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Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 37820

Special Issue Editors

Center for Environment and Sustainability, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
Interests: clean technology; policy development; computable general equilibrium model development and application; inpu–output/supply chain/ecological network/ material flow analysis; system optimization/partial equilibrium models
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
Interests: environmental engineering and management; marine and coastal protection; environmental nanotechnology and biotechnology; environmental management and decision-making

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Guest Editor
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Quality Improvement and Ecological Restoration for Watersheds, School of Ecology, Environment and Resources, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
Interests: water resources system management; water system nexus simulation and planning; uncertainty optimization
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Guest Editor
Institute of Energy, Peking University, Beijing, China
Interests: carbon capture utilization & storage; underground clean energy; energy system analysis

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Guest Editor
Centre for Environment and Sustainability, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
Interests: bioenergy and biomaterials; life cycle assessment

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Guest Editor
Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
Interests: renewable energy and systems; solar cells; nano-manufacturing; energy materials; carbon electronics; nano-biotechnology; nano carbons; nanotechnology; water technology; electronic and photonic devices; advanced technologies for societal contributions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have significantly increased since 1900, which seriously impact the environment, human health, and the global economy. Human activities are responsible for almost all of the increase in GHGs in the atmosphere over the last 150 years, with its impact heralding the end of the Helocene and the start of the Anthropocene epoch. Facing this challenge, many low-carbon energy technologies, such as solar, wind, hydro, nuclear, hydrogen, carbon capture, utilization, and storage, and energy storage, are rapidly being developed to shift the economic activities to lower GHG emissions. Considering the resource availability and economic conditions, the above low-carbon energy technologies are highly heterogeneous in various regions and industries, which perform differently from both environmental and economic perspectives. Moreover, the complexities of energy systems highlight not just their interconnectivity with each other but the increased exponential dependence between energy, the environment, and the economy. Thus, it is crucial to explore low-carbon energy technologies through the perspective of multidisciplinary collaborations.

This Special Issue aims to investigate low-carbon energy technologies in an environmental and economic system to support their development and achieve the targets for climate change mitigation, while following the aspirations of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). In terms of research methodology, it will give priority to innovative techniques, models, and approaches related to low-carbon energy technologies. In terms of practical applications, it welcomes studies related to all of the world’s communities, including developed, rapidly developing, and developing regions.

Dr. Lirong Liu
Prof. Bing Chen
Prof. Yulei Xie
Dr. Kaiqiang Zhang
Prof. Richard Murphy
Prof. Ravi Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • low-carbon technology
  • climate change
  • sustainable development
  • renewable energy
  • solar energy
  • wind energy
  • nuclear energy
  • energy storage
  • hydrogen
  • clean fossil energy.

Published Papers (16 papers)

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26 pages, 4373 KiB  
Article
How Do Technologies Based on Cyber–Physical Systems Affect the Environmental Performance of Products? A Comparative Study of Manufacturers’ and Customers’ Perspectives
by Naiara Uriarte-Gallastegi, Beñat Landeta-Manzano, German Arana-Landín and Iker Laskurain-Iturbe
Sustainability 2022, 14(20), 13437; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013437 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
In the academic literature, there are studies that link the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies with an improvement in product-related circular economy indicators. However, there are scarce studies carried out in business contexts that analyse the degree, the stage of the life cycle [...] Read more.
In the academic literature, there are studies that link the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies with an improvement in product-related circular economy indicators. However, there are scarce studies carried out in business contexts that analyse the degree, the stage of the life cycle and the value given to these improvements by customers and Industry 4.0 technology manufacturers. To contribute to clarifying these fields, a multiple-case study of nineteen technology manufacturers has been conducted, with input from the experience of venture clients as users and active participants in a shared project. Both manufacturers and their customers agree that Industry 4.0 technologies have a positive impact on circular economy. Benefits depend on the type of technology and its application and are mainly concentrated in the manufacturing phase. Additive manufacturing appears to be the technology with the greatest potential to influence circular economy, but customers also highlight the influence of augmented/virtual reality. Most manufacturers and customers emphasise the biggest influence is on reducing material consumption. This serves to improve the critical variables of market positioning by reducing product costs. However, acquisition cost, as well as quality and safety specifications, are of greater importance to manufacturers and customers, which may limit the environmental benefits obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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19 pages, 4437 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Integrated Benefits of Photovoltaic Poverty Alleviation Technology in the Sanjiangyuan Region of Qinghai Province
by Rui Meng, Lirong Zhang, Hongkuan Zang and Shichao Jin
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13236; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313236 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Low-carbon energy technology is the most fundamental way to control carbon emissions. The Sanjiangyuan region in Qinghai Province must put environmental conservation in first place during development, because of its important function of national ecological protection. The comprehensive benefits of photovoltaic technology in [...] Read more.
Low-carbon energy technology is the most fundamental way to control carbon emissions. The Sanjiangyuan region in Qinghai Province must put environmental conservation in first place during development, because of its important function of national ecological protection. The comprehensive benefits of photovoltaic technology in this area need to be evaluated. In this paper, a new multicriteria decision model (MCDM) is established, with the four dimensions of “environment-society-economy-population”, and 16 specific indicators are developed by combining the coupling coordination degree (CCD) and the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. MCDM can contribute to screening out key indicators that should be of high concern. The evaluation results show that the four dimensions of “environment-society-economy-population” in the Sanjiangyuan region are highly correlated, and the PPAT is creating a coordinated development; the elements of population and environment play a decisive role in the comprehensive benefits based on five key indicators and three indicative indicators. The paper provides suggestions for the local government to further implement the PV poverty alleviation industry, under the condition that the natural environmental capacity of the region and the natural ecosystem are fully respected and undisturbed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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20 pages, 4428 KiB  
Article
A Short-Term Hybrid Energy System Robust Optimization Model for Regional Electric-Power Capacity Development Planning under Different Pollutant Control Pressures
by Jixian Cui, Chenghao Liao, Ling Ji, Yulei Xie, Yangping Yu and Jianguang Yin
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11341; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011341 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
This paper is aimed at proposing a short-term hybrid energy system robust optimization model for regional energy system planning and air pollution mitigation based on the inexact multi-stage stochastic integer programming and conditional value-at-risk method through a case study in Shandong Province, China. [...] Read more.
This paper is aimed at proposing a short-term hybrid energy system robust optimization model for regional energy system planning and air pollution mitigation based on the inexact multi-stage stochastic integer programming and conditional value-at-risk method through a case study in Shandong Province, China. Six power conversion technologies (i.e., coal-fired power, hydropower, photovoltaic power, wind power, biomass power, and nuclear power) and power demand sectors (agriculture, industry, building industry, transportation, business, and residential department) were considered in the proposed model. The optimized electricity generation, capacity expansion schemes, and economic risks were selected to analyze nine defined scenarios. Results revealed that electricity generations of clean and new power had obvious increasing risks and were key considerations of establishing additional capacities to meet the rising social demands. Moreover, the levels of pollutants mitigation and risk-aversion had a significant influence on different power generation schemes and on the total system cost. In addition, the optimization method developed in this paper could effectively address uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values, and could avoid the system risk in energy system planning problems. The proposed optimization model could be valuable for supporting the adjustment or justification of air pollution mitigation management and electric power planning schemes in Shandong, as well as in other regions of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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15 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Air Pollutants and GHG Reduction Effect of Commercial Vehicle Electrification in Guangdong’s Public Service Sector
by Jianjun Liu, Jixian Cui, Yixi Li, Yinping Luo, Qianru Zhu and Yutao Luo
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11098; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911098 - 8 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1734
Abstract
This paper aims to analyze the associated environment and climate benefits of electrification by comparing the air pollutant and CO2 emissions from the fuel cycle of battery electric commercial vehicles (BECVs) and internal combustion engine commercial vehicles (ICECVs) through a case study [...] Read more.
This paper aims to analyze the associated environment and climate benefits of electrification by comparing the air pollutant and CO2 emissions from the fuel cycle of battery electric commercial vehicles (BECVs) and internal combustion engine commercial vehicles (ICECVs) through a case study in Guangzhou Province. Five types of vehicles (i.e., electric buses, coaches, light-duty trucks, dump trucks, and waste haulers) used in the public service sector were selected for analysis, taking into account six development scenarios based on the prevalent ownership trends of electric vehicles and the energy system optimization process. The results reveal that an increase in commercial vehicle electrification in the public service sector will cause reductions of 19.3 × 103 tons, 0.5 × 103 tons, 9.5 × 103 tons, and 8.5 × 106 tons for NOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and CO2, respectively, from the base 2030 case (CS_II, the electrification rates of buses, coaches, light-duty trucks, dump trucks, and waste haulers will reach 100%, 26.5%, 15.4%, 24.0%, and 33.1%, and their power needs will be met by 24% coal, 18.4% gas, and 13.2% renewable power), but with a slight increase in SO2 emissions. With the further penetration of BECVs into the market, the emission reduction benefits for NOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and CO2 could be even more remarkable. Moreover, the benefit obtained from the optimization of the share of renewable energy is more noticeable for CO2 reduction than for air pollutant reduction. Prioritizing the electrification of light-duty trucks after completing bus electrification could be a potential solution for achieving ozone pollution control and lowering carbon emissions in Guangdong. In addition, these results can provide scientific support for the formulation or adjustment of advanced pollution mitigation and peaking carbon policies in Guangdong, as well as other regions of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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13 pages, 2485 KiB  
Article
Analysis of CO2 Emissions in the Whole Production Process of Coal-Fired Power Plant
by Han Wang, Zhenghui Fu, Shulan Wang and Wenjie Zhang
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11084; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911084 - 7 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
The linear programming (LP) model has been used to identify a cost-effective strategy for reducing CO2 emissions in power plants considering coal washing, pollutant removal, and carbon capture processes, thus CO2 emissions in different production processes can be obtained. The direct [...] Read more.
The linear programming (LP) model has been used to identify a cost-effective strategy for reducing CO2 emissions in power plants considering coal washing, pollutant removal, and carbon capture processes, thus CO2 emissions in different production processes can be obtained. The direct emissions (combustion emissions and desulfurization emissions) and indirect emissions (pollutant removal, coal washing, and carbon capture) of CO2 were all considered in the LP model. Three planning periods were set with different CO2 emission control desirability to simulate CO2 emissions of the different reduction requirements. The results can reflect the CO2 emissions across the whole production process of a coal-fired power plant overall. The simulation results showed that for a coal-fired power plant containing two 1000 MW ultra super-critical sets, when the desirability was 0.9, the CO2 total emissions were 2.15, 1.84, and 1.59 million tons for the three planning periods. The research results suggest that the methodology of LP combined with fuzzy desirability function is applicable to represent the whole production process of industry sectors such as coal-fired power plants. The government policy makers could predict CO2 emissions by this method and use the results as a reference to conduct effective industrial and energy structure adjustment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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18 pages, 2400 KiB  
Article
An Optimization Model for Water Management under the Dual Constraints of Water Pollution and Water Scarcity in the Fenhe River Basin, North China
by Chong Meng, Siyang Zhou and Wei Li
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10835; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910835 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Sustainable watershed development suffers from severe challenges, such as water pollution and water scarcity. Based on an analysis of water quality and water utilization in the Fenhe River Basin, an inexact two-stage stochastic programming model with downside-risk aversion was built for optimal water [...] Read more.
Sustainable watershed development suffers from severe challenges, such as water pollution and water scarcity. Based on an analysis of water quality and water utilization in the Fenhe River Basin, an inexact two-stage stochastic programming model with downside-risk aversion was built for optimal water resource allocations for the four primary water use sectors (industry, domestic use, agriculture, and the environment) in the Fenhe River Basin. The model aims to maximize the comprehensive watershed benefits, including water benefits, water costs, water treatment costs, and downside risks. The constraints are water quality, available water resources, and sectoral demands in different hydrological scenarios. The results show that pollutant emissions decrease as risk-aversion levels increase and show the opposite trend in the midstream and downstream areas. The increase in water resource allocation for agriculture and reduction in ecological water indicate that agriculture suffered the greatest water shortage and risk. Improving water recycling and coordinating the transferred water resources increases the comprehensive benefits and reduces sectoral risks. The model effectively manages rational water allocations under dual constraints and provides support for coordinating socio-economic development and environmental protection in the river basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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24 pages, 5420 KiB  
Article
Integrated Planning for Regional Development Planning with Low Carbon Development Constraint under Uncertainty: A Case Study of Qingpu District, Shanghai
by Wentao Lu, Zhenghui Fu, Yang Zhang, Yuxuan Qiao, Lei Yu and Yi Liu
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10511; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910511 - 22 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1775
Abstract
Regional development planning systems contain multiple uncertainties which come from economic restructuring, resource management, carbon peak action, environmental protection, and other factors, it is difficulty to handle all of these uncertainties in one method. In order to solve this problem, a new model [...] Read more.
Regional development planning systems contain multiple uncertainties which come from economic restructuring, resource management, carbon peak action, environmental protection, and other factors, it is difficulty to handle all of these uncertainties in one method. In order to solve this problem, a new model developed in this study combines an interval fuzzy program with an environmental quality model for regional development planning in order to provide optimal solutions. The interval fuzzy program is put forward based on interval parameter programming (IPP) and fuzzy programing (FP). The environmental quality model is used to calculate water environmental capacity and atmospheric capacity, which are set as constraint conditions in the model. In order to meet the requirements of carbon peak action, a low carbon development constraint is added to the model. In this model, decision makers can choose the satisfaction level of constraints based on their preferences. The results suggest that the methodology is applicable for the regional development planning system within the planning period. The developed model can be used to generate a series of optimization schema under multiple credibility levels, ensuring that the regional development planning system can meet both societal demands and environmental quality requirements, considering a proper balance between the expected system benefits and risks of violating the resource constraint and low carbon development constraint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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14 pages, 5865 KiB  
Article
Use of Remote Sensing to Assess the Water-Saving Effect of Winter Wheat Fallow
by Liang Zhai, Xianghui Gu, Yajing Feng, Dongqing Wu and Tengbo Wang
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10192; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810192 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Winter wheat fallow policy has a greater effect on water resource management, and the water-saving effect in the fallow process of winter wheat can provide data support for precise water resource utilization planning. In order to evaluate the water resource consumption of winter [...] Read more.
Winter wheat fallow policy has a greater effect on water resource management, and the water-saving effect in the fallow process of winter wheat can provide data support for precise water resource utilization planning. In order to evaluate the water resource consumption of winter wheat and the related effect from winter wheat fallow, this study searched the changing trends of cultivated land evapotranspiration under five different scenarios through the object-oriented extraction method and a SEBS model based on multi-source data. The results indicated that the evapotranspiration during winter wheat growing period was higher than that of winter wheat fallow land, and there was no big difference in evapotranspiration between the fallow land during harvesting and the emergence of new crops. The evapotranspiration of winter wheat was higher than that of various fallow land, and the evapotranspiration of abandoned land was higher than other fallow land in the winter wheat growing season. From this point, this study concludes that the fallow land policy can effectively reduce evapotranspiration during the growing of winter wheat, which is conducive to the sustainable exploiting of water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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15 pages, 2628 KiB  
Article
How Is Ultrasonic-Assisted CO2 EOR to Unlock Oils from Unconventional Reservoirs?
by Hengli Wang, Leng Tian, Kaiqiang Zhang, Zongke Liu, Can Huang, Lili Jiang and Xiaolong Chai
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10010; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810010 - 7 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has proven its capability to explore unconventional tight oil reservoirs and the potential for geological carbon storage. Meanwhile, the extremely low permeability pores increase the difficulty of CO2 EOR and geological storage processing in the actual [...] Read more.
CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has proven its capability to explore unconventional tight oil reservoirs and the potential for geological carbon storage. Meanwhile, the extremely low permeability pores increase the difficulty of CO2 EOR and geological storage processing in the actual field. This paper initiates the ultrasonic-assisted approach to facilitate oil–gas miscibility development and finally contributes to excavating more tight oils. Firstly, the physical properties of crude oil with and without ultrasonic treatments were experimentally analyzed through gas chromatography (GC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and viscometer. Secondly, the oil–gas minimum miscibility pressures (MMPs) were measured from the slim-tube test and the miscibility developments with and without ultrasonic treatments were interpreted from the mixing-cell method. Thirdly, the nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) assisted coreflood tests were conducted to physically model the recovery process in porous media and directly obtain the recovery factor. Basically, the ultrasonic treatment (40 KHz and 200 W for 8 h) was found to substantially change the oil properties, with viscosity (at 60 °C) reduced from 4.1 to 2.8 mPa·s, contents of resin and asphaltene decreased from 27.94% and 6.03% to 14.2% and 3.79%, respectively. The FTIR spectrum showed that the unsaturated C-H bond, C-O bond and C≡C bond in macromolecules were broken from the ultrasonic, which caused the macromolecules (e.g., resin and asphaltenes) to be decomposed into smaller carbon-number molecules. Accordingly, the MMP was determined to be reduced from 15.8 to 14.9 MPa from the slim-tube test and the oil recovery factor increased by an additional 11.7%. This study reveals the mechanisms of ultrasonic-assisted CO2 miscible EOR in producing tight oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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23 pages, 2914 KiB  
Article
The Road to Net Zero: A Case Study of Innovative Technologies and Policy Changes Used at a Medium-Sized University to Achieve Czero by 2030
by Ciara O’Flynn, Valentine Seymour, James Crawshaw, Thomas Parrott, Catriona Reeby and S. Ravi P. Silva
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9954; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179954 - 4 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6254
Abstract
The need for the world to follow a more carbon-neutral path is clear, with growing evidence highlighting the existential threat posed by unregulated GHG emissions. Responsibility for achieving this does not only lie with policy makers but is shared with all stakeholders including [...] Read more.
The need for the world to follow a more carbon-neutral path is clear, with growing evidence highlighting the existential threat posed by unregulated GHG emissions. Responsibility for achieving this does not only lie with policy makers but is shared with all stakeholders including governments, private sectors, charities and civil society as a whole. Several methodological approaches have been developed to set emission reduction targets, including the Science-Based Targets Initiative (SBTi). However, it is yet to be widely adopted, and as thought leaders in the field, universities must take a lead in its interpretation and application. This study is reported from the perspective of a UK university, which is adopting climate change considerations to facilitate achieving Czero by 2030 and will act as an exemplar case. We calculate baseline emissions, science-based reduction targets for different carbon emission reduction methods and options in terms of financing emission reduction pathways at present and in the future. The study outcomes show that incorporating a SBTi methodology can serve as insight into other medium-sized organisations and universities wishing to develop a net-zero pathway. These results have been summarised into a series of recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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23 pages, 30170 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Emission Reduction and Meteorological Change in PM2.5 and Transport Flux in Typical Cities Cluster during 2013–2017
by Panbo Guan, Hanyu Zhang, Zhida Zhang, Haoyuan Chen, Weichao Bai, Shiyin Yao and Yang Li
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5685; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105685 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Under the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (APPCAP) implemented, China has witnessed an air quality change during the past five years, yet the main influence factors remain relatively unexplored. Taking the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions as typical [...] Read more.
Under the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (APPCAP) implemented, China has witnessed an air quality change during the past five years, yet the main influence factors remain relatively unexplored. Taking the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions as typical cluster cities, the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) and Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extension (CAMx) were introduced to demonstrate the meteorological and emission contribution and PM2.5 flux distribution. The results showed that the PM2.5 concentration in BTH and YRD significantly declined with a descend ratio of −39.6% and −28.1%, respectively. For the meteorological contribution, those regions had a similar tendency with unfavorable conditions in 2013–2015 (contribution concentration 1.6–3.8 μg/m3 and 1.1–3.6 μg/m3) and favorable in 2016 (contribution concentration −1.5 μg/m3 and −0.2 μg/m3). Further, the absolute value of the net flux’s intensity was positively correlated with the degree of the favorable/unfavorable weather conditions. When it came to emission intensity, the total net inflow flux increased, and the outflow flux decreased significantly across the border with the emission increasing. In short: the aforementioned results confirmed the effectiveness of the regional joint emission control and provided scientific support for the proposed effective joint control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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33 pages, 4679 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation on Wellbore Temperature Prediction during the CO2 Fracturing in Horizontal Wells
by Xinrun Lyu, Shicheng Zhang, Yueying He, Zihan Zhuo, Chong Zhang and Zhan Meng
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5672; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105672 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
A novel model is established to predict the temperature field in the horizontal wellbore during CO2 fracturing. The pressure work and viscous dissipation are considered, and the transient energy, mass and momentum equations as well as the CO2 physical properties are [...] Read more.
A novel model is established to predict the temperature field in the horizontal wellbore during CO2 fracturing. The pressure work and viscous dissipation are considered, and the transient energy, mass and momentum equations as well as the CO2 physical properties are solved fully coupled. The model passes the convergence test and is verified through a comparison using the COMSOL software. Then, a sensitivity analysis is performed to study the effects of the treating parameters. Results illustrate that the relationship between the injection rate and the stable bottom-hole temperature (hereinafter referred to as BHT) is non-monotonic, which is different from the hydraulic fracturing. The existence of the horizontal section will increase the BHT at 2 m3/min condition but reduce the BHT at 10 m3/min condition. The problem of high wellbore friction can be alleviated through tube size enhancement, and the ultimate injection rate allowed increased from 2.7 m3/min to 29.6 m3/min when the tube diameter increased from 50.3 mm to 100.3 mm. Additionally, the open-hole completion method of the horizontal section can increase the BHT to 2.7 °C but reduce the near formation temperature to 24.5 °C compared with the casing completion method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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17 pages, 5483 KiB  
Article
Day-Ahead Wind Power Forecasting Based on Wind Load Data Using Hybrid Optimization Algorithm
by Guangyu Qin, Qingyou Yan, Jingyao Zhu, Chuanbo Xu and Daniel M. Kammen
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031164 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2938
Abstract
Accurate wind power forecasting is essential to reduce the negative impact of wind power on the operation of the grid and the operation cost of the power system. Day-ahead wind power forecasting plays an important role in the day-ahead electricity spot trading market. [...] Read more.
Accurate wind power forecasting is essential to reduce the negative impact of wind power on the operation of the grid and the operation cost of the power system. Day-ahead wind power forecasting plays an important role in the day-ahead electricity spot trading market. However, the instability of the wind power series makes the forecast difficult. To improve forecast accuracy, a hybrid optimization algorithm is established in this study, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), maximum relevance & minimum redundancy algorithm (mRMR), long short-term memory neural network (LSTM), and firefly algorithm (FA) together. Firstly, the original historical wind power sequence is decomposed into several characteristic model functions with VMD. Then, mRMR is applied to obtain the best feature set by analyzing the correlation between each component. Finally, the FA is used to optimize the various parameters LSTM. Adding the forecasting results of all sub-sequences acquires the forecasting result. It turns out that the proposed hybrid algorithm is superior to the other six comparison algorithms. At the same time, an additional case is provided to further verify the adaptability and stability of the proposed hybrid model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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18 pages, 3110 KiB  
Article
A Novel and Efficient Metal Oxide Fluoride Absorbent for Drinking Water Safety and Sustainable Development
by Changjuan Dong, Xiaomei Wu, Zhanyi Gao, Peiling Yang and Mohd Yawar Ali Khan
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020883 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Inefficient and non-environmentally friendly absorbent production can lead to much resource waste and go against low carbon and sustainable development. A novel and efficient Mg-Fe-Ce (MFC) complex metal oxide absorbent of fluoride ion (F) removal was proposed for safe, environmentally friendly, [...] Read more.
Inefficient and non-environmentally friendly absorbent production can lead to much resource waste and go against low carbon and sustainable development. A novel and efficient Mg-Fe-Ce (MFC) complex metal oxide absorbent of fluoride ion (F) removal was proposed for safe, environmentally friendly, and sustainable drinking water management. A series of optimization and preparation processes for the adsorbent and batch experiments (e.g., effects of solution pH, adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, effects of coexisting anions, as well as surface properties tests) were carried out to analyze the characteristics of the adsorbent. The results indicated that optimum removal of F occurred in a pH range of 4–5.5, and higher adsorption performances also happened under neutral pH conditions. The kinetic data under 10 and 50 mg·g−1 were found to be suitable for the pseudo-second-order adsorption rate model, and the two-site Langmuir model was ideal for adsorption isotherm data as compared to the one-site Langmuir model. According to the two-site Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity calculated at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 was 204 mg·g−1. The adsorption of F was not affected by the presence of sulfate (SO42−), nitrate (NO3), and chloride (Cl), which was suitable for practical applications in drinking water with high F concentration. The MFC adsorbent has an amorphous structure, and there was an exchange reaction between OH and F. The novel MFC adsorbent was proven to have higher efficiency, better economy, and environmental sustainability, and be more environmentally friendly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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13 pages, 1774 KiB  
Article
The Bionic Water Channel of Ultra-Short, High Affinity Carbon Nanotubes with High Water Permeability and Proton Selectivity
by Guangli Liu, Bin Zhou, Jinwei Liu and Huazhang Zhao
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010102 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2329
Abstract
The development of the bionic water channel aims to replace the possible use of natural aquaporins (AQPs) for water purification, while retaining the ability of natural AQPs to carry out ultra-fast water transport and repel ions. Carbon nanotube channels (CNTCs) are a convenient [...] Read more.
The development of the bionic water channel aims to replace the possible use of natural aquaporins (AQPs) for water purification, while retaining the ability of natural AQPs to carry out ultra-fast water transport and repel ions. Carbon nanotube channels (CNTCs) are a convenient membrane-based model system for studying nano-fluidic transport that replicates a number of key structural features of biological membrane channels. In this report, we describe protocols for CNTCs synthesis by ultrasound-assisted cutting of long CNTs in the presence of lipid amphiphiles. CNTCs have a similar thickness to the lipid membrane and high affinity for it. The ultra-short high-affinity CNTCs have high permeability and ion selectivity. The water permeability of the CNTCs is 1936 ± 123 μm/s, which is 2.3 times that of natural AQPs, and completely rejects salt ions. In general, carbon nanotubes represent a multifunctional nanopore building module for creating high-ranking functional bionic materials. This study has reference significance for the design of new bionic water channel and the actual development of bionic membrane based on CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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Planning and Scheduling for Industrial Demand-Side Management: State of the Art, Opportunities and Challenges under Integration of Energy Internet and Industrial Internet
by Songsong Chen, Feixiang Gong, Mingqiang Zhang, Jindou Yuan, Siyang Liao, Hongyin Chen, Dezhi Li, Shiming Tian and Xiaojian Hu
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7753; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147753 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3353
Abstract
Industrial power has a large load base and considerable adjustment potential. Enterprises with a high degree of automation and adjustable potential can automatically adjust the production status according to the peak load, frequency of the power grid and the demand of new energy [...] Read more.
Industrial power has a large load base and considerable adjustment potential. Enterprises with a high degree of automation and adjustable potential can automatically adjust the production status according to the peak load, frequency of the power grid and the demand of new energy consumption, so as to realize automatic demand response. This paper analyzes the opportunities and challenges of industrial demand response under the integration of Industrial Internet and Energy Internet. At the same time, the development direction of industrial demand response under the new situation, such as comprehensive demand response, adjustable load resources and other technical and policy aspects are prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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