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Special Issue "Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 February 2019) | Viewed by 86066

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dongkyun Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Computer Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Interests: connected cars; vehicular ad hoc networks; internet of things (machine-to-machine/device-to-device); Wi-Fi networks (including Wi-Fi Direct); wireless mesh networks; wireless sensor networks; future Internet
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Jaime Lloret
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Integrated Management Coastal Research Institute, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Interests: network protocols; network algorithms; wireless sensor networks; ad hoc networks; multimedia streaming
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sensor networks have been extensively used over the past few decades for several application paradigms to improve our lifestyles, such as medical sensing applications, environmental monitoring applications, military sensing applications, underwater sensing applications, hazard sensing, etc. We see a similar trend in the Internet of Things (IoT), which has emerged as the enabler of multiple networking technologies. The goal of IoT is to connect and control everyday things, composed of sensing, computation and communication capabilities, to the Internet. IoT is also expected to support various applications with faster decision-making capabilities and reliable transmissions between consumer electronic devices. Sensor networks are at the heart of enabling IoT applications. Examples where researcher use sensor networks and IoT together for numerous applications include smart homes, smart cities, and intelligent transportation networks.

The objective of this Special Issue is to address the innovative developments based on current technologies and new idea related to sensor networks and IoT. The Special Issue is seeking the latest findings from research and ongoing projects relevant to IoT and sensor networks. Additionally, review articles that provide readers with current research trends in both sensor networks and IoT are also welcome. The potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Cross-Layer Protocols for sensor networks
  • Routing protocols for sensor networks
  • Transport layer protocols for sensor networks
  • MAC layer protocols for sensor networks
  • New emerging architectures for IoT and sensor networks
  • New applications and test bed for IoT and sensor networks
  • Energy-efficient protocols for WSN and IoT
  • Energy harvesting/scavenging for WSN and IoT
  • Security and privacy architectures for WSN and IoT
  • Interrelationship between WSN and IoT: Similarities and differences
  • WSN aspects that are critical for future IoT
  • WSN issues and technologies for IoT applications
  • IoT management and monitoring
  • IoT platforms for education and applications
  • Cohesion of WSN and IoT to build a Smart Home, Smart Cities, Smart Buildings
  • Edge computing, fog computing and cloud computing in IoT

Prof. Dr. Dongkyun Kim
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jaime Lloret Mauri
Dr. Syed Hassan Ahmed
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Article
Relay Positions Considering Interference from Other Sub-Channels in OFDMA-Based D2D Group-Casting Systems
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061374 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is a technique for direct communication between devices without going through a base station or other infrastructure. D2D communication technology has the advantages of improving spectrum efficiency and reducing transmission delay and transmission power. In D2D communication systems, orthogonal frequency-division [...] Read more.
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is a technique for direct communication between devices without going through a base station or other infrastructure. D2D communication technology has the advantages of improving spectrum efficiency and reducing transmission delay and transmission power. In D2D communication systems, orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) is widely used to maintain similarities with cellular communication systems and to secure transmission distance. OFDMA allows flexible and efficient use of frequency resources by allocating sub-channels independent to each user. In this paper, we consider a D2D overlay system that uses different sub-channels for cellular and D2D communications. In theory, the signals on different sub-channels of an OFDMA system are orthogonal and not interfered with each other. However, in a D2D communication system, which operates in a distributed manner, there is non-negligible interference from other sub-channels because of in-band emissions. In this paper, we address the performance degradation resulting from the interference from other sub-channels for OFDMA-based D2D group-casting systems. We consider three different scenarios of D2D relay, and we find the relay position that minimizes the outage probability. The simulation and analytical results show that the optimal location of a relay can be considerably different according to the source location and the target scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
A Multi-Feature and Multi-Level Matching Algorithm Using Aerial Image and AIS for Vessel Identification
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061317 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5540
Abstract
In order to monitor and manage vessels in channels effectively, identification and tracking are very necessary. This work developed a maritime unmanned aerial vehicle (Mar-UAV) system equipped with a high-resolution camera and an Automatic Identification System (AIS). A multi-feature and multi-level matching algorithm [...] Read more.
In order to monitor and manage vessels in channels effectively, identification and tracking are very necessary. This work developed a maritime unmanned aerial vehicle (Mar-UAV) system equipped with a high-resolution camera and an Automatic Identification System (AIS). A multi-feature and multi-level matching algorithm using the spatiotemporal characteristics of aerial images and AIS information was proposed to detect and identify field vessels. Specifically, multi-feature information, including position, scale, heading, speed, etc., are used to match between real-time image and AIS message. Additionally, the matching algorithm is divided into two levels, point matching and trajectory matching, for the accurate identification of surface vessels. Through such a matching algorithm, the Mar-UAV system is able to automatically identify the vessel’s vision, which improves the autonomy of the UAV in maritime tasks. The multi-feature and multi-level matching algorithm has been employed for the developed Mar-UAV system, and some field experiments have been implemented in the Yangzi River. The results indicated that the proposed matching algorithm and the Mar-UAV system are very significant for achieving autonomous maritime supervision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Internet of Vehicles and Cost-Effective Traffic Signal Control
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061275 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is attracting many researchers with the emergence of autonomous or smart vehicles. Vehicles on the road are becoming smart objects equipped with lots of sensors and powerful computing and communication capabilities. In the IoV environment, the efficiency of [...] Read more.
The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is attracting many researchers with the emergence of autonomous or smart vehicles. Vehicles on the road are becoming smart objects equipped with lots of sensors and powerful computing and communication capabilities. In the IoV environment, the efficiency of road transportation can be enhanced with the help of cost-effective traffic signal control. Traffic signal controllers control traffic lights based on the number of vehicles waiting for the green light (in short, vehicle queue length). So far, the utilization of video cameras or sensors has been extensively studied as the intelligent means of the vehicle queue length estimation. However, it has the deficiencies like high computing overhead, high installation and maintenance cost, high susceptibility to the surrounding environment, etc. Therefore, in this paper, we propose the vehicular communication-based approach for intelligent traffic signal control in a cost-effective way with low computing overhead and high resilience to environmental obstacles. In the vehicular communication-based approach, traffic signals are efficiently controlled at no extra cost by using the pre-equipped vehicular communication capabilities of IoV. Vehicular communications allow vehicles to send messages to traffic signal controllers (i.e., vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications) so that they can estimate vehicle queue length based on the collected messages. In our previous work, we have proposed a mechanism that can accomplish the efficiency of vehicular communications without losing the accuracy of traffic signal control. This mechanism gives transmission preference to the vehicles farther away from the traffic signal controller, so that the other vehicles closer to the stop line give up transmissions. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism enhancing the previous mechanism by selecting the vehicles performing V2I communications based on the concept of road sectorization. In the mechanism, only the vehicles within specific areas, called sectors, perform V2I communications to reduce the message transmission overhead. For the performance comparison of our mechanisms, we carry out simulations by using the Veins vehicular network simulation framework and measure the message transmission overhead and the accuracy of the estimated vehicle queue length. Simulation results verify that our vehicular communication-based approach significantly reduces the message transmission overhead without losing the accuracy of the vehicle queue length estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
A Privacy-Preserving Traffic Monitoring Scheme via Vehicular Crowdsourcing
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061274 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2347
Abstract
The explosive number of vehicles has given rise to a series of traffic problems, such as traffic congestion, road safety, and fuel waste. Collecting vehicles’ speed information is an effective way to monitor the traffic conditions and avoid vehicles’ congestion, however it may [...] Read more.
The explosive number of vehicles has given rise to a series of traffic problems, such as traffic congestion, road safety, and fuel waste. Collecting vehicles’ speed information is an effective way to monitor the traffic conditions and avoid vehicles’ congestion, however it may threaten vehicles’ location and trajectory privacy. Motivated by the fact that traffic monitoring does not need to know each individual vehicle’s speed and the average speed would be sufficient, we propose a privacy-preserving traffic monitoring (PPTM) scheme to aggregate vehicles’ speeds at different locations. In PPTM, the roadside unit (RSU) collects vehicles’ speed information at multiple road segments, and further cooperates with a service provider to calculate the average speed information for every road segment. To preserve vehicles’ privacy, both homomorphic Paillier cryptosystem and super-increasing sequence are adopted. A comprehensive security analysis indicates that the proposed PPTM can preserve vehicles’ identities, speeds, locations, and trajectories privacy from being disclosed. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed PPTM scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Real-Time Healthcare Data Transmission for Remote Patient Monitoring in Patch-Based Hybrid OCC/BLE Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051208 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 8258
Abstract
Research on electronic healthcare (eHealth) systems has increased dramatically in recent years. eHealth represents a significant example of the application of the Internet of Things (IoT), characterized by its cost effectiveness, increased reliability, and minimal human effort in nursing assistance. The remote monitoring [...] Read more.
Research on electronic healthcare (eHealth) systems has increased dramatically in recent years. eHealth represents a significant example of the application of the Internet of Things (IoT), characterized by its cost effectiveness, increased reliability, and minimal human effort in nursing assistance. The remote monitoring of patients through a wearable sensing network has outstanding potential in current healthcare systems. Such a network can continuously monitor the vital health conditions (such as heart rate variability, blood pressure, glucose level, and oxygen saturation) of patients with chronic diseases. Low-power radio-frequency (RF) technologies, especially Bluetooth low energy (BLE), play significant roles in modern healthcare. However, most of the RF spectrum is licensed and regulated, and the effect of RF on human health is of major concern. Moreover, the signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio in high distance can be decreased to a considerable extent, possibly leading to the increase in bit-error rate. Optical camera communication (OCC), which uses a camera to receive data from a light-emitting diode (LED), can be utilized in eHealth to mitigate the limitations of RF. However, OCC also has several limitations, such as high signal-blockage probability. Therefore, in this study, a hybrid OCC/BLE system is proposed to ensure efficient, remote, and real-time transmission of a patient’s electrocardiogram (ECG) signal to a monitor. First, a patch circuit integrating an LED array and BLE transmitter chip is proposed. The patch collects the ECG data according to the health condition of the patient to minimize power consumption. Second, a network selection algorithm is developed for a new network access request generated in the patch circuit. Third, fuzzy logic is employed to select an appropriate camera for data reception. Fourth, a handover mechanism is suggested to ensure efficient network allocation considering the patient’s mobility. Finally, simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance and reliability of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Uplink Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access with Channel Estimation Errors for Internet of Things Applications
Sensors 2019, 19(4), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040912 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
One of the key requirements for next generation wireless or cellular communication systems is to efficiently support a large number of connections for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, and uplink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) schemes can be used for this purpose. In uplink [...] Read more.
One of the key requirements for next generation wireless or cellular communication systems is to efficiently support a large number of connections for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, and uplink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) schemes can be used for this purpose. In uplink NOMA systems, pilot symbols, as well as data symbols can be superimposed onto shared resources. The error rate performance can be severely degraded due to channel estimation errors, especially when the number of superimposed packets is large. In this paper, we discuss uplink NOMA schemes with channel estimation errors, assuming that quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation is used. When pilot signals are superimposed onto the shared resources and a large number of devices perform random accesses concurrently to a single resource of the base station, the channels might not be accurately estimated even in high SNR environments. In this paper, we propose an uplink NOMA scheme, which can alleviate the performance degradation due to channel estimation errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
A Fractal-Based Authentication Technique Using Sierpinski Triangles in Smart Devices
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030678 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4538
Abstract
The prevalence of smart devices in our day-to-day activities increases the potential threat to our secret information. To counter these threats like unauthorized access and misuse of phones, only authorized users should be able to access the device. Authentication mechanism provide a secure [...] Read more.
The prevalence of smart devices in our day-to-day activities increases the potential threat to our secret information. To counter these threats like unauthorized access and misuse of phones, only authorized users should be able to access the device. Authentication mechanism provide a secure way to safeguard the physical resources as well the information that is processed. Text-based passwords are the most common technique used for the authentication of devices, however, they are vulnerable to a certain type of attacks such as brute force, smudge and shoulder surfing attacks. Graphical Passwords (GPs) were introduced as an alternative for the conventional text-based authentication to overcome the potential threats. GPs use pictures and have been implemented in smart devices and workstations. Psychological studies reveal that humans can recognize images much easier and quicker than numeric and alphanumeric passwords, which become the basis for creating GPs. In this paper a novel Fractal-Based Authentication Technique (FBAT) has been proposed by implementing a Sierpinski triangle. In the FBAT scheme, the probability of password guessing is low making system resilient against abovementioned threats. Increasing fractal level makes the system stronger and provides security against attacks like shoulder surfing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Exploiting Layered Multi-Path Routing Protocols to Avoid Void Hole Regions for Reliable Data Delivery and Efficient Energy Management for IoT-Enabled Underwater WSNs
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030510 - 26 Jan 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3065
Abstract
The key concerns to enhance the lifetime of IoT-enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (IoT-UWSNs) are energy-efficiency and reliable data delivery under constrained resource. Traditional transmission approaches increase the communication overhead, which results in congestion and affect the reliable data delivery. Currently, many routing [...] Read more.
The key concerns to enhance the lifetime of IoT-enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (IoT-UWSNs) are energy-efficiency and reliable data delivery under constrained resource. Traditional transmission approaches increase the communication overhead, which results in congestion and affect the reliable data delivery. Currently, many routing protocols have been proposed for UWSNs to ensure reliable data delivery and to conserve the node’s battery with minimum communication overhead (by avoiding void holes in the network). In this paper, adaptive energy-efficient routing protocols are proposed to tackle the aforementioned problems using the Shortest Path First (SPF) with least number of active nodes strategy. These novel protocols have been developed by integrating the prominent features of Forward Layered Multi-path Power Control One (FLMPC-One) routing protocol, which uses 2-hop neighbor information, Forward Layered Multi-path Power Control Two (FLMPC-Two) routing protocol, which uses 3-hop neighbor information and ’Dijkstra’ algorithm (for shortest path selection). Different Packet Sizes (PSs) with different Data Rates (DRs) are also taken into consideration to check the dynamicity of the proposed protocols. The achieved outcomes clearly validate the proposed protocols, namely: Shortest Path First using 3-hop neighbors information (SPF-Three) and Breadth First Search with Shortest Path First using 3-hop neighbors information (BFS-SPF-Three). Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed protocols in terms of minimum Energy Consumption (EC) and Required Packet Error Rate (RPER) with a minimum number of active nodes at the cost of affordable delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Integrated Management of Energy, Wellbeing and Health in the Next Generation of Smart Homes
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030481 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4870
Abstract
This contribution proposes an implementation for next generation smart homes, where heterogeneous data, coming from multiple sensors (medical, wellbeing, energy, contextual, etc.) and house equipment (smart fridge, smart TV, etc.), need to be managed, secured and visualized. As a first step, it focuses [...] Read more.
This contribution proposes an implementation for next generation smart homes, where heterogeneous data, coming from multiple sensors (medical, wellbeing, energy, contextual, etc.) and house equipment (smart fridge, smart TV, etc.), need to be managed, secured and visualized. As a first step, it focuses only on energy and health data. However, it aims to lay the foundations to manage any type of information towards the development of smart interactions with the house, which might include artificial intelligence and machine learning. These data are securely collected using a central Web of Things gateway, located inside the smart home. For the e-health part, a set of possible use-cases is provided, along with the current progress of the implantation. In this regard, the main idea is to link the next generation smart homes with external medical entities in order to provide, first, quick intervention in the event of an abnormality being detected, and to be able to provide basic medical services such as remote consultations with a doctor for a particular health issue. This vision can be very promising, particularly in rural areas, where access to medical services is difficult. As for the energy part, the aim is to collect users’ energy consumption inside the smart home, which can be supplied from different sources (heat, water, gas, or electricity), and to enable the use of advanced algorithms to predict and manage local energy consumption and production (if any). This approach combines data collected from smart meters, operational information of the smart energy devices (the status of smart plugs), user’s requests and external network signals such as energy prices. By using a home energy management system that accepts such input parameters, the operation of in-home devices and appliances can be optimally controlled according to different objectives (e.g., minimizing energy costs and maximizing user’s comfort level). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Optimal Resource Management and Binary Power Control in Network-Assisted D2D Communications for Higher Frequency Reuse Factor
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020251 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2524
Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) communications can be adopted as a promising solution to attain high quality of service (QoS) for a network. However, D2D communications generates harmful interference when available resources are shared with traditional cellular users (CUs). In this paper, network architecture for the [...] Read more.
Device-to-device (D2D) communications can be adopted as a promising solution to attain high quality of service (QoS) for a network. However, D2D communications generates harmful interference when available resources are shared with traditional cellular users (CUs). In this paper, network architecture for the uplink resource management issue for D2D communications underlaying uplink cellular networks is proposed. We develop a fractional frequency reuse (FFR) technique to mitigate interference induced by D2D pairs (DPs) to CUs and mutual interference among DPs in a cell. Then, we formulate a sum throughput optimization problem to achieve the QoS requirements of the system. However, the computational complexity of the optimization problem is very high due to the exhaustive search for a global optimal solution. In order to reduce the complexity, we propose a greedy heuristic search algorithm for D2D communications so as to find a sub-optimal solution. Moreover, a binary power control scheme is proposed to enhance the system throughput by reducing overall interference. The performance of our proposed scheme is analyzed through extensive numerical analysis using Monte Carlo simulation. The results demonstrate that our proposed scheme provides significant improvement in system throughput with the lowest computational complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Location-Based Lattice Mobility Model for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4096; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124096 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
Significant research has been conducted for maintaining a high standard of communication and good coverage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), but extra power consumption and mobility issues are not yet fully resolved. This paper introduces a memory-less location mobility-aware Lattice Mobility Model (LMM) [...] Read more.
Significant research has been conducted for maintaining a high standard of communication and good coverage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), but extra power consumption and mobility issues are not yet fully resolved. This paper introduces a memory-less location mobility-aware Lattice Mobility Model (LMM) for WSNs. LMM is capable of concurrently determining the node and sink mobility. LMM has a lower pause time, fewer control packets, and less node dependency (e.g., the energy consumed by each node in each cycle that is independent of the data traffic). LMM accurately determines a node’s moving location, the distance from its previous location to its current location, and the distance from its existing location to its destination. Many existing mobility models only provide a model how nodes move (e.g., to mimic pedestrian behavior), but do not actually control the next position based on properties of the underlying network topology. To determine the strength of LMM, OMNet++ was used to generate the realistic scenario to safeguard the affected area. The operation in affected area comprises searching for, detecting, and saving survivors. Currently, this process involves a time-consuming, manual search of the disaster area. This contribution aims to identify an energy efficient mobility model for a walking pattern in this particular scenario. LMM outperforms other mobility models, including the geographic-based circular mobility model (CMM), the random waypoint mobility model (RWMM) and the wind mobility model (WMM), The simulation results also demonstrate that the LMM requires the least time to change the location, has a lower drop rate, and has more residual energy savings than do the WMM, RWMM, and CMM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
A Novel Framework and Enhanced QoS Big Data Protocol for Smart City Applications
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3980; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113980 - 15 Nov 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3350
Abstract
Various heterogeneous devices or objects will be integrated for transparent and seamless communication under the umbrella of Internet of things (IoT). This would facilitate the open access of data for the growth of various digital services. Building a general framework of IoT is [...] Read more.
Various heterogeneous devices or objects will be integrated for transparent and seamless communication under the umbrella of Internet of things (IoT). This would facilitate the open access of data for the growth of various digital services. Building a general framework of IoT is a complex task because of the heterogeneity in devices, technologies, platforms and services operating in the same system. In this paper, we mainly focus on the framework for Big Data analytics in Smart City applications, which being a broad category specifies the different domains for each application. IoT is intended to support the vision of Smart City, where advance technologies will be used for communication to improve the quality of life of citizens. A novel approach is proposed in this paper to enhance energy conservation and reduce the delay in Big Data gathering at tiny sensor nodes used in IoT framework. To implement the Smart City scenario in terms of Big Data in IoT, an efficient (optimized in quality of service) wireless sensor network (WSN) is required where communication of nodes is energy efficient. Thus, a new protocol, QoS-IoT(quality of service enabled IoT), is proposed on the top layer of the proposed architecture (the five-layer architecture consists of technology, data source, data management, application and utility programs) which is validated over the traditional protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
On the Impact of Mobility on Battery-Less RF Energy Harvesting System Performance
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3597; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113597 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4008
Abstract
The future of Internet of Things (IoT) envisions billions of sensors integrated with the physical environment. At the same time, recharging and replacing batteries on this infrastructure could result not only in high maintenance costs, but also large amounts of toxic waste due [...] Read more.
The future of Internet of Things (IoT) envisions billions of sensors integrated with the physical environment. At the same time, recharging and replacing batteries on this infrastructure could result not only in high maintenance costs, but also large amounts of toxic waste due to the need to dispose of old batteries. Recently, battery-free sensor platforms have been developed that use supercapacitors as energy storage, promising maintenance-free and perpetual sensor operation. While prior work focused on supercapacitor characterization, modelling and supercapacitor-aware scheduling, the impact of mobility on capacitor charging and overall sensor application performance has been largely ignored. We show that supercapacitor size is critical for mobile system performance and that selecting an optimal value is not trivial: small capacitors charge quickly and enable the node to operate in low energy environments, but cannot support intensive tasks such as communication or reprogramming; increasing the capacitor size, on the other hand, enables the support for energy-intensive tasks, but may prevent the node from booting at all if the node navigates in a low energy area. The paper investigates this problem and proposes a hybrid storage solution that uses an adaptive learning algorithm to predict the amount of available ambient energy and dynamically switch between two capacitors depending on the environment. The evaluation based on extensive simulations and prototype measurements showed up to 40% and 80% improvement compared to a fixed-capacitor approach in terms of the amount of harvested energy and sensor coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Self-Organizing Traffic Flow Prediction with an Optimized Deep Belief Network for Internet of Vehicles
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3459; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103459 - 15 Oct 2018
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3586
Abstract
To assist in the broadcasting of time-critical traffic information in an Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and vehicular sensor networks (VSN), fast network connectivity is needed. Accurate traffic information prediction can improve traffic congestion and operation efficiency, which helps to reduce commute times, noise [...] Read more.
To assist in the broadcasting of time-critical traffic information in an Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and vehicular sensor networks (VSN), fast network connectivity is needed. Accurate traffic information prediction can improve traffic congestion and operation efficiency, which helps to reduce commute times, noise and carbon emissions. In this study, we present a novel approach for predicting the traffic flow volume by using traffic data in self-organizing vehicular networks. The proposed method is based on using a probabilistic generative neural network techniques called deep belief network (DBN) that includes multiple layers of restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) auto-encoders. Time series data generated from the roadside units (RSUs) for five highway links are used by a three layer DBN to extract and learn key input features for constructing a model to predict traffic flow. Back-propagation is utilized as a general learning algorithm for fine-tuning the weight parameters among the visible and hidden layers of RBMs. During the training process the firefly algorithm (FFA) is applied for optimizing the DBN topology and learning rate parameter. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the accuracy of the prediction model. The results show that the proposed model achieves superior performance accuracy for predicting traffic flow in comparison with other approaches applied in the literature. The proposed approach can help to solve the problem of traffic congestion, and provide guidance and advice for road users and traffic regulators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Interference-Aware Adaptive Beam Alignment for Hyper-Dense IEEE 802.11ax Internet-of-Things Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3364; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103364 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2860
Abstract
The increasing use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in specific areas results in an interference among them and the quality of communications can be severely degraded. To deal with this interference issue, the IEEE 802.11ax standard has been established in hyper-dense wireless [...] Read more.
The increasing use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in specific areas results in an interference among them and the quality of communications can be severely degraded. To deal with this interference issue, the IEEE 802.11ax standard has been established in hyper-dense wireless networking systems. The 802.11ax adopts a new candidate technology that is called multiple network allocation vector in order to mitigate the interference problem. In this paper, we point out a potential problem in multiple network allocation vector which can cause delays to communication among IoT devices in hyper-dense wireless networks. Furthermore, this paper introduces an adaptive beam alignment algorithm for interference resolution, and analyzes the potential delays of communications among IoT devices under interference conditions. Finally, we simulate our proposed algorithm in densely deployed environments and show that the interference can be mitigated and the IEEE 802.11ax-based IoT devices can utilize air interface more fairly compared to conventional IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Avoiding Void Holes and Collisions with Reliable and Interference-Aware Routing in Underwater WSNs
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093038 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3134
Abstract
Sparse node deployment and dynamic network topology in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) result in void hole problem. In this paper, we present two interference-aware routing protocols for UWSNs (Intar: interference-aware routing; and Re-Intar: reliable and interference-aware routing). In proposed protocols, we use [...] Read more.
Sparse node deployment and dynamic network topology in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) result in void hole problem. In this paper, we present two interference-aware routing protocols for UWSNs (Intar: interference-aware routing; and Re-Intar: reliable and interference-aware routing). In proposed protocols, we use sender based approach to avoid the void hole. The beauty of the proposed schemes is that they not only avoid void hole but also reduce the probability of collision. The proposed Re-Intar also uses one-hop backward transmission at the source node to further improve the packet delivery ratio of the network. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes in terms of end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Urban Planning and Smart City Decision Management Empowered by Real-Time Data Processing Using Big Data Analytics
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092994 - 07 Sep 2018
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 11186
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT), inspired by the tremendous growth of connected heterogeneous devices, has pioneered the notion of smart city. Various components, i.e., smart transportation, smart community, smart healthcare, smart grid, etc. which are integrated within smart city architecture aims to enrich [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT), inspired by the tremendous growth of connected heterogeneous devices, has pioneered the notion of smart city. Various components, i.e., smart transportation, smart community, smart healthcare, smart grid, etc. which are integrated within smart city architecture aims to enrich the quality of life (QoL) of urban citizens. However, real-time processing requirements and exponential data growth withhold smart city realization. Therefore, herein we propose a Big Data analytics (BDA)-embedded experimental architecture for smart cities. Two major aspects are served by the BDA-embedded smart city. Firstly, it facilitates exploitation of urban Big Data (UBD) in planning, designing, and maintaining smart cities. Secondly, it occupies BDA to manage and process voluminous UBD to enhance the quality of urban services. Three tiers of the proposed architecture are liable for data aggregation, real-time data management, and service provisioning. Moreover, offline and online data processing tasks are further expedited by integrating data normalizing and data filtering techniques to the proposed work. By analyzing authenticated datasets, we obtained the threshold values required for urban planning and city operation management. Performance metrics in terms of online and offline data processing for the proposed dual-node Hadoop cluster is obtained using aforementioned authentic datasets. Throughput and processing time analysis performed with regard to existing works guarantee the performance superiority of the proposed work. Hence, we can claim the applicability and reliability of implementing proposed BDA-embedded smart city architecture in the real world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
Context-Aware Gossip-Based Protocol for Internet of Things Applications
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072233 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3576
Abstract
This paper proposes a gossip-based protocol that utilises a multi-factor weighting function (MFWF) that takes several parameters into account: residual energy, Chebyshev distances to neighbouring nodes and the sink node, node density, and message priority. The effects of these parameters were examined to [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a gossip-based protocol that utilises a multi-factor weighting function (MFWF) that takes several parameters into account: residual energy, Chebyshev distances to neighbouring nodes and the sink node, node density, and message priority. The effects of these parameters were examined to guide the customization of the weight function to effectively disseminate data to three types of IoT applications: critical, bandwidth-intensive, and energy-efficient applications. The performances of the three resulting MFWFs were assessed in comparison with the performances of the traditional gossiping protocol and the Fair Efficient Location-based Gossiping (FELGossiping) protocol in terms of end-to-end delay, network lifetime, rebroadcast nodes, and saved rebroadcasts. The experimental results demonstrated the proposed protocol’s ability to achieve a much shorter delay for critical IoT applications. For bandwidth-intensive IoT application, the proposed protocol was able to achieve a smaller percentage of rebroadcast nodes and an increased percentage of saved rebroadcasts, i.e., better bandwidth utilisation. The adapted MFWF for energy-efficient IoT application was able to improve the network lifetime compared to that of gossiping and FELGossiping. These results demonstrate the high level of flexibility of the proposed protocol with respect to network context and message priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Article
SoEasy: A Software Framework for Easy Hardware Control Programming for Diverse IoT Platforms
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072162 - 05 Jul 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4353
Abstract
Many Internet of Things (IoT) applications are emerging and evolving rapidly thanks to widespread open-source hardware platforms. Most of the high-end open-source IoT platforms include built-in peripherals, such as the universal asynchronous receiver and transmitter (UART), pulse width modulation (PWM), general purpose input [...] Read more.
Many Internet of Things (IoT) applications are emerging and evolving rapidly thanks to widespread open-source hardware platforms. Most of the high-end open-source IoT platforms include built-in peripherals, such as the universal asynchronous receiver and transmitter (UART), pulse width modulation (PWM), general purpose input output (GPIO) ports and timers, and have enough computation power to run embedded operating systems such as Linux. However, each IoT platform has its own way of configuring peripherals, and it is difficult for programmers or users to configure the same peripheral on a different platform. Although diverse open-source IoT platforms are widespread, the difficulty in programming those platforms hinders the growth of IoT applications. Therefore, we propose an easy and convenient way to program and configure the operation of each peripheral using a user-friendly Web-based software framework. Through the implementation of the software framework and the real mobile robot application development along with it, we show the feasibility of the proposed software framework, named SoEasy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
A Comprehensive Technological Survey on the Dependable Self-Management CPS: From Self-Adaptive Architecture to Self-Management Strategies
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051033 - 28 Feb 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3709
Abstract
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been a popular research area in the last decade. The dependability of CPS is still a critical issue, and few surveys have been published in this domain. CPS is a dynamic complex system, which involves various multidisciplinary technologies. [...] Read more.
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been a popular research area in the last decade. The dependability of CPS is still a critical issue, and few surveys have been published in this domain. CPS is a dynamic complex system, which involves various multidisciplinary technologies. To avoid human errors and to simplify management, self-management CPS (SCPS) is a wise choice. To achieve dependable self-management, systematic solutions are necessary to verify the design and to guarantee the safety of self-adaptation decisions, as well as to maintain the health of SCPS. This survey first recalls the concepts of dependability, and proposes a generic environment-in-loop processing flow of self-management CPS, and then analyzes the error sources and challenges of self-management through the formal feedback flow. Focusing on reducing the complexity, we first survey the self-adaptive architecture approaches and applied dependability means, then we introduce a hybrid multi-role self-adaptive architecture, and discuss the supporting technologies for dependable self-management at the architecture level. Focus on dependable environment-centered adaptation, we investigate the verification and validation (V&V) methods for making safe self-adaptation decision and the solutions for processing decision dependably. For system-centered adaptation, the comprehensive self-healing methods are summarized. Finally, we analyze the missing pieces of the technology puzzle and the future directions. In this survey, the technical trends for dependable CPS design and maintenance are discussed, an all-in-one solution is proposed to integrate these technologies and build a dependable organic SCPS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable SCPS building and evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Review
Carbon Monoxide Sensing Technologies for Next-Generation Cyber-Physical Systems
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103443 - 13 Oct 2018
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 3652
Abstract
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, and environmental pollutant. Its detection and control in residential and industrial environments are necessary in order to avoid potentially severe health problems in humans. In this review paper, we discuss the importance of furthering research in [...] Read more.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, and environmental pollutant. Its detection and control in residential and industrial environments are necessary in order to avoid potentially severe health problems in humans. In this review paper, we discuss the importance of furthering research in CO sensing technologies for finding the proper material with low-range detection ability in very optimum condition. We build our discussion through the perspective of a cyber-physical system (CPS) modeling framework, because it provides a comprehensive framework to model and develop automated solutions for detection and control of poisonous chemical compounds, such as the CO. The most effective CO sensors, then, can be used in CPS network to provide a pathway for real-time monitoring and control in both industrial and household environment. In this paper, first, we discuss the necessity of CO detection, the proposal of a basic CPS framework for modeling and system development, how the CPS-CO model can be beneficiary to the environment, and a general classification of the various CO detection mechanisms. Next, a broad overview emphasizes the sensitivity, selectivity, response and recovery time, low concentration detection ability, effects of external parameters and other specifications that characterize the performance of the sensing methods proposed so far. We will discuss recent studies reported on the use of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensing technologies for the detection of CO. MOS based micro-sensors play an important role in the measurement and monitoring of various trace amounts of CO gas. These sensors are used to sense CO through changes in their electrical properties. In addition to MOS based sensors, optical sensing methods have recently become popular, due to their increased performance. Hence, a brief overview of newly proposed optical based CO detection methods is provided as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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