Topical Collection "Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water"

Editor

Prof. Dr. Marco Ragazzi
Website
Collection Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, Trento I-38123, Italy
Interests: Management, treatment and recovery of municipal waste, sewage sludge and biomass waste collection, aerobic and anaerobic treatment, heat treatment; Management and Waste Water Treatment; Remediation of contaminated sites; Air pollution and health risk: indoor and outdoor; Eutrophication of lakes

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on eutrophication with the aim of presenting this phenomenon through an integrated vision that may come both from specialized and from interdisciplinary articles. Received papers are expected to cover a wide range of topics: From the sustainable management of catchment basins of lakes (prevention) to the analysis of the suitability of in-lake solutions for the water body recovery (treatment), from the detailed study of algal species to understand the evolution of eutrophication to the study of the sediments of lakes. Of course, the sustainable management of water bodies will be not limited to lakes: Coastal areas of seas, lagoons, reservoirs will be dealt with the same attention. Papers selected for this Special Issue will be subject to a peer review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of their contents.

Prof. Marco Ragazzi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • eutrophication
  • algae
  • sediment
  • lake
  • sea
  • lagoon
  • nutrients
  • reservoir
  • recovery
  • management

Published Papers (23 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019, 2018, 2017

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on Nitrogen Transport in Northern Taihu Basin, China during 1990–2017
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3895; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093895 - 10 May 2020
Abstract
Different land uses have varying degrees of impact on nitrogen transport in the catchments. In recent decades, rapid urbanization has dramatically changed the Earth’s land surface, which may cause excessive nitrogen losses and a negative influence on the environment. In the long-term scale, [...] Read more.
Different land uses have varying degrees of impact on nitrogen transport in the catchments. In recent decades, rapid urbanization has dramatically changed the Earth’s land surface, which may cause excessive nitrogen losses and a negative influence on the environment. In the long-term scale, it is important to explore how the nitrogen transport responds to land use change and its effects on aquatic habitats. In this study, the water and sediment samples were collected from northern Taihu Basin, and nine periods of land use data were obtained using the techniques of supervised classification. Results revealed that the proportion of farmland area decreased from 28.33% to 7.09%, while that of constructed land area increased from 23.85% to 61.72% during 1990–2017. Most of the constructed land originated from farmland, which makes it the dominant land use type due to rapid urbanization. In spatial distribution, high total nitrogen (TN) losses regions remain distributed over constructed land and farmland, which may aggravate the trend of local water quality deterioration. Of these regions, constructed land was the dominant contributor (46.29%–63.62%) of TN losses from surface runoff. In temporal variation, the TN losses of runoff decreased by 47% from 175 t N·a−1 in 1990. However, they increased by 2.91% from 75.28 t N·a−1 after 2013 with rapid population growth and high fertilizer application (>570 kg·ha−1). The nitrogen load in sediments also has a significant response (t = 2.43, p = 0.02) to the effects of land use change on the overlying water, indicating that the role of nitrogen in the sediment as a source and/or sink to the waterbody may change frequently. Given the increasing accumulation of nitrogen loads in highly urbanized regions, water quality would cause more aggravation in the long-term without reasonable land management measures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Removal of Ammonium from Swine Wastewater Using Synthesized Zeolite from Fly Ash
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3423; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083423 - 22 Apr 2020
Abstract
Synthetic zeolites with pretreated fly ash as a raw material were used to remove ammonium from wastewater using a hydrothermal method in this study. Two pretreatment methods of fly ash were used to compare the ammonium removal of zeolites: water-washing and pickling. In [...] Read more.
Synthetic zeolites with pretreated fly ash as a raw material were used to remove ammonium from wastewater using a hydrothermal method in this study. Two pretreatment methods of fly ash were used to compare the ammonium removal of zeolites: water-washing and pickling. In addition, the effects of several factors including the time, temperature, pH, adsorbent dosage, coexisting ions and initial concentration were investigated to gain insight into the adsorption rate, behavior and mechanism of synthetic zeolites for ammonium. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms showed that the synthetic zeolite was a mesoporous material with a higher specific area (13.05 m2/g) than the values for raw fly ash (0.34 m2/g). The X-ray diffraction result suggested that the synthetic products mainly belonged to zeolite P and Y. The adsorption kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo-second-order model. The maximum ammonium adsorption capacity was 32.16 mg/g. The synthetic zeolites were also applied to adsorb the ammonium from real swine wastewater. The ammonium removal efficiencies in raw swine wastewater and effluent from the biochemical unit were 64.34% and 79.61%, respectively, which indicated that the synthetic zeolites have a good application for real ammonium wastewater. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Strategies for Sustainable and Circular Management of Phosphorus in the Baltic Sea Region: The Holistic Approach of the InPhos Project
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2567; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062567 - 24 Mar 2020
Abstract
Despite the significant reduction of phosphorus (P) discharge in the Baltic Sea in the last decades, obtained through the implementation of some approaches within the Helsinki Convention, eutrophication is still considered the biggest problem for the Baltic Sea environment. Consequently, the reduction of [...] Read more.
Despite the significant reduction of phosphorus (P) discharge in the Baltic Sea in the last decades, obtained through the implementation of some approaches within the Helsinki Convention, eutrophication is still considered the biggest problem for the Baltic Sea environment. Consequently, the reduction of P load is an urgent need to solve, but the complexity of both the environmental and legislative context of the area makes this process difficult (more than in the past). Eutrophication is an intricate issue requiring a proper framework of governance that is not easy to determine in the Baltic Sea Region where the needs of several different countries converge. To identify the most suitable strategy to reduce the eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, the InPhos project (no. 17022, 2018–2019, funded by the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT) Raw Materials) adopted a holistic approach considering technical, political, economic, environmental and social aspects of P management. With the aims to raise awareness about the P challenge, foster the dialogue among all the stakeholders, and find solutions already developed in other countries (such as Germany and Switzerland) to be transferred in the Baltic Sea Region, the InPhos project consortium applied the methodology proposed in this paper, consisting of three main phases: (i) analysis of the available technologies to remove P from waste streams that contribute to eutrophication; (ii) analysis of the main streams involving P in Baltic Sea countries to highlight the potential of more sustainable and circular P management; (iii) study of the current context (e.g., already-existing initiatives and issues). This approach allowed us to identify four categories of recommendations and practical actions proposed to improve P management in the Baltic Sea region. During the project, the consortium mainly addressed social aspects. Following steps beyond the project will be more quantitative to determine the techno-economic feasibility of circular P management in selected demo cases in the region. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Influences of Nutrient Sources on the Alternation of Nutrient Limitations and Phytoplankton Community in Jiaozhou Bay, Southern Yellow Sea of China
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062224 - 12 Mar 2020
Abstract
A marine ecosystem box model was developed to reproduce the seasonal variations nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomasses in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) of China. Then, by removing each of the external sources of nutrients (river input, aquaculture, wastewater discharge, and atmospheric deposition) in the [...] Read more.
A marine ecosystem box model was developed to reproduce the seasonal variations nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomasses in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) of China. Then, by removing each of the external sources of nutrients (river input, aquaculture, wastewater discharge, and atmospheric deposition) in the model calculation, we quantitatively estimated its influences on nutrient structure and the phytoplankton community. Removing the river input of nutrients enhanced silicate (SIL) limitation to diatoms (DIA) and decreased the ratio of DIA to flagellates (FLA); removing the aquaculture input of nutrients decreased FLA biomass because it provided less dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) but more dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) as compared to the Redfield ratio; removing the wastewater input of nutrients changed the DIN concentration dramatically, but had a relatively weaker impact on the phytoplankton community than removing the aquaculture input; removing atmospheric deposition had a negligible influence on the model results. Based on these results, we suppose that the change in the external nutrients sources in the past several decades can explain the long-term variations in nutrient structure and phytoplankton community. Actually, the simulations for the 1960s, 1980s, and 2000s in JZB demonstrated the shift of limiting nutrients from DIP to SIL. A reasonable scenario for this is the decrease in riverine SIL and increase in DIP from aquaculture that has reduced DIA biomass, promoted the growth of FLA, and led to the miniaturization of the phytoplankton. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Study on Fluid Movement Characteristics inside the Emitter Flow Path of Drip Irrigation System Using the Yellow River Water
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041319 - 12 Feb 2020
Abstract
Vigorously developing efficient water-saving agricultural technologies using the Yellow River Water is an important way to achieve sustainable use of water resources. In order to clarify the fluid movement characteristics inside the flow path of the emitter under complicated water quality conditions in [...] Read more.
Vigorously developing efficient water-saving agricultural technologies using the Yellow River Water is an important way to achieve sustainable use of water resources. In order to clarify the fluid movement characteristics inside the flow path of the emitter under complicated water quality conditions in a drip irrigation system using the Yellow River Water, the optimal simulation turbulence model for the flow field in the flow path of the emitter was determined by comparing the macroscopic hydraulic characteristics with the microscopic fluid motion characteristics of the fluid in the emitter. On this basis, the two-phase flow model was used to calculate and analyze the characteristics of water flow movement and particle transport in the emitter. The results show that the RNG (Re- normalization group) k-ε turbulence model was the most suitable for the simulation of the flow field in the emitter, considering the macroscopic hydraulic performance and microscopic anti-clogging ability of the emitter synthetically, and both the comprehensive calculation accuracy and the calculation efficiency. The pressure showed a step-like uniform decrease along the direction of water flow. The fluid flow showed the regional movement characteristics of the mainstream and non-mainstream regions. The energy dissipation mainly occurred at the sudden change sites of the flow path structure. The particle phase velocity was slightly lower than that of the water phase. The velocity at the near-wall surface was relatively lower than that at the center, and the velocity distribution along the depth direction of the flow path was relatively uneven. The sediment was mainly deposited in the first half of the flow path. This study can provide a theoretical basis for solving the emitter clogging in the drip irrigation systems applying water from the Yellow River. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Virtual Water Flows Embodied in International and Interprovincial Trade of Yellow River Basin: A Multiregional Input-Output Analysis
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031251 - 10 Feb 2020
Abstract
With the imminent need of regional environmental protection and sustainable economic development, the concept of virtual water is widely used to solve the problem of regional water shortage. In this paper, nine provinces, namely Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, [...] Read more.
With the imminent need of regional environmental protection and sustainable economic development, the concept of virtual water is widely used to solve the problem of regional water shortage. In this paper, nine provinces, namely Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, and Shandong in the Yellow River Basin (YRB), are taken as the research objects. Through the analysis of input-output tables of 30 provinces in China in 2012, the characteristics of virtual water trade in this region are estimated by using a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model. The results show that: (1) The YRB had a net inflow of 17.387 billion m³ of virtual water in 2012. In interprovincial trade, other provinces outside the basin export 21.721 billion m³ of virtual water into the basin. In international trade, the basin exports 4334 million m³ of virtual water to the international market. (2) There are different virtual flow paths in the basin. Shanxi net inputs virtual water by interprovincial trade and international trade, while Gansu and Ningxia net output virtual water by interprovincial trade and international trade. The other six provinces all net output virtual water through international trade, and obtain the net input of virtual water from other provinces outside the basin. (3) From the industrial structure of the provinces in the basin, the provinces with a relatively developed economy, such as Shandong and Shanxi, mostly import virtual water in the agricultural sector, while relatively developing provinces, such as Gansu and Ningxia, mostly import virtual water in the industrial sector. In order to sustain the overall high-quality development of the YRB, we propose the virtual water trade method to quantify the net flow of virtual water in each province and suggest the compensation responsibility of the virtual water net inflow area, and the compensation need of the virtual water net outflow area, in order to achieve efficient water resources utilization. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2019

Jump to: 2020, 2018, 2017

Open AccessArticle
The Response of Catchment Ecosystems in Eutrophic Agricultural Reservoirs to Water Quality Management Using DOM Fluorescence
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7207; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247207 - 16 Dec 2019
Abstract
Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five typical eutrophic agricultural reservoirs. Based on catchment ecosystem, the five reservoirs were divided into three pollution sources of livestock, living, and farmland sources. [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five typical eutrophic agricultural reservoirs. Based on catchment ecosystem, the five reservoirs were divided into three pollution sources of livestock, living, and farmland sources. The quantities and qualities of DOM in the reservoirs were analyzed. Our results showed that DOM characteristics were different in eutrophic reservoirs based on source. More protein-like components were observed in the reservoirs with the living sources, while more humic-like components were seen in the reservoir with farmland sources. Additionally, correlation analysis showed different sources for protein-like and humic-like components. Protein-like components originated mainly from phytoplankton (endogenous sources), and humic-like components were from terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the high values of specific fluorescence parameters were consistent with a dominant role of endogenous DOM in eutrophic water bodies, with FI values (fluorescence index) of approximately 1.9, and β:α values (freshness index) greater than 0.7. This result indicated that mixed features dominated endogenous sources in the reservoirs, regardless of terrestrial pollution sources. By comparing our fluorescence characteristics and historical references, we confirmed that catchment ecosystems related to human activities are important factors in determination of the characteristics of DOM in aquatic environments. However, complex and extensive eutrophication requires endogenous control of water bodies, which will play a central role in improving water environments and sustainable use of reservoirs. Therefore, this study provides an effective basis for water quality assessment of eutrophic agricultural reservoirs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multiannual Assessment of the Risk of Surface Water Erosion and Metal Accumulation Indices in the Flysch Stream Using the MARS Model in the Polish Outer Western Carpathians
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7189; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247189 - 15 Dec 2019
Abstract
The anthropogenic problems in richly sculpted areas (mountain and submontane) are mainly related to agricultural activity, which shapes the quality of surface waters. This paper presents an analysis of the results of the hydrochemical tests carried out in the years 2007–2018 at check-control [...] Read more.
The anthropogenic problems in richly sculpted areas (mountain and submontane) are mainly related to agricultural activity, which shapes the quality of surface waters. This paper presents an analysis of the results of the hydrochemical tests carried out in the years 2007–2018 at check-control spots. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI < 100) indicated a low risk for aquatic organisms. The statistical calculations obtained by means of multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) designated that the hazard quotient (HQ) index can be combined with the electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved substances (TDS) parameters used in the assessment of water erosion. The HQ index showed that the concentration of individual heavy metals is lower than their value in the 0.5 percentile of the value. In subsequent studies, it should be assessed whether the size of arable land has an impact on the increased concentration of heavy metals in the surface water. We recommend small retention reservoirs as a potential management measure to improve the quality of the surface water at a regional scale. This study has great potential to mitigate the degradation processes related to the insufficient storage capacity, and to promote natural water retention. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Management Scale Assessment of Practices to Mitigate Cattle Microbial Water Quality Impairments of Coastal Waters
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5516; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195516 - 06 Oct 2019
Abstract
Coastal areas support multiple important resource uses including recreation, aquaculture, and agriculture. Unmanaged cattle access to stream corridors in grazed coastal watersheds can contaminate surface waters with fecal-derived microbial pollutants, posing risk to human health via activities such as swimming and shellfish consumption. [...] Read more.
Coastal areas support multiple important resource uses including recreation, aquaculture, and agriculture. Unmanaged cattle access to stream corridors in grazed coastal watersheds can contaminate surface waters with fecal-derived microbial pollutants, posing risk to human health via activities such as swimming and shellfish consumption. Improved managerial control of cattle access to streams through implementation of grazing best management practices (BMPs) is a critical step in mitigating waterborne microbial pollution in grazed watersheds. This paper reports trend analysis of a 19-year dataset to assess long-term microbial water quality responses resulting from a program to implement 40 grazing BMPs within the Olema Creek Watershed, a primary tributary to Tomales Bay, USA. Stream corridor grazing BMPs implemented included: (1) Stream corridor fencing to eliminate/control cattle access, (2) hardened stream crossings for cattle movements across stream corridors, and (3) off stream drinking water systems for cattle. We found a statistically significant reduction in fecal coliform concentrations following the initial period of BMP implementation, with overall mean reductions exceeding 95% (1.28 log10)—consistent with 1—2 log10 (90–99%) reductions reported in other studies. Our results demonstrate the importance of prioritization of pollutant sources at the watershed scale to target BMP implementation for rapid water quality improvements and return on investment. Our findings support investments in grazing BMP implementation as an important component of policies and strategies to protect public health in grazed coastal watersheds. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Pollutants in Surface Water—Assessing Trends in Drinking Water Resource Quality for a Regional City in Central Europe
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071988 - 03 Apr 2019
Abstract
This paper presents the changes in concentration of seven biogenic indices in the Wisłok River water and determines the water treatment processes required in order to obtain water fit for consumption. The investigations were conducted during 2004–2013, and water samples were collected at [...] Read more.
This paper presents the changes in concentration of seven biogenic indices in the Wisłok River water and determines the water treatment processes required in order to obtain water fit for consumption. The investigations were conducted during 2004–2013, and water samples were collected at a measuring-control point was situated at 67.9 km on the river at the surface water intake for the water supply to the Rzeszów city dwellers. Analysis of the research results allows for the forecasting of technological and organizational changes in the treatment processes of the abstracted water. It was found that only the mean concentration of Kjeldahl nitrogen exceeded the value admissible for class I, which allowed the Wisłok River water to be classified as class II with good potential and determined the water quality category as A2, which indicates the necessity for typical performance physical and chemical treatment. Downward trends in the contents of the tested nutrients occurred during the period of investigation, except for nitrite nitrogen. Statistically significant downward trends were registered for ammonium nitrogen, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen and phosphates. The decline in nutrient concentrations in the water of Wisłok is a tangible result of the introduction of new standards of water resource management in the catchment, compliant with the European Union legislation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2018

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2017

Open AccessArticle
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Diluvial Fan of Gaoqiao, Emei Mountain, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4507; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124507 - 29 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Methods for groundwater quality and pollution assessment are applied extensively, but it is difficult to determine a unified evaluation model. On the basis of hydrogeochemical characteristics analysis in 2016 compared with that in 1995, the five-element connection number SPA (set pair analysis) method [...] Read more.
Methods for groundwater quality and pollution assessment are applied extensively, but it is difficult to determine a unified evaluation model. On the basis of hydrogeochemical characteristics analysis in 2016 compared with that in 1995, the five-element connection number SPA (set pair analysis) method was applied to evaluate the groundwater quality of the Gaoqiao diluvial fan under the influence of hydrogeological conditions and human activities along the flow path in our work. Descriptive statistics methods, Piper diagram, and a Schoeller diagram were also used to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater such as chemical components, total dissolved solid, and total hardness. The change of the typical pollutant of fluorine was analyzed to evaluate the groundwater quality under the influence of human activities. The results showed that the groundwater quality in the study area was more in rank П. The basic hydrochemical types of shallow groundwater were HCO3-Ca·Mg and HCO3·SO4-Ca·Mg. The influencing factors of the hydrochemical component of groundwater were identified in the Gaoqiao diluvial fan. The quality of groundwater changed slightly from the top to the edge of the fan due to the water–rock interaction except for in Yucun and Hucun influenced by human activities. The assessment result can provide a scientific basis for the pollution prevention and changing process control of the groundwater in the hydrogeological unit of the Gaoqiao diluvial fan. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dominance and Growth Factors of Pseudanabaena sp. in Drinking Water Source Reservoirs, Southern China
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3936; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113936 - 29 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Pseudanabaena sp. is a common and harmful species in freshwater cyanobacteria blooms. There are very few studies on its distribution characteristics and growth influencing factors. In the current study, it was found to be dominant in three cascading reservoirs in Southern China. Field [...] Read more.
Pseudanabaena sp. is a common and harmful species in freshwater cyanobacteria blooms. There are very few studies on its distribution characteristics and growth influencing factors. In the current study, it was found to be dominant in three cascading reservoirs in Southern China. Field observations and laboratory experiments were integrated to investigate the dominance and growth factors of Pseudanabaena sp. The effects of temperature, light intensity, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, and disturbance on Pseudanabaena sp. growth were evaluated. The results indicated that Pseudanabaena sp. had significant positive correlations with water temperature, pH, and COD (p < 0.01) and a positive correlation with NH3-N (p < 0.05). The optimum growth temperature range for Pseudanabaena sp. was from 20 to 30 °C; hence, it usually has outbreaks in May and August. The optimum light intensity and pH for Pseudanabaena sp. were 27 μmol photons m−2s−1 and from 7 to 9, respectively. The superior tolerance for low light, disturbance, and phosphorus deficiency of Pseudanabaena sp. may be the main factors affecting its dominance in reservoirs. Controlling nitrogen was more effective than controlling phosphorus to avoid the risk that was brought by Pseudanabaena sp. This study contributed to the theoretical knowledge for the prediction and control of the growth of Pseudanabaena sp. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Eutrophication, Research and Management History of the Shallow Ypacaraí Lake (Paraguay)
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072426 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Ypacaraí Lake is the most renowned lake in landlocked Paraguay and a major source of drinking and irrigation water for neighbouring towns. Beyond its socioeconomic and cultural significance, it has great ecological importance, supporting a rich biodiversity. Rapid growth of human presence and [...] Read more.
Ypacaraí Lake is the most renowned lake in landlocked Paraguay and a major source of drinking and irrigation water for neighbouring towns. Beyond its socioeconomic and cultural significance, it has great ecological importance, supporting a rich biodiversity. Rapid growth of human presence and activities within its basin has led to its environmental degradation, a heartfelt matter of high political concern that compels intervention. Here, by reconstructing the history of scientific and management-oriented research on this system, we provide a comprehensive assessment of current knowledge and practice to which we contribute our recent, novel findings. An upward trend in total phosphorus concentration confirms ongoing eutrophication of an already eutrophic system, evidenced by consistently high values of trophic state indices. Downward trends in water transparency and chlorophyll-a concentration support the hypothesis that primary production in this lake is fundamentally light limited. Statistical and other analyses suggest high sensitivity of the system to hydraulic, hydro-morphological and hydro-meteorological alterations arising, respectively, from engineering interventions, land use and climate change. By discussing knowledge gaps, opportunities for research and challenges for management and restoration, we argue that this case is of high scientific value and that its study can advance theoretical understanding of shallow subtropical lakes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Statistical Assessment of Water Quality Issues in Hongze Lake, China, Related to the Operation of a Water Diversion Project
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061885 - 05 Jun 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The Hongze Lake serves as the first important transfer and storage path along the East Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP-ER). After the Project began operating in 2013, eutrophication in the lake has created increasing public concern regarding the direct effect [...] Read more.
The Hongze Lake serves as the first important transfer and storage path along the East Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP-ER). After the Project began operating in 2013, eutrophication in the lake has created increasing public concern regarding the direct effect on water quality from the project. In this paper, we used multivariate statistical methods to examine the variances between water quality variables at four site groups (inlets and outlets in the study area) and during three seasons (wet, normal, and dry seasons) in Eastern Hongze Lake. We also used redundancy analysis (RDA) to analyze environmental factors’ impact on water quality. We found that (1) the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were exceeding the standard values; (2) No significant spatial heterogeneity regarding nitrogen and phosphorus among the inlet/outlet of Eastern Hongze Lake existed in normal and wet seasons, and there was no evidence demonstrating that SNWDP-ER could improve eutrophication or even contribute to eutrophication in the dry season; (3) Environmental factors (land use, water diversion, and population) have limited influences on water quality, which was possibly caused by the overly-high river input and artificial input of nitrogen and phosphorus. Thus, it is critical to reinforce the control of pollution sources and enhance the ecological restoration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification and Quantification of Physicochemical Parameters Influencing Chlorophyll-a Concentrations through Combined Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis: A Case Study of the Yuqiao Reservoir in China
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040936 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Algal outbreaks caused by excessive nutrients in lakes result in eutrophication. Chlorophyll-a, as a primary productivity feature, is used as a representative index of algal presence in lakes. Physicochemical parameters are known to affect the type and amount of nutrients in lakes, which [...] Read more.
Algal outbreaks caused by excessive nutrients in lakes result in eutrophication. Chlorophyll-a, as a primary productivity feature, is used as a representative index of algal presence in lakes. Physicochemical parameters are known to affect the type and amount of nutrients in lakes, which are related to eutrophication. In this study, factor analysis was used in conjunction with principal component analysis to reveal the relationship between chlorophyll-a and its associated parameters. The combination of these two methods helps to identify the main influencing parameters by quantifying the respective extent of parameters using FA, after which the meaning is explained by PCA. We investigate physicochemical parameters, including temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand, as well as nutrients, such as ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP). Yuqiao Reservoir, an important drinking water source in northern China, has been affected by eutrophication for years. Analysis was performed using daily monitoring data of physicochemical parameters and chlorophyll-a concentrations collected from Yuqiao Reservoir between 2003 and 2014. Results show that main parameters affecting chl-a concentrations are TP, temperature, DO, COD, and nitrogen, with correlation coefficients of 0.977, 1.983, 1.797, and 1.595, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Research into the Eutrophication of an Artificial Playground Lake near the Yangtze River
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030867 - 19 Mar 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Water pollution in urban rivers is serious in China. Eutrophication and other issues are prominent. Taking the artificial Playground Lake in Zhenjiang as an example, a numerical model combining particle tracing, hydrodynamics, water quality and eutrophication was constructed to simulate the water quality [...] Read more.
Water pollution in urban rivers is serious in China. Eutrophication and other issues are prominent. Taking the artificial Playground Lake in Zhenjiang as an example, a numerical model combining particle tracing, hydrodynamics, water quality and eutrophication was constructed to simulate the water quality improvement in Playground Lake with or without water diversion by pump and sluice. Simulation results using particle tracking showed that the water residence time depended on wind direction: east wind, 125 h; southeast wind, 115 h; south wind, 95 h. With no water diversion, the lower the flow velocity of Playground Lake under three wind fields, the more serious the eutrophication. Under pump diversion, the water body in Playground Lake can be entirely replaced by water diversion for 30 h. When the temperature is lower than 15 °C, from 15 °C to 25 °C and higher than 25 °C, the water quality can be maintained for 15 d, 10 d and 7 d, respectively. During high tide periods of spring tides in the Yangtze River from June to August, the water can be diverted into the lake through sluices. The greater the Δh (the water head between the Yangtze River and Playground Lake), the more the water quality will improve. Overall, the good-to-bad order of water quality improvements for Playground Lake is as follows: pumping 30 h > sluice diversion > no water diversion. This article is relevant for the environmental management of the artificial Playground Lake, and similar lakes elsewhere. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Shifting Scarcities? The Energy Intensity of Water Supply Alternatives in the Mass Tourist Resort of Benidorm, Spain
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030824 - 15 Mar 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The energy intensity of water—‘energy (electricity)-for-water’—is calculated for Benidorm, a mass tourism resort in the Spanish Mediterranean coast, where the urban water cycle has evolved in response to a series of episodes of water stress. The analysis is based on primary data compiled [...] Read more.
The energy intensity of water—‘energy (electricity)-for-water’—is calculated for Benidorm, a mass tourism resort in the Spanish Mediterranean coast, where the urban water cycle has evolved in response to a series of episodes of water stress. The analysis is based on primary data compiled from various actors involved in the urban water cycle encompassing water extraction, end uses, and wastewater treatment, including tertiary treatment. The results provide one of the first analyses of the relations between energy and water in a mass tourist center, which may be of potential interest for other tourist areas. It is estimated that a total of 109 GWh/year of electricity is required to operate the water cycle of Benidorm. About 4% of total energy use in Benidorm is dedicated to extracting, transporting, and treating water. The most energy-intensive stage is represented by end uses, which accounts for 20% of the total energy use in Benidorm when the energy required for water pumping and hot water use is considered. Additionally, energy intensity for water extraction was estimated for normal, wet, and two dry year scenarios. In comparison with the normal scenario, energy intensity is six times larger when desalinated water is incorporated during a dry year, whereas the emergency interbasin water transfer resulted in a more moderate increase in energy intensity. While treated wastewater and emergency water transfers appear to be a more convenient solution in energy terms, the strong impulse given to desalination in Spain is forcing local water authorities towards the use of a resource that is much more energy intensive, although, on the other hand, much less dependent on the vagaries of climate. In light of recent technological and managerial developments, the Benidorm case illuminates the challenges appearing in the analysis of the water-energy nexus, especially the fact that scarcity may be transferred from water to energy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence of the Impact of Surface Water Quality on Property Values
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020500 - 13 Feb 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The desirability of living on or close to water is reflected in sometimes substantial property price premiums. Water quality has an important influence on property prices, since it impacts a water body’s appearance, capacity to support wildlife, and recreational potential. As water quality [...] Read more.
The desirability of living on or close to water is reflected in sometimes substantial property price premiums. Water quality has an important influence on property prices, since it impacts a water body’s appearance, capacity to support wildlife, and recreational potential. As water quality continues to be altered by human use and activity, and in light of new threats posed by projected climate and associated environmental change, understanding the impact of changing quality on property prices, and the associated property tax base, is paramount. This paper reviews the body of evidence on this topic to date. Of the 43 distinct studies represented in the 48 publications reviewed, the expected, statistically significant relationship between water quality and property price was demonstrated in at least one of the models developed in all but two studies. As a whole, they provide convincing evidence that clean water has a positive effect on property values. Full article

2017

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2018

Open AccessArticle
Effluents from Fish Farming Ponds: A View from the Perspective of Its Main Components
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010003 - 21 Dec 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Among the animal protein production activities, world aquaculture has the highest growth rate, and is mainly practiced in ground-excavated ponds. However, with great productivity comes the concern about the increasing generation of effluents, mainly at the moment of fish removal, when high loads [...] Read more.
Among the animal protein production activities, world aquaculture has the highest growth rate, and is mainly practiced in ground-excavated ponds. However, with great productivity comes the concern about the increasing generation of effluents, mainly at the moment of fish removal, when high loads of organic matter and nutrients are released into the environment. Thus, this study evaluated the quality of effluents through the principal component analysis (PCA) in samples from nurseries of different sizes in four sampling scenarios. Analysis was performed during the process of fish removal in Nile Tilapia intensive fish farming sites at various properties in the Western region of Paraná State in Brazil. Twenty physical and chemical parameters were analyzed in each effluent sample using standard methods of effluent analysis. The results indicated that the concentrations of Suspended Solids (SS), Total Solids (TS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Total Phosphorus (TP) increased significantly at the end of the fish removal process, which caused a progressive deterioration in the effluent released into the environment. Hence, regulating water management during cultivation, as well as mitigating the effects of effluent generated in fish removal, is indispensable to maintain the legality, profitability, and sustainability of this sector. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Using Synergy between Water Limnology and Satellite Imagery to Identify Algal Blooms Extent in a Brazilian Amazonian Reservoir
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2194; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122194 - 28 Nov 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Monitoring algal blooms from space is a very challenging task, which becomes particularly difficult when dealing with cyanobacteria blooms. Cyanobacteria are strategic organisms adapted to a wide variety of environmental conditions. In high concentrations, they form scum on the water surface, which is [...] Read more.
Monitoring algal blooms from space is a very challenging task, which becomes particularly difficult when dealing with cyanobacteria blooms. Cyanobacteria are strategic organisms adapted to a wide variety of environmental conditions. In high concentrations, they form scum on the water surface, which is a concern for public health due to the production of toxins, as well as being a nuisance. Knowledge of the ecological role of these organisms is, therefore, essential when trying to estimate their extent from satellite-based data. We present a multidisciplinary approach, based on both the ecological and the optical perspective. This approach is applied in a Brazilian Amazonian reservoir using spatial and temporal scales. The ACOLITE processor is employed to perform atmospheric correction. Extent of the algal bloom is mapped with outputs such as Rayleigh reflectance atmospheric corrected images. Chlorophyll-a estimation is accomplished using a blue-green edge algorithm from the Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), and shows reasonable results (R2 = 0.95; RMSE = 0.40). The SAred-NIR slope algorithm identifies the extent of the algal bloom at both the spatial and temporal scale. Unfortunately, the performance of these algorithms is most likely affected by weather conditions and glint effects. Therefore, this study recommends that cyanobacteria or phytoplankton studies in this area ensure that their ecological functioning is carefully considered when attempting to map occurrence using limited satellite imagery. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Employing SWOT Analysis and Normal Cloud Model for Water Resource Sustainable Utilization Assessment and Strategy Development
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081439 - 15 Aug 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Water Resource Sustainable Utilization (WRSU) is becoming increasingly important, given growing water resource shortages and widening gaps between water supply and demand. Most existing studies have focused on WRSU levels without a dedicated strategy-oriented framework. In addition, uncertainties occur in the process of [...] Read more.
Water Resource Sustainable Utilization (WRSU) is becoming increasingly important, given growing water resource shortages and widening gaps between water supply and demand. Most existing studies have focused on WRSU levels without a dedicated strategy-oriented framework. In addition, uncertainties occur in the process of indicator quantification and grading, leading to a lack of accuracy in the assessment results. Therefore, in this study, stemming from water resource, societal, economic, and environmental dimensions, an indicator system with qualitative description was introduced by Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis to enable development and selection of sustainable water use strategies. A normal cloud model that is capable of addressing uncertainties was used to determine WRSU levels. The comprehensive evaluation results can both reflect the WRSU levels and select the most suitable strategy. The model’s utility was demonstrated by applying it to the case of Shandong province in China. Based on the results, most areas of Shandong province appear to be facing serious unsustainable issues. Appropriate development strategies based on the WRSU levels were provided for improving sustainable use of water resources. The proposed method offers an efficient means for WRSU assessment and strategy development. Moreover, it has the potential to be applied to other water resource issues. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Population Growth on the Water Quality of Natural Water Bodies
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081405 - 09 Aug 2017
Cited by 23
Abstract
Human activities pose a significant threat to the water quality of rivers when pollution exceeds the threshold limit. Urban activities in particular are highlighted as one of the major causes of contamination in surface water bodies in Asian countries. Evaluation of sustainable human [...] Read more.
Human activities pose a significant threat to the water quality of rivers when pollution exceeds the threshold limit. Urban activities in particular are highlighted as one of the major causes of contamination in surface water bodies in Asian countries. Evaluation of sustainable human population capacities in river watersheds is necessary to maintain better freshwater ecosystems in a country while achieving its development goals as a nation. We evaluated the correlation between the growth rate of the population in a watershed area and water quality parameters of a river ecosystem. The Kelani River in Sri Lanka was selected for the study. The highest correlation coefficients of 0.7, 0.69, 0.69 (p < 0.01) corresponding to biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and total coliform (TC) were obtained with the population in watersheds of the Kelani river in Sri Lanka. Thus, we propose a quantitative approach to estimating the population capacity of watersheds based on water quality classification standards (WQCS), employing the Bayesian network (BN) classification model. The optimum population ranges were obtained from the probability distribution table of the population node in the BN. The results showed that the population density should be approximately less than 2375 to keep the water quality in the watershed for bathing and drinking purposes and approximately less than 2672 for fish and other aquatic organisms. This research will offer a means that can used to understand the impact of population on water quality in river basins and confer direct influence on natural water bodies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Vegetative Slope on Water Flow and Pollutant Transport through Embankments
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071128 - 27 Jun 2017
Abstract
Embankments are common structures along rivers or lakes in riparian zones in plain areas. They should have natural slopes instead of slopes covered by concrete or other hard materials, in order to rebuild sustainable ecosystems for riparian zones. This study was conducted to [...] Read more.
Embankments are common structures along rivers or lakes in riparian zones in plain areas. They should have natural slopes instead of slopes covered by concrete or other hard materials, in order to rebuild sustainable ecosystems for riparian zones. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetative slopes on water flow and pollutant transport through the embankments. Three embankments with different slope treatments (a bare slope, a slope covered in centipede grass, a slope covered in tall fescue) were examined, and three inflow applications of pollute water with different concentration of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) used to simulate different agricultural non-point pollution levels. The results showed that the water flux rates of the three embankments were relatively stable under all inflow events, and almost all values were higher than 80%. The embankments with vegetative slopes had better nitrogen removal than the bare slope under all events, and the one with tall fescue slope was best, but the benefits of vegetative slopes decreased with increasing inflow concentration. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the embankments on phosphorus removal, for which the reductions were all high (above 90%) with most loads remaining in the front third of embankment bodies. Overall, the embankments with vegetative slopes had positive effects on water exchange and reducing non-point pollutant into lake or river water, which provides a quantitative scientific basis for the actual layout of lakeshores. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop