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Special Issue "Emerging Technologies and Solutions for the Sustainable Climate Change Challenges"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Ji Whan Ahn

Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-42-868-3578
Interests: mineral carbonation; CO2 utilization; recycling technologies of industrial wastes; papers and diapers; green cement and waste-water treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global warming is the phenomenon of temperatures rising in the atmosphere and ocean, which is mainly due to a large amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated by human activities. Many countries are paying attention to the reduction of GHG emissions by developing related technologies, such as mineral carbonation, recycling of industrial by-products, extraction of valuable components from wastes, water purification utilizing wastes, and so on.

  1. Focus: This Special Issue focuses on the introduction of research trends and emerging technologies, contributing to the mitigation of current climate change.
  2. Scope: The current major challenge is global warming. As we know, CO2 is the major emission and causes global warming. The most representative ways to reduce CO2 from the atmosphere is carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS). Carbon capture and utilization (CCS) has some disadvantages, such as the leakage of CO2 from sites, while CCUS technologies, such as carbon mineralization, are more stable and reliable compared to CCS technologies.

Therefore, the scope and aim for this Special Issue are to introduce recent research on CCUS and related technologies. We are especially interested in the topics listed below:

  • Carbon mineralization
  • Waste paper recycling and application of carbon mineralization
  • Manufacturing eco-friendly cementitious materials from waste residues
  • Waste water treatment, challenges and assessments
  • Convergence technologies for sustainable climate change challenges

3. Purpose of the Special Issue: The purpose of this Special Issue is to introduce advanced techniques and research that have helped to reduce CO2 emissions and to utilize CO2 for the manufacturing of valuable products.

Dr. Ji Whan Ahn
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mineral carbonation
  • CO2 utilization
  • MSW Recycling Technology
  • Carbonation Technology
  • Paper Recycling
  • Diapers Recycling Technology
  • Green Cement
  • Waste Water Treatment

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Waste Heat and Water Recovery System Optimization for Flue Gas in Thermal Power Plants
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071881
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
Fossil-fueled power plants present a problem of significant water consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and environmental pollution. Several techniques have been developed to utilize flue gas, which can help solve these problems. Among these, the ones focusing on energy extraction beyond the dew point [...] Read more.
Fossil-fueled power plants present a problem of significant water consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and environmental pollution. Several techniques have been developed to utilize flue gas, which can help solve these problems. Among these, the ones focusing on energy extraction beyond the dew point of the moisture present within the flue gas are quite attractive. In this study, a novel waste heat and water recovery system (WHWRS) composed of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and cooling cycles using singular working fluid accompanied by phase change was proposed and optimized for maximum power output. Furthermore, WHWRS configurations were analyzed for fixed water yield and fixed ambient temperature, covering possible trade-off scenarios between power loss and the number of stages as per desired yields of water recovery at ambient temperatures in a practical range. For a 600 MW power plant with 16% water vapor volume in flue gas at 150 °C, the WHWRS can produce 4–6 MWe while recovering 50% water by cooling the flue gas to 40 °C at an ambient temperature of 20 °C. Pragmatic results and design flexibility, while utilizing single working fluid, makes this proposed system a desirable candidate for practical application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Utilization of Calcium Carbonate-Coated Wood Flour in Printing Paper and Their Conservational Properties
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071867
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
Wood flours (WFs) are bulky lignocellulosic materials that can increase the bulk and stiffness of paper. To be used in printing paper for replacing chemical pulp, WFs were first fractionated by a 200-mesh screen to improve smoothness; second, they were coated with calcium [...] Read more.
Wood flours (WFs) are bulky lignocellulosic materials that can increase the bulk and stiffness of paper. To be used in printing paper for replacing chemical pulp, WFs were first fractionated by a 200-mesh screen to improve smoothness; second, they were coated with calcium carbonate by an in-situ CaCO3 formation method (coated wood flours, CWFs) to improve brightness. The performance of CWFs for printing paper was compared to those of bleached wood flours (BWFs) and bleached chemical pulp. Equivalent brightness and much higher smoothness were obtained for the CWFs compared to the BWFs. Furthermore, BWFs caused a significant loss of yield and required wastewater treatment in the bleaching process, while the CWFs increased the yield greatly by attaching CaCO3 to the wood flours, and caused no wastewater burden. An accelerated aging test showed that the CWFs caused lesser brightness and strength loss than the bleached chemical pulp and BWFs. CWFs still had room for improvement to replace chemical pulp, but showed slower aging in optical and close strength properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Utilization of Lime Mud Waste from Paper Mills for Efficient Phosphorus Removal
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061524
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we utilized lime mud waste from paper mills to synthesize calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs) and investigate their application for the removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution. The NPs, composed of green portlandite with hexagonal shape, were successfully [...] Read more.
In this study, we utilized lime mud waste from paper mills to synthesize calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs) and investigate their application for the removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution. The NPs, composed of green portlandite with hexagonal shape, were successfully produced using a precipitation method at moderately high temperature. The crystal structure and characterization of the prepared Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The effects of Ca(OH)2 NP dosage and contact time on removal of phosphorus were also investigated. The results show that the green portlandite NPs can effectively remove phosphorus from aqueous solution. The phosphorus removal efficiencies within 10 min are 53%, 72%, 78%, 98%, and 100% with the different mass ratios of Ca(OH)2 NPs/phosphorus (CNPs/P) of 2.2, 3.5, 4.4, 5.3, and 6.2, respectively. Due to the efficient phosphorus removal, the calcium hydroxide nanoparticles (CNPs) could be a potential candidate for this application in domestic or industrial wastewater treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of a New Clean Development Mechanism Methodology for the Quantification of Greenhouse Gas in Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051482
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this research was to probe beyond the scope of the “National Strategy Project on Carbon Mineralization” to develop a “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Clean Development Mechanism” (UNFCCC CDM) methodology that enables reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) by [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to probe beyond the scope of the “National Strategy Project on Carbon Mineralization” to develop a “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Clean Development Mechanism” (UNFCCC CDM) methodology that enables reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) by “green cement” under the calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement technologies. The findings will be utilized as the foundations and developed into the UNFCCC CDM project. There were two existing methodologies related to cement, but neither was applicable for CSA cement. The existing methodologies are applicable only when there is one clinker, but CSA cement utilizes more than one clinker. Through this research, we developed methodologies to use waste-based material for avoiding emission leakage and utilized more than one clinker to calculate GHG emissions and reduction. For this purpose, we utilized the CSA cement methodology for calculating GHG reduction compared to Portland cement and found that CSA cement allowed for a reduction of 0.281 tCO2-eq/ton above the reduction enabled by Portland cement. We are presently preparing to register the CSA cement methodology for UNFCCC CDM methodology approval. With the technology transfer and support for this CSA cement technology and methodology, developing countries will be able to achieve their national GHG reduction targets and gain carbon credits. Thus, CSA cement technology could serve as an important tool to deal with GHG emissions and climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on Hydromechanical Behavior of an Artificial Rock Joint with Controlled Roughness
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041014
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Rock mass contains various discontinuities, such as faults, joints, and bedding planes. Among them, a joint is one of the most frequently encountered discontinuities in rock engineering applications. Generally, a joint exerts great influence on the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of rock mass, [...] Read more.
Rock mass contains various discontinuities, such as faults, joints, and bedding planes. Among them, a joint is one of the most frequently encountered discontinuities in rock engineering applications. Generally, a joint exerts great influence on the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of rock mass, since it acts as a weak plane and as a fluid path in the rock mass. Therefore, an accurate understanding on joint characteristics is important in many projects. In-situ tests on joints are sometimes consumptive in terms of time and expenses so that the features are investigated by laboratory tests, providing fundamental properties for rock mass analyses. Although the behavior of a joint is affected by both mechanical and geometric conditions, the latter are often limited, since quantitative control on the conditions is quite complicated. In this study, artificial rock joints with various geometric conditions, i.e., joint roughness, were prepared in a quantitative manner and the hydromechanical characteristics were investigated by several laboratory experiments. Based on the results, a prediction model for hydraulic aperture was proposed in the form of ( e h / e m ) 3 = exp ( 0.0462 c ) × ( 0.8864 ) J R C , which was a function of the mechanical aperture, joint roughness, and contact area. Relatively good agreement between the experimental results and predicted value indicated that the model is capable of estimating the hydraulic aperture properly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analyzing the Stability of Underground Mines Using 3D Point Cloud Data and Discontinuum Numerical Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11040945
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
This study describes a precise numerical analysis process by adopting the real image of mine openings obtained by light detection and ranging (LiDAR), which can produce a point cloud data by measuring the target surface numerically. The analysis target was a section of [...] Read more.
This study describes a precise numerical analysis process by adopting the real image of mine openings obtained by light detection and ranging (LiDAR), which can produce a point cloud data by measuring the target surface numerically. The analysis target was a section of an underground limestone mine, to which a hybrid room-and-pillar mining method that was developed to improve ore recovery was applied. It is important that the center axis and the volume of the vertical safety pillar in the lower parts match those in the upper parts. The 3D survey of the target section verified that the center axis of the vertical safety pillar in the lower parts had deviated in a north-westerly direction. In particular, the area of the lower part of the vertical safety pillar was approximately 34 m2 lower than the designed cross-sectional area, which was 100 m2. In order to analyze the stability of the vertical safety pillar, a discontinuum numerical analysis and safety factor analysis were conducted using 3D surveying results. The analysis verified that instability was caused by the joints distributed around the vertical safety pillar. In conclusion, investigation of the 3D survey and 3D numerical analysis techniques performed in this study are expected to provide higher reliability than the current techniques used for establishing whether mining plans require new mining methods or safety measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Semi-Dry Carbonation Process Using Fly Ash from Solid Refused Fuel Power Plant
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030908
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
The increasing CO2 concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has led to concerns about global warming. Carbonation is a technique that can be used as a carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology for CO2 sequestration. In this [...] Read more.
The increasing CO2 concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has led to concerns about global warming. Carbonation is a technique that can be used as a carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology for CO2 sequestration. In this study, the utilization of the fly ash from a solid refused fuel (SRF) power plant as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via semi-dry carbonation reaction was evaluated as a simple process to reduce CO2. The fly ash was exposed to accelerated carbonation conditions at a relative humidity of 25, 50, 75, and 100%, to investigate the effects of humidity on the carbonation kinetics of the fly ash. The reaction conditions such as moisture, concentration of CO2, and reaction time can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. Due to a short diffusion length of H2CO3 in water, the semi-dry process exhibits faster carbonation reaction than the wet process. Especially, the semi-dry process does not require a wastewater treatment plant because it uses a small amount of water. This study may have important implications, illustrating the possibility of replacing the wet process with the semi-dry process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Process Design Characteristics of Syngas (CO/H2) Separation Using Composite Membrane
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030703
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
The effectiveness of gas separation membranes and their application is continually growing owing to its simpler separation methods. In addition, their application is increasing for the separation of syngas (CO and H2) which utilizes cryogenic temperature during separation. Polymers are widely [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of gas separation membranes and their application is continually growing owing to its simpler separation methods. In addition, their application is increasing for the separation of syngas (CO and H2) which utilizes cryogenic temperature during separation. Polymers are widely used as membrane material for performing the separation of various gaseous mixtures due to their attractive perm-selective properties and high processability. This study, therefore, aims to investigate the process design characteristics of syngas separation utilizing polyamide composite membrane with polyimide support. Moreover, characteristics of CO/H2 separation were investigated by varying inlet gas flow rates, stage cut, inlet gas pressures, and membrane module temperature. Beneficial impact in CO and H2 purity were obtained on increasing the flow rate with no significant effect of increasing membrane module temperature and approximately 97% pure CO was obtained from the third stage of the multi-stage membrane system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of a New Method for the Quantitative Generation of an Artificial Joint Specimen with Specific Geometric Properties
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020373
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
A rock joint is a planar discontinuity that has significant influence on the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of rock mass. Laboratory experiments are often conducted on a joint to investigate and provide fundamental information for rock mass analysis. Although joint roughness and mechanical [...] Read more.
A rock joint is a planar discontinuity that has significant influence on the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of rock mass. Laboratory experiments are often conducted on a joint to investigate and provide fundamental information for rock mass analysis. Although joint roughness and mechanical aperture exert great effects on the experimental results, controlling them in quantitative manner is quite complicated and consumptive in terms of specimen preparation. A new and simple method for the quantitative generation of the joint specimen was proposed in this study. Based on random midpoint displacement method, a joint specimen with a void space inside was generated. Parametric studies for the roughness and mechanical aperture were carried out, and as a result, the two joint properties could be controlled by manipulating input parameters of random midpoint displacement method. In order to validate the proposed method, two joint specimens, which had different levels of roughness and aperture, were generated and printed. Surface coordinates of the specimens were obtained by a 3D laser scanner, and calculated to make a comparison between the target values and the estimated values. Results showed that the method was capable of generating joint specimens with satisfactory precision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Utilization of CFBC Fly Ash as a Binder to Produce In-Furnace Desulfurization Sorbent
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4854; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124854
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) power generation technology is known to efficiently reduce the emission of air pollutants, such as SO2 and NO2, from coal combustion. however, CFBC coal ash contains high contents of free CaO, making it difficult to [...] Read more.
Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) power generation technology is known to efficiently reduce the emission of air pollutants, such as SO2 and NO2, from coal combustion. however, CFBC coal ash contains high contents of free CaO, making it difficult to recycle. This research has been conducted to find ways to use the self-hardening property of CFBC coal ash, one of its inherent characteristics. As part of these efforts, the present study intended to investigate the properties and desulfurization efficiency of Ca-based desulfurization sorbents using CFBC fly-ash as a binder. Limestone powder was mixed with CFBC fly-ash and Ca(OH)2 to fabricate desulfurization sorbents, and it generated hydrate of cement, including portlandite, ettringite, and calcium silicate, etc. The compressive strength of the desulfurization absorbent prepared by CFBC fly ash and Ca(OH)2 was 72–92% that of the desulfurized absorbent prepared by using general cement as a binder. These absorbents were then compared in terms of desulfurization efficiency using a high-temperature fluidized bed reactor. It was confirmed that the desulfurization absorbents fabricated using CFBC fly-ash as a binder achieved the best performance in terms of absorption time, which reflects the time taken for them to remove over 90% of high-concentration SO2 gas, and the conversion ratio, which refers to the ratio of CaO turning into CaSO4. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Stiffness and Cavity Test of Concrete Face Based on Non-Destructive Elastic Investigation
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4389; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124389
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 24 November 2018
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Abstract
A non-destructive testing (NDT) method was used in a concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD) to identify the condition of the concrete face slab and detect any existing cavities between the concrete face slab and the underlying support layer. The NDT for the concrete [...] Read more.
A non-destructive testing (NDT) method was used in a concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD) to identify the condition of the concrete face slab and detect any existing cavities between the concrete face slab and the underlying support layer. The NDT for the concrete face slab was conducted using the impulse response (IR) method and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method with the application of non-destructive electrodes. Information regarding the dynamic stiffness and average mobility of the concrete was obtained based on the mobility-frequency of the IR method, and cavity detection under the plate structures was analyzed using the two-dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity section of the ERT method. The results of the IR method showed that zones with low dynamic stiffness and high average mobility were expected to be found in concrete of poor quality and in cavities beneath the concrete face slab. The results of the ERT method showed that zones with high resistivity were expected to be cavities between the concrete face slab and the underlying support layer. As a result, the tendency toward low dynamic stiffness, high average mobility, and high resistivity in both methods implies unstable concrete conditions and the possible occurrence of a cavity. The results of the two methods also showed a good correlation, and it was confirmed that the NDT method was reliable in terms of cavity estimation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing the Design of a Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger: Measurement of the Thermal Properties of Bentonite-Based Grout and Numerical Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082664
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
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Abstract
We prepared bentonite-based grouts for use in the construction of vertical ground heat exchangers (GHEs) using various proportions of silica sand as an additive, and measured the thermal conductivity (TC) and specific heat capacity (SHC) of the grouts under saturated conditions. Furthermore, we [...] Read more.
We prepared bentonite-based grouts for use in the construction of vertical ground heat exchangers (GHEs) using various proportions of silica sand as an additive, and measured the thermal conductivity (TC) and specific heat capacity (SHC) of the grouts under saturated conditions. Furthermore, we performed numerical simulations using the measured thermal properties to investigate the effects of grout-SHCs, the length of the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe, the velocity of the working fluid, and the operation time and off-time during intermittent operation on performance. Experimentally, the grout TCs and SHCs were in the ranges 0.728–1.127 W/(mK) and 2519–3743 J/(kgK), respectively. As the proportions of bentonite and silica sand increased, the TC rose and the SHC fell. Simulation showed that, during intermittent operation, not only a high grout TC but also a high SHC improved GHE performance. Also, during both continuous and intermittent operation, GHE performance improved as the working fluid velocity increased, and there was a critical working fluid velocity that greatly affected the performance of the vertical GHE, regardless of operation mode, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe length, or grout thermal properties; this value was 0.3 m/s. Finally, during intermittent operation, depending on the operation time and off-time, critical periods were evident when the ground temperature had been almost completely restored and any beneficial effect of intermittent operation had almost disappeared. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Opportunities for Mineral Carbonation in Australia’s Mining Industry
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051250
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) via mineral carbonation is an effective method for long-term storage of carbon dioxide and combating climate change. Implemented at a large-scale, it provides a viable solution to harvesting and storing the modern crisis of GHGs emissions. To [...] Read more.
Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) via mineral carbonation is an effective method for long-term storage of carbon dioxide and combating climate change. Implemented at a large-scale, it provides a viable solution to harvesting and storing the modern crisis of GHGs emissions. To date, technological and economic barriers have inhibited broad-scale utilisation of mineral carbonation at industrial scales. This paper outlines the mineral carbonation process; discusses drivers and barriers of mineral carbonation deployment in Australian mining; and, finally, proposes a unique approach to commercially viable CCUS within the Australian mining industry by integrating mine waste management with mine site rehabilitation, and leveraging relationships with local coal-fired power station. This paper discusses using alkaline mine and coal-fired power station waste (fly ash, red mud, and ultramafic mine tailings, i.e., nickel, diamond, PGE (platinum group elements), and legacy asbestos mine tailings) as the feedstock for CCUS to produce environmentally benign materials, which can be used in mine reclamation. Geographical proximity of mining operations, mining waste storage facilities and coal-fired power stations in Australia are identified; and possible synergies between them are discussed. This paper demonstrates that large-scale alkaline waste production and mine site reclamation can become integrated to mechanise CCUS. Furthermore, financial liabilities associated with such waste management and site reclamation could overcome many of the current economic setbacks of retrofitting CCUS in the mining industry. An improved approach to commercially viable climate change mitigation strategies available to the mining industry is reviewed in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessReview Recent Progress in Green Cement Technology Utilizing Low-Carbon Emission Fuels and Raw Materials: A Review
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020537
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
The cement industry is facing numerous challenges in the 21st century due to depleting natural fuel resources, shortage of raw materials, exponentially increasing cement demand and climate linked environmental concerns. Every tonne of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) produced releases an equivalent amount of [...] Read more.
The cement industry is facing numerous challenges in the 21st century due to depleting natural fuel resources, shortage of raw materials, exponentially increasing cement demand and climate linked environmental concerns. Every tonne of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) produced releases an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. In this regard, cement manufactured from locally available minerals and industrial wastes that can be blended with OPC as substitute, or full replacement with novel clinkers to reduce the energy requirements is strongly desirable. Reduction in energy consumption and carbon emissions during cement manufacturing can be achieved by introducing alternative cements. The potential of alternative cements as a replacement of conventional OPC can only be fully realized through detailed investigation of binder properties with modern technologies. Seven prominent alternative cement types are considered in this study and their current position compared to OPC has been discussed. The study provides a comprehensive analysis of options for future cements, and an up-to-date summary of the different alternative fuels and binders that can be used in cement production to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, the practicalities and benefits of producing the low-cost materials to meet the increasing cement demand are discussed. Full article
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