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Special Issue "Rain Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Filippo Giannetti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione (DII), University of Pisa, Italy
Interests: wireless and mobile communications; satellite communications systems; radiopropagation; photonics; environmental monitoring; digital signal processing
Prof. Dr. Luca Giovanni Lanza
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica e Ambientale (DICCA), University of Genoa, Via Balbi, 5, 16126 Genova GE, Italy
Interests: physical/stochastic hydrology; precipitation measurement instruments; modeling space-time rainfall fields; floods and flash floods; basin hydrology; distributed hydrological modeling; river geomorphology; sustainable urban hydrology; storm water quality/water treatment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Rain detection and monitoring is essential for many human activities, such as agriculture, water management, transportation, tourism, and leisure. Furthermore, the increasing occurrence of extreme precipitation events caused by climate changes calls for urgent improvements in operational measurement techniques of the rainfall amount and intensity. Therefore, the need for the development of new sensors, together with the definition of the relevant calibration and standardization procedures, becomes ever more pressing.

In this context, this Special Issue aims to collect a number of papers about rain sensor technologies and applications, with the goal of providing the readership with an understanding of operating principles, state-of-the-art, applications, and future trends of such devices. This Special Issue thus welcomes contributions by researchers from both academia and industry on all aspects of rain sensor technologies and applications, spanning over different measuring principles, measurement scales, and the measured characteristics of the rainfall process (intensity, drop size distribution, fall velocity, etc.). Papers are also invited on the various aspects of sensor calibration, uncertainty assessment, standardization, and validation.

Contributions can be in the form of tutorials, surveys, and feature papers presenting the state-of-the-art of the technology, applications, case studies, prototypes, results of measurement campaigns, and innovative solutions.

Prof. Filippo Giannetti
Prof. Dr. Luca Giovanni Lanza
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • rain sensors
  • rain gauges
  • tipping buckets
  • disdrometers
  • weather radars
  • microwave propagation
  • rain fading
  • satellites
  • meteorology
  • climatology
  • hydrology
  • civil protection
  • agriculture
  • water management
  • automotive
  • environmental monitoring
  • sensor networks

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Research on Rainfall Monitoring Based on E-Band Millimeter Wave Link in East China
Sensors 2021, 21(5), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051670 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Accurate rainfall observation data with high temporal and spatial resolution are essential for national disaster prevention and mitigation as well as climate response decisions. This paper introduces a field experiment using an E-band millimeter-wave link to obtain rainfall rate information in Nanjing city, [...] Read more.
Accurate rainfall observation data with high temporal and spatial resolution are essential for national disaster prevention and mitigation as well as climate response decisions. This paper introduces a field experiment using an E-band millimeter-wave link to obtain rainfall rate information in Nanjing city, which is situated in the east of China. The link is 3 km long and operates at 71 and 81 GHz. We first distinguish between the wet and the dry periods, and then determine the classification threshold for calculating attenuation baseline in real time. We correct the influence of the wet antenna attenuation and finally calculate the rainfall rate through the power law relationship between the rainfall rate and the rain-induced attenuation. The experimental results show that the correlation between the rainfall rate retrieved from the 71 GHz link and the rainfall rate measured by the raindrop spectrometer is up to 0.9. The correlation at 81 GHz is up to 0.91. The mean relative errors are all below 5%. By comparing with the rainfall rate measured by the laser raindrop spectrometer set up at the experimental site, we verified the reliability and accuracy of monitoring rainfall using the E-band millimeter-wave link. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rain Sensors)
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Open AccessCommunication
Real-Time Rainfall Estimation Using Microwave Links: A Case Study in East China during the Plum Rain Season in 2020
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030858 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Accurate and real-time rainfall estimation is a pressing need for forecasting the flood disaster and reducing the loss. In this study, we exploit the potential of estimating the rainfall by microwave links in East China. Eight microwave links at 15 GHz and 23 [...] Read more.
Accurate and real-time rainfall estimation is a pressing need for forecasting the flood disaster and reducing the loss. In this study, we exploit the potential of estimating the rainfall by microwave links in East China. Eight microwave links at 15 GHz and 23 GHz, operated by China Mobile, are used for estimating the rain rate in real-time in Jiangyin, China from June to July 2020. First, we analyze the correlation between the rain-induced attenuation of microwave links and the rain rate measured by rain gauges. The correlation coefficient values are higher than 0.77 with the highest one over 0.9, showing a strong positive correlation. The real-time results indicate that microwave links estimate the rainfall with a higher temporal resolution than the rain gauges. Meanwhile, the rain rate that was estimated by microwave links also correlates well with the actual rain rate, and most of the values of the mean absolute error are less than 1.50 mm/h. Besides, the total rainfall’s relative deviation values are less than 5% with the smallest one reaching 1%. The quantitative results also indicate that microwave links could lead to better forecasting of water levels and, hence, better warnings for flood disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rain Sensors)
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