochar application caused a significant increase in the soil pH due to its liming effect, while this application resulted in a significant decrease in soil exchangeable cations, such as exchangeable Ca, Mg, Al and base cations. The interactive effect of N fertilizer, P fertilizer and biochar was significant for soil total N. Moreover, a negative effect of biochar on the internal K use efficiency suggested that K uptake into rice may benefit from biochar application. According to the partial Eta squared values, the combined application of N fertilizer and biochar was as effective as pure P fertilization at increasing straw P uptake. The addition of biochar to farmers’ fertilization practice treatment (180.0 kg N ha−1, 67.5 kg P2O5 ha−1 and 67.5 kg K2O ha−1) significantly increased rice yield, mainly owing to improvements in grains per panicle. However, notable effects of biochar on rice yield and biomass production were not detected. More studies are required to assess the long-term behavior of biochar in a cold waterlogged paddy field. This study may lay a theoretical foundation for blended application of biochar with fertilizer in a cold waterlogged paddy field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Input into Agricultural Soils)
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Open AccessArticle Cover Crop Residue Amount and Quality Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Mineralization
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2316; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122316
Received: 16 September 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the associated impacts on crop production under conventional farming raises concerns on how alternative management practices increase SOC sequestration and improve agricultural sustainability. This study aimed to understand SOC mineralization kinetics with different cover crop (CC)
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Decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the associated impacts on crop production under conventional farming raises concerns on how alternative management practices increase SOC sequestration and improve agricultural sustainability. This study aimed to understand SOC mineralization kinetics with different cover crop (CC) residue amendments. Soil samples were collected from a fallow and three CC (pea, oat, and canola) plots. Soil samples from the CC plots were manipulated with zero, five, and 10 Mg ha−1 of the respective CC residues. All soil samples were incubated for eight weeks, SOC mineralization was monitored, and the first order kinetic and parabolic equation models were fitted to the observed data for estimating labile SOC (C0), and the decomposition rate constant (k). Subsequent comparisons of fitted model parameters were based on the first order kinetic model. The C0 varied with the residue amount while k varied with CC type. C0 was 591–858% greater with 10 Mg ha−1 and 289–456% greater with five Mg ha−1 residue additions while k was 122–297% greater with 10 Mg ha−1 and 94–240% greater with five Mg ha−1 residue additions when compared to the fallow treatment. The CC residue stimulated cumulative carbon mineralization (Cmin) irrespective of CC type, suggesting that cover cropping has potential to improve SOC cycling in agroecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Input into Agricultural Soils)
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Open AccessArticle Land Use Alters the Plant-Derived Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in Terraced Rice Paddies in a Mountain Village
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111973
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
In Japan, terraced paddies in mountain villages are symbolic of the traditional landscape, but they are gradually being abandoned. To compare plant-derived C and N among land uses, we compared adjacent forest floor (FF), agricultural paddy (AP), and post-agricultural paddy (PP) sites. Long-term
[...] Read more.
In Japan, terraced paddies in mountain villages are symbolic of the traditional landscape, but they are gradually being abandoned. To compare plant-derived C and N among land uses, we compared adjacent forest floor (FF), agricultural paddy (AP), and post-agricultural paddy (PP) sites. Long-term litter accumulation could explain the significantly higher litter C and belowground biomass C in FF than in AP and PP. The low-density-fraction (LF) soil C was significantly higher in FF than in PP and better reflected land use than the whole-soil C. The AP soil held more N than FF and PP at 20–30 cm, associated with higher LF soil N. Periodic tillage in AP maintains the LF soil N, but N supplied to the surface soil reduced with depth following abandonment. Differences in recycling of organic matter and nutrients among land uses are crucial to plant-derived C and N contents of soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Input into Agricultural Soils)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Conservation Tillage and Nutrient Management Practices on Soil Fertility and Productivity of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)–Rice System in North Eastern Region of India
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101816
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Over centuries and even today, traditional farming practices are well performed without any ecological degradation. However, management practice such as conservative tillage combined with nutrient and residue could increase the crop production as well as soil fertility. A three-year replicated study was conducted
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Over centuries and even today, traditional farming practices are well performed without any ecological degradation. However, management practice such as conservative tillage combined with nutrient and residue could increase the crop production as well as soil fertility. A three-year replicated study was conducted to assess the effects of agronomic modification of traditional farming practices on productivity and sustainability of rice (wet season)–rice (dry season) system (RRS). The replacement of farmers practice (T2) with conservation effective tillage (no-till (NT)) and integrated nutrient management (INM) practice along with 30% residue retention (T5) enhanced the straw, root and biomass yield of both wet season rice (WR), dry season rice (DR) and system as a whole over T2. Treatment T5 recorded significantly lower soil bulk density (ρb) and higher pH than the T2 after three years of the experiment. Further, treatment T5 increased total soil organic carbon (2.8%), total soil organic carbon stock (2.8%), carbon sequestration rate (336.5 kg ha−1 year−1), cumulative carbon stock (142.9%) and carbon retention efficiency (141.0%) over T2 of 0–20 cm depth after three year. The soil microbial biomass carbon concentration was significantly the highest under T5. Similarly, the dehydrogenase activity was the maximum under T5. Adoption of conservation tillage and nutrient management practice involving NT and INM along with residue retention can enhance the system productivity, and C and N sequestration in paddy soils is thereby contributing to the sustainability of the RRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Input into Agricultural Soils)
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