Clinical and Sports Nutrition

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2017) | Viewed by 111244

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Senior Lecturer, Medical and Applied Sciences
Director, Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD 4701, Australia
Interests: aging; skeletal muscle; disease prevention; oxidative stress, public health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA
Interests: skeletal muscle; sports nutrition; nutritional supplements
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special edition is designed for those interested in topics regarding clinical and sports nutrition. Manuscripts in the discipline of clinical nutrition will focus on nutritional interventions to improve health, although manuscripts in the realm of public health and health promotion will be considered if the aim is to identify current nutritional trends and offer solutions to improve community health. Manuscripts in the discipline of sports nutrtion will focus on nutritional interventions to improve athletic performance. We welcome submission of data utilizing cell culture, animal, and human models. Reviews and original work will be considered for publication.

Dr. Vincent Dalbo
Dr. Michael D. Roberts
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ergogenic aids
  • supplements
  • strength
  • power
  • endurance
  • performance
  • health
  • oxidative stress
  • inflammation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1575 KiB  
Article
The Three-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Blood Parameters, and Performance Metrics in CrossFit Trainees: A Pilot Study
by Wesley C. Kephart, Coree D. Pledge, Paul A. Roberson, Petey W. Mumford, Matthew A. Romero, Christopher B. Mobley, Jeffrey S. Martin, Kaelin C. Young, Ryan P. Lowery, Jacob M. Wilson, Kevin W. Huggins and Michael D. Roberts
Sports 2018, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6010001 - 9 Jan 2018
Cited by 78 | Viewed by 68751
Abstract
Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic [...] Read more.
Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD) on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80.3 ± 5.1 kg body mass, 22.9 ± 2.3% body fat, 1.37 back squat: body mass ratio) were divided into a control group (CTL; n = 5) and a KD group (n = 7). KD participants were given dietary guidelines to follow over 12 weeks while CTL participants were instructed to continue their normal diet throughout the study, and all participants continued their CrossFit training routine for 12 weeks. Pre, 2.5-week, and 12-week anaerobic performance tests were conducted, and pre- and 12-week tests were performed for body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ultrasound, resting energy expenditure (REE), blood-serum health markers, and aerobic capacity. Additionally, blood beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels were measured weekly. Blood BHB levels were 2.8- to 9.5-fold higher in KD versus CTL throughout confirming a state of nutritional ketosis. DXA fat mass decreased by 12.4% in KD (p = 0.053). DXA total lean body mass changes were not different between groups, although DXA dual-leg lean mass decreased in the KD group by 1.4% (p = 0.068), and vastus lateralis thickness values decreased in the KD group by ~8% (p = 0.065). Changes in fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were similar between groups, although LDL cholesterol increased ~35% in KD (p = 0.048). Between-group changes in REE, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat, 400 m run times, and VO2peak were similar between groups. While our n-sizes were limited, these preliminary data suggest that adopting a ketogenic diet causes marked reductions in whole-body adiposity while not impacting performance measures in recreationally-trained CrossFit trainees. Whether decrements in dual-leg muscle mass and vastus lateralis thickness in KD participants were due to fluid shifts remain unresolved, and increased LDL-C in these individuals warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
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789 KiB  
Article
Residents of Central Queensland, Australia Are Aware of Healthy Eating Practices but Consume Unhealthy Diets
by Vincent J. Dalbo, Matthew I. Hiskens, Masaru Teramoto, Michael I. Kingsley, Kaelin C. Young and Aaron T. Scanlan
Sports 2017, 5(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5040094 - 11 Dec 2017
Viewed by 3318
Abstract
We aimed to determine nutritional knowledge and behaviors of normal weight, overweight, and obese residents of Central Queensland, Australia. Data were collected as part of the 2010 Central Queensland Social Survey (N = 1289). Residents were asked questions assessing nutritional knowledge and [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine nutritional knowledge and behaviors of normal weight, overweight, and obese residents of Central Queensland, Australia. Data were collected as part of the 2010 Central Queensland Social Survey (N = 1289). Residents were asked questions assessing nutritional knowledge and behaviors. Statistical analyses were performed to examine differences in nutritional knowledge and behaviors by body mass index (BMI) classification: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Independent of BMI, residents ate fewer than the recommended daily servings of vegetables (p < 0.05) and fruits (p < 0.05) with no differences found between BMI classifications. Overweight (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.13–2.04) and obese (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.04–1.98) residents were more likely to have eaten fast food the week of the survey than normal weight residents. Residents correctly identified the amount of kilocalories required to maintain current body weight with no differences between BMI classifications. Each BMI classification underestimated the amount of kilojoules required to maintain current body weight (p < 0.05). Nutritional knowledge may not be the limiting factor preventing residents from making proper nutritional choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
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1074 KiB  
Article
Red Spinach Extract Increases Ventilatory Threshold during Graded Exercise Testing
by Angelique N. Moore, Cody T. Haun, Wesley C. Kephart, Angelia M. Holland, Christopher B. Mobley, David D. Pascoe, Michael D. Roberts and Jeffrey S. Martin
Sports 2017, 5(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5040080 - 16 Oct 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 8848
Abstract
Background: We examined the acute effect of a red spinach extract (RSE) (1000 mg dose; ~90 mg nitrate (NO 3 )) on performance markers during graded exercise testing (GXT). Methods: For this randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled, crossover study, 15 recreationally-active participants (aged [...] Read more.
Background: We examined the acute effect of a red spinach extract (RSE) (1000 mg dose; ~90 mg nitrate (NO 3 )) on performance markers during graded exercise testing (GXT). Methods: For this randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled, crossover study, 15 recreationally-active participants (aged 23.1 ± 3.3 years; BMI: 27.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2) reported >2 h post-prandial and performed GXT 65–75 min post-RSE or PBO ingestion. Blood samples were collected at baseline (BL), pre-GXT (65–75 min post-ingestion; PRE), and immediately post-GXT (POST). GXT commenced with continuous analysis of expired gases. Results: Plasma concentrations of NO 3 increased PRE (+447 ± 294%; p < 0.001) and POST (+378 ± 179%; p < 0.001) GXT with RSE, but not with PBO (+3 ± 26%, −8 ± 24%, respectively; p > 0.05). No effect on circulating nitrite (NO 2 ) was observed with RSE (+3.3 ± 7.5%, +7.7 ± 11.8% PRE and POST, respectively; p > 0.05) or PBO (−0.5 ± 7.9%, −0.2 ± 8.1% PRE and POST, respectively; p > 0.05). When compared to PBO, there was a moderate effect of RSE on plasma NO 2 at PRE (g = 0.50 [−0.26, 1.24] and POST g = 0.71 [−0.05, 1.48]). During GXT, VO2 at the ventilatory threshold was significantly higher with RSE compared to PBO (+6.1 ± 7.3%; p < 0.05), though time-to-exhaustion (−4.0 ± 7.7%; p > 0.05) and maximal aerobic power (i.e., VO2 peak; −0.8 ± 5.6%; p > 0.05) were non-significantly lower with RSE. Conclusions: RSE as a nutritional supplement may elicit an ergogenic response by delaying the ventilatory threshold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
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565 KiB  
Article
Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Performance during the Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test in Trained Youth and Recreationally Active Male Football Players
by Charlie Godwin, Matthew D. Cook and Mark E. T. Willems
Sports 2017, 5(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030069 - 15 Sep 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 7508
Abstract
It was observed previously that New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract reduced slowing of the maximal 15 m sprint speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. We examined the effect of NZBC extract on the performance of the Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST, [...] Read more.
It was observed previously that New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract reduced slowing of the maximal 15 m sprint speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. We examined the effect of NZBC extract on the performance of the Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST, 6 × 35-m sprints with 10 seconds passive recovery) in trained youth and recreationally active football players. Fifteen recreationally active (University team) (age: 20 ± 1 years, height: 174 ± 19 cm, body mass: 80 ± 13 kg) and nine trained youth players (English professional club) (age: 17 ± 0 years, height: 178 ± 8 cm, body mass: 69 ± 9 kg, mean ± SD) participated in three testing sessions. Prior to the RASTs, participants consumed two capsules of NZBC extract (600 mg∙day−1 CurraNZ®) or placebo (P) for 7 days (double blind, randomised, cross-over design, wash-out at least 14 days). Ability difference between groups was shown by sprint 1 time. In the placebo condition, trained youth players had faster times for sprint 1 (5.00 ± 0.05 s) than recreationally active players (5.42 ± 0.08 s) (p < 0.01). In trained youth players, there was a trend for an effect of NZBC extract (p = 0.10) on the slowing of the sprint 1 time. NZBC extract reduced slowing of the sprint 5 time (P: 0.56 ± 0.22 s; NZBC: 0.35 ± 0.25, p = 0.02) and this was not observed in recreationally active players (P: 0.57 ± 0.48 s; NZBC: 0.56 ± 0.33, p = 0.90). For fatigue index, expressed as a % change in fastest sprint time, there was a strong trend to be lower in both trained youth and recreationally active players combined by NZBC extract (P: −13 ± 7%; NZBC: −11 ± 6%, p = 0.06) with 12 participants (five trained youth) experiencing less fatigue. New Zealand blackcurrant extract seems to benefit repeated sprint performance only in trained football players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
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626 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Carbohydrate Ingestion on CrossFit Exercise Performance
by Jaden A. Rountree, Ben M. Krings, Timothy J. Peterson, Adam G. Thigpen, Matthew J. McAllister, Megan E. Holmes and JohnEric W. Smith
Sports 2017, 5(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030061 - 14 Aug 2017
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7891
Abstract
The efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during high-intensity strength and conditioning type exercise has yield mixed results. However, little is known about shorter duration high-intensity exercise such as CrossFit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance impact of CHO ingestion [...] Read more.
The efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during high-intensity strength and conditioning type exercise has yield mixed results. However, little is known about shorter duration high-intensity exercise such as CrossFit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance impact of CHO ingestion during high-intensity exercise sessions lasting approximately 30 min. Eight healthy males participated in a total of four trials; two familiarizations, a CHO trial, and a similarly flavored, non-caloric placebo (PLA) trial. CrossFit’s “Fight Gone Bad Five” (FGBF) workout of the day was the exercise model which incorporated five rounds of maximal repetition exercises, wall throw, box jump, sumo deadlift high pull, push press, and rowing, followed by one minute of rest. Total repetitions and calories expended were summated from each round to quantify total work (FGBF score). No difference was found for the total work between CHO (321 ± 51) or PLA (314 ± 52) trials (p = 0.38). There were also no main effects (p > 0.05) for treatment comparing exercise performance across rounds. Based on the findings of this study, it does not appear that ingestion of CHO during short duration, high-intensity CrossFit exercise will provide a beneficial performance effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
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220 KiB  
Communication
Do Image-Assisted Mobile Applications Improve Dietary Habits, Knowledge, and Behaviours in Elite Athletes? A Pilot Study
by Anne Simpson, Luke Gemming, Dane Baker and Andrea Braakhuis
Sports 2017, 5(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030060 - 11 Aug 2017
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 6895
Abstract
To date, there has been a paucity of research on optimal ways to educate and promote dietary behavioural change within athletes. Optimising athlete nutrition is fundamental to reaching peak performance and maintaining athlete wellbeing. MealLogger® is a smartphone application that incorporates the [...] Read more.
To date, there has been a paucity of research on optimal ways to educate and promote dietary behavioural change within athletes. Optimising athlete nutrition is fundamental to reaching peak performance and maintaining athlete wellbeing. MealLogger® is a smartphone application that incorporates the use of an image-based food record and social-media functionality to provide in-application personalised feedback to individuals or groups, peer-support, and a platform to deliver nutrition education material. This study measured the feasibility of MealLogger® within New Zealand elite male field hockey players (n = 17) aged 18–20 to increase athlete knowledge and nutrition promoting behaviours. During a six-week intervention, participants were instructed to log images of their meals three days per week and they received individualised dietetic feedback on logged meals. Weekly nutrition-education fact-sheets and videos were delivered through the application. Nutrition knowledge increased moderately from baseline (%Pre 54.7 ± 14.3; %Post 61.1 ± 11.45, p = 0.01). Participants report a highly positive experience of application use (8/10) with 82.3% attempting to make positive changes in dietary behaviours based on in-app education. All participants preferred this method to traditional methods of dietary analysis. Using image-based applications such as MealLogger® is an effective approach to monitor dietary intake and deliver education to optimise the nutritional behaviours of elite athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)

Review

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12 pages, 482 KiB  
Review
Nutrition and Supplementation Considerations to Limit Endotoxemia When Exercising in the Heat
by Joshua H. Guy and Grace E. Vincent
Sports 2018, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6010012 - 6 Feb 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7006
Abstract
Exercise-induced heat production is further elevated by exercise performed in hot conditions and this can subsequently impact inflammation, and gastrointestinal (GI) health. Implementing nutrition and supplementation strategies under these conditions may support the hyperthermic response, the systemic inflammatory response, GI permeability and integrity, [...] Read more.
Exercise-induced heat production is further elevated by exercise performed in hot conditions and this can subsequently impact inflammation, and gastrointestinal (GI) health. Implementing nutrition and supplementation strategies under these conditions may support the hyperthermic response, the systemic inflammatory response, GI permeability and integrity, and exercise performance. Therefore, the aim of this brief review is to explore athletes’ inflammatory response of two key biomarkers, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and provide nutrition and supplementation recommendations when exercising in hot conditions. There is emerging evidence that probiotics, glutamine, and vitamin C can preserve GI integrity, which may improve performance during exercise in the heat. Glucose rich food when consumed with water, before and during exercise in the heat, also appear to limit endotoxemia, preserve GI integrity, and reduce the incidence of GI disturbances compared with water alone. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may compromise GI integrity and this may result in greater leakage of endotoxins during long duration exercise in the heat. Further work is required to elucidate the impact of nutrition and supplementation strategies, in particular the use of NSAIDs, when exercising in the heat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
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