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Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 May 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jaime Lloret Mauri

Department of Communications, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 46022, Valencia, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34609549043
Interests: network protocols; network algorithms; wireless sensor networks; ad hoc networks; multimedia streaming

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Areas such as aquaculture, underwater communication, underwater surveillance and monitoring, etc., are currently well-established in the industry. Moreover, seafood and fish are in high demanded on the market, so there is a very strict control of product quality. New technology helps the development of underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks. New sensing systems add new ways to detect issues and gather data. New communication systems allow larger underwater distances with higher data rates. New sensor network structures and topologies allow new methods of underwater surveillance. This Special Issue is focused on collecting the latest applications, advances and challenges in underwater sensor nodes and underwater sensor networks.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jaime Lloret Mauri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Underwater sensor nodes and devices
  • Underwater sensor networks
  • Topologies for underwater sensor networks
  • Underwater sensor networks communication
  • Sensor networks for aquaculture, fish farming and fish monitoring
  • Underwater surveillance and monitoring
  • Databases and big data for underwater systems control
  • Underwater modems

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Concurrent Transmission Based on Distributed Scheduling for Underwater Acoustic Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081871
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Handshaking is a common technique used to avoid collisions in terrestrial and underwater content-based networks. However, due to the long propagation delay of the underwater acoustic channel, the conventional handshaking mechanism, which only allows one successful handshake and one pair of nodes to [...] Read more.
Handshaking is a common technique used to avoid collisions in terrestrial and underwater content-based networks. However, due to the long propagation delay of the underwater acoustic channel, the conventional handshaking mechanism, which only allows one successful handshake and one pair of nodes to communicate per transmission cycle, becomes less effective in underwater acoustic networks. This paper proposes a new distributed scheduling method for underwater acoustic networks that supports multiple handshakes and concurrent transmissions in one transmission cycle for one-hop clusters. A deterministic scheduling algorithm was developed to optimize the sending sequence and time of the source nodes jointly so that the total data transmission time is shortened while avoiding collisions among multiple concurrent transmissions. The deterministic scheduling algorithm can also reduce the scheduling overhead and enables the synchronization of the data concurrent transmissions in a distributed manner via the standard two-way handshaking. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms several conventional underwater medium access control protocols in normalized throughput, packet delivery rate, average end-to-end delay, and average energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Fully Generalized Spatial Modulation for the Internet of Underwater Things
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071519
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
A full design of the Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) with a high data rate is one of the greatest underwater communication difficulties due to the unavailability of a sustainable power source for the battery supplies of sensor nodes, electromagnetic spread weakness, and [...] Read more.
A full design of the Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) with a high data rate is one of the greatest underwater communication difficulties due to the unavailability of a sustainable power source for the battery supplies of sensor nodes, electromagnetic spread weakness, and limited acoustic waves channel bandwidth. This paper presents a new energy-efficient communication scheme named Enhanced Fully Generalized Spatial Modulation (EFGSM) for the underwater acoustic channel, where the different number of active antennas used in Fully Generalized Spatial Modulation (FGSM) is combined with multiple signal constellations. The proposed EFGSM enhances energy efficiency over conventional schemes such as spatial modulation, generalized spatial modulation, and FGSM. In order to increase energy and spectral performance, the proposed technique conveys data bits not just by the number of active antenna’s index as in the existing traditional FGSM, but also using the type of signal constellation to increase the data bit rate and improve power saving without increasing the receiver’s complexity. The proposed EFGSM uses primary and secondary constellations as indexes to carry information, they are derived from others by geometric interpolation signal space. The performance of the suggested EFGSM is estimated and demonstrated through Monte Carlo simulation over an underwater acoustic channel. The simulation results confirm the advantage of the suggested EFGSM scheme not just regarding energy and spectral efficiency but also concerning the average bit error rate (ABER). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle ProLo: Localization via Projection for Three-Dimensional Mobile Underwater Sensor Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061414
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
We study the problem of three-dimensional localization of the underwater mobile sensor networks using only range measurements without GPS devices. This problem is challenging because sensor nodes often drift with unknown water currents. Consequently, the moving direction and speed of a sensor node [...] Read more.
We study the problem of three-dimensional localization of the underwater mobile sensor networks using only range measurements without GPS devices. This problem is challenging because sensor nodes often drift with unknown water currents. Consequently, the moving direction and speed of a sensor node cannot be predicted. Moreover, the motion devices of the sensor nodes are not accurate in underwater environments. Therefore, we propose an adaptive localization scheme, ProLo, taking these uncertainties into consideration. This scheme applies the rigidity theory and maintains a virtual rigid structure through projection. We have proved the correctness of this three-dimensional localization scheme and also validated it using simulation. The results demonstrate that ProLo is promising for real mobile underwater sensor networks with various noises and errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Towards Void Hole Alleviation by Exploiting the Energy Efficient Path and by Providing the Interference-Free Proactive Routing Protocols in IoT Enabled Underwater WSNs
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061313
Received: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
Nowadays, the Internet of Things enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (IoT-UWSN) is suffering from serious performance restrictions, i.e., high End to End (E2E) delay, low energy efficiency, low data reliability, etc. The necessity of efficient, reliable, collision and interference-free communication has become a [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the Internet of Things enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (IoT-UWSN) is suffering from serious performance restrictions, i.e., high End to End (E2E) delay, low energy efficiency, low data reliability, etc. The necessity of efficient, reliable, collision and interference-free communication has become a challenging task for the researchers. However, the minimum Energy Consumption (EC) and low E2E delay increase the performance of the IoT-UWSN. Therefore, in the current work, two proactive routing protocols are presented, namely: Bellman–Ford Shortest Path-based Routing (BF-SPR-Three) and Energy-efficient Path-based Void hole and Interference-free Routing (EP-VIR-Three). Then we formalized the aforementioned problems to accomplish the reliable data transmission in Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN). The main objectives of this paper include minimum EC, interference-free transmission, void hole avoidance and high Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR). Furthermore, the algorithms for the proposed routing protocols are presented. Feasible regions using linear programming are also computed for optimal EC and to enhance the network lifespan. Comparative analysis is also performed with state-of-the-art proactive routing protocols. In the end, extensive simulations have been performed to authenticate the performance of the proposed routing protocols. Results and discussion disclose that the proposed routing protocols outperformed the counterparts significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle CoSiM-RPO: Cooperative Routing with Sink Mobility for Reliable and Persistent Operation in Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051101
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
An efficient algorithm for the persistence operation of data routing is crucial due to the uniqueness and challenges of the aqueous medium of the underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UA-WSNs). The existing multi-hop algorithms have a high energy cost, data loss, and less [...] Read more.
An efficient algorithm for the persistence operation of data routing is crucial due to the uniqueness and challenges of the aqueous medium of the underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UA-WSNs). The existing multi-hop algorithms have a high energy cost, data loss, and less stability due to many forwarders for a single-packet delivery. In order to tackle these constraints and limitations, two algorithms using sink mobility and cooperative technique for UA-WSNs are devised. The first one is sink mobility for reliable and persistence operation (SiM-RPO) in UA-WSNs, and the second is the enhanced version of the SiM-RPO named CoSiM-RPO, which utilizes the cooperative technique for better exchanging of the information and minimizes data loss probability. To cover all of the network through mobile sinks (MSs), the division of the network into small portions is accomplished. The path pattern is determined for MSs in a manner to receive data even from a single node in the network. The MSs pick the data directly from the nodes and check them for the errors. When erroneous data are received at the MS, then the relay cooperates to receive correct data. The proposed algorithm boosts the network lifespan, throughput, delay, and stability more than the existing counterpart schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Analysis of Two Piezoelectric Cymbal Transducers with Metal Ring and Add Mass
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010137
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
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Abstract
Based on traditional sandwich structure, two piezoelectric transducers were designed to meet the strict underwater application backgrounds such as high pressure, corrosion resistance, and high strength. Both transducers integrated most of previous researches while one transducer has a multilayer cavity structure which is [...] Read more.
Based on traditional sandwich structure, two piezoelectric transducers were designed to meet the strict underwater application backgrounds such as high pressure, corrosion resistance, and high strength. Both transducers integrated most of previous researches while one transducer has a multilayer cavity structure which is different from the other structure and previous transducer structures. After a detailed simulation analysis of every structural parameter, key parameters were pointed out to have an obvious influence on its performance. Then, two models were constructed and compared with chosen sets of geometry parameters and manufacturing process, which can also provide a reference for low-frequency transducer design. The simulation results and experimental results of our transducers show a good consistency which indicates the cavity structure can reduce the resonance frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Underwater Acoustic Target Recognition Based on Supervised Feature-Separation Algorithm
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4318; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124318
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
For the purpose of improving the accuracy of underwater acoustic target recognition with only a small number of labeled data, we proposed a novel recognition method, including 4 steps: pre-processing, pre-training, fine-tuning and recognition. The 4 steps can be explained as follows: (1) [...] Read more.
For the purpose of improving the accuracy of underwater acoustic target recognition with only a small number of labeled data, we proposed a novel recognition method, including 4 steps: pre-processing, pre-training, fine-tuning and recognition. The 4 steps can be explained as follows: (1) Pre-processing with Resonance-based Sparsity Signal Decomposition (RSSD): RSSD was firstly utilized to extract high-resonance components from ship-radiated noise. The high-resonance components contain the major information for target recognition. (2) Pre-training with unsupervised feature-extraction: we proposed a one-dimensional convolution autoencoder-decoder model and then we pre-trained the model to extract features from the high-resonance components. (3) Fine-tuning with supervised feature-separation: a supervised feature-separation algorithm was proposed to fine-tune the model and separate the extracted features. (4) Recognition: classifiers were trained to recognize the separated features and complete the recognition mission. The unsupervised pre-training autoencoder-decoder can make good use of a large number of unlabeled data, so that only a small number of labeled data are required in the following supervised fine-tuning and recognition, which is quite effective when it is difficult to collect enough labeled data. The recognition experiments were all conducted on ship-radiated noise data recorded using a sensory hydrophone. By combining the 4 steps above, the proposed recognition method can achieve recognition accuracy of 93.28%, which sufficiently surpasses other traditional state-of-art feature-extraction methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle An Adaptive Prediction Target Search Algorithm for Multi-AUVs in an Unknown 3D Environment
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3853; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113853
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
For a target search of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in a completely unknown three-dimensional (3D) underwater environment, a multi-AUV collaborative target search algorithm based on adaptive prediction is proposed in this paper. The environmental information sensed by the forward-looking sonar is used to [...] Read more.
For a target search of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in a completely unknown three-dimensional (3D) underwater environment, a multi-AUV collaborative target search algorithm based on adaptive prediction is proposed in this paper. The environmental information sensed by the forward-looking sonar is used to judge the current state of view, and the AUV system uses this environmental information to perform the target search task. If there is no target in the field of view, the AUV system will judge whether all sub-regions of the current layer have been searched or not. The next sub-region for searching is determined by the evaluation function and the task assignment strategy. If there are targets in the field of view, the evaluation function and the estimation function of the adaptive predictive optimization algorithm is used to estimate the location of the unknown target. At the same time, the algorithm also can reduce the positioning error caused by the noise of the sonar sensor. In this paper, the simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can not only deal with static targets and random dynamic interference target search tasks, but it can also perform target search tasks under some random AUV failure conditions. In this process, the underwater communication limits are also considered. Finally, simulation experiments indicate the high efficiency and great adaptability of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle A Rule-Based Reasoner for Underwater Robots Using OWL and SWRL
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3481; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103481
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Web Ontology Language (OWL) is designed to represent varied knowledge about things and the relationships of things. It is widely used to express complex models and address information heterogeneity of specific domains, such as underwater environments and robots. With the help of OWL, [...] Read more.
Web Ontology Language (OWL) is designed to represent varied knowledge about things and the relationships of things. It is widely used to express complex models and address information heterogeneity of specific domains, such as underwater environments and robots. With the help of OWL, heterogeneous underwater robots are able to cooperate with each other by exchanging information with the same meaning and robot operators can organize the coordination easier. However, OWL has expressivity limitations on representing general rules, especially the statement “If … Then … Else …”. Fortunately, the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) has strong rule representation capabilities. In this paper, we propose a rule-based reasoner for inferring and providing query services based on OWL and SWRL. SWRL rules are directly inserted into the ontologies by several steps of model transformations instead of using a specific editor. In the verification experiments, the SWRL rules were successfully and efficiently inserted into the OWL-based ontologies, obtaining completely correct query results. This rule-based reasoner is a promising approach to increase the inference capability of ontology-based models and it achieves significant contributions when semantic queries are done. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Challenges, Threats, Security Issues and New Trends of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3907; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113907
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the advances in technology, there has been an increasing interest from researchers and industrial institutions in the use of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Constrained by the open acoustic channel, harsh underwater environment, and their own particularities, UWSNs are vulnerable to a [...] Read more.
With the advances in technology, there has been an increasing interest from researchers and industrial institutions in the use of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Constrained by the open acoustic channel, harsh underwater environment, and their own particularities, UWSNs are vulnerable to a wide class of security threats and malicious attacks. However, most existing research into UWSNs has not taken security into consideration. Moreover, the existing relatively mature security mechanisms for WSNs cannot be directly utilized in UWSNs. For these reasons, this article aims to present a comprehensive overview of the particularities, constraints, attacks, challenges and current security mechanisms of UWSNs. In addition, challenging, open and hot research topics are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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