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Open AccessArticle

Towards Void Hole Alleviation by Exploiting the Energy Efficient Path and by Providing the Interference-Free Proactive Routing Protocols in IoT Enabled Underwater WSNs

1
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
College of Computer and Information Systems, Al Yamamah University, Riyadh 11512, Saudi Arabia
3
Cameron Library, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2J8, Canada
4
Computer Engineering Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11543, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061313
Received: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
Nowadays, the Internet of Things enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (IoT-UWSN) is suffering from serious performance restrictions, i.e., high End to End (E2E) delay, low energy efficiency, low data reliability, etc. The necessity of efficient, reliable, collision and interference-free communication has become a challenging task for the researchers. However, the minimum Energy Consumption (EC) and low E2E delay increase the performance of the IoT-UWSN. Therefore, in the current work, two proactive routing protocols are presented, namely: Bellman–Ford Shortest Path-based Routing (BF-SPR-Three) and Energy-efficient Path-based Void hole and Interference-free Routing (EP-VIR-Three). Then we formalized the aforementioned problems to accomplish the reliable data transmission in Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN). The main objectives of this paper include minimum EC, interference-free transmission, void hole avoidance and high Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR). Furthermore, the algorithms for the proposed routing protocols are presented. Feasible regions using linear programming are also computed for optimal EC and to enhance the network lifespan. Comparative analysis is also performed with state-of-the-art proactive routing protocols. In the end, extensive simulations have been performed to authenticate the performance of the proposed routing protocols. Results and discussion disclose that the proposed routing protocols outperformed the counterparts significantly. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy efficient; void hole; shortest path based routing; EC; depth energy efficient; void hole; shortest path based routing; EC; depth
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Awais, M.; Javaid, N.; Rehman, A.; Qasim, U.; Alhussein, M.; Aurangzeb, K. Towards Void Hole Alleviation by Exploiting the Energy Efficient Path and by Providing the Interference-Free Proactive Routing Protocols in IoT Enabled Underwater WSNs. Sensors 2019, 19, 1313.

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