Next Article in Journal
Broadband Linear High-Power Amplifier Based on the Parallel Amplification Architecture for Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Guided Wave
Next Article in Special Issue
Self-Organizing and Scalable Routing Protocol (SOSRP) for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Interferometric DEM-Assisted High Precision Imaging Method for ArcSAR
Previous Article in Special Issue
Optimal Deployment of Vector Sensor Nodes in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Article Menu
Issue 13 (July-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Design and Evaluation of an Acoustic Modem for a Small Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle

The Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Minister of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, China
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2923;
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
PDF [4235 KB, uploaded 2 July 2019]


Design of underwater acoustic (UWA) modems for compact-sized, underwater platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is challenging because of the practical requirement to keep an engineering balance between the performance and the system overhead. Considering this type of mobile communication scenario, Doppler spread as well as the multipath draws substantial attention in implementing the system’s design and engineering. Specifically, for a small AUV, the large computational complexity of real-time resampling for the classic Doppler correction poses significant difficulty for the limited capability of the low-cost processor. In this paper, by adopting an adjustable AD (analog-to-digital) sampling rate, a Doppler compensation approach is proposed to enable low-complexity hardware implementation. Based on this, a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) acoustic modem is designed for a low-cost, small-sized AUV. Meanwhile, the performance evaluation of this acoustic modem is conducted in terms of the robustness upon varying Doppler as well as AUV integration. Finally, experimental results performed on a commercial, small-sized AUV under different speeds are reported to verify the effectiveness of the proposed acoustic modem. View Full-Text
Keywords: doppler; AUV; acoustic modem; direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) doppler; AUV; acoustic modem; direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, S.; Tong, F.; Li, B.; Tao, Q.; Song, A.; Zhang, F. Design and Evaluation of an Acoustic Modem for a Small Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle. Sensors 2019, 19, 2923.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top