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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Red Spinach Extract Increases Ventilatory Threshold during Graded Exercise Testing

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Auburn Campus, Auburn, AL 36832, USA
School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2017, 5(4), 80;
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Sports Nutrition)
Background: We examined the acute effect of a red spinach extract (RSE) (1000 mg dose; ~90 mg nitrate (NO 3 )) on performance markers during graded exercise testing (GXT). Methods: For this randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled, crossover study, 15 recreationally-active participants (aged 23.1 ± 3.3 years; BMI: 27.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2) reported >2 h post-prandial and performed GXT 65–75 min post-RSE or PBO ingestion. Blood samples were collected at baseline (BL), pre-GXT (65–75 min post-ingestion; PRE), and immediately post-GXT (POST). GXT commenced with continuous analysis of expired gases. Results: Plasma concentrations of NO 3 increased PRE (+447 ± 294%; p < 0.001) and POST (+378 ± 179%; p < 0.001) GXT with RSE, but not with PBO (+3 ± 26%, −8 ± 24%, respectively; p > 0.05). No effect on circulating nitrite (NO 2 ) was observed with RSE (+3.3 ± 7.5%, +7.7 ± 11.8% PRE and POST, respectively; p > 0.05) or PBO (−0.5 ± 7.9%, −0.2 ± 8.1% PRE and POST, respectively; p > 0.05). When compared to PBO, there was a moderate effect of RSE on plasma NO 2 at PRE (g = 0.50 [−0.26, 1.24] and POST g = 0.71 [−0.05, 1.48]). During GXT, VO2 at the ventilatory threshold was significantly higher with RSE compared to PBO (+6.1 ± 7.3%; p < 0.05), though time-to-exhaustion (−4.0 ± 7.7%; p > 0.05) and maximal aerobic power (i.e., VO2 peak; −0.8 ± 5.6%; p > 0.05) were non-significantly lower with RSE. Conclusions: RSE as a nutritional supplement may elicit an ergogenic response by delaying the ventilatory threshold. View Full-Text
Keywords: Amaranthus dubius; submaximal; endurance exercise; nitrate; anaerobic threshold Amaranthus dubius; submaximal; endurance exercise; nitrate; anaerobic threshold
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Moore, A.N.; Haun, C.T.; Kephart, W.C.; Holland, A.M.; Mobley, C.B.; Pascoe, D.D.; Roberts, M.D.; Martin, J.S. Red Spinach Extract Increases Ventilatory Threshold during Graded Exercise Testing. Sports 2017, 5, 80.

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