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Special Issue "Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Han Haitjema
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Interests: dimensional metrology; interferometry; surface roughness; surface filtering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together researchers active in the research, development, calibration and characterization of sensors that are applied in dimensional metrology in order to achieve the highest accuracy and thus the lowest uncertainty.

In the continuous development towards higher speed, lower cost, more data, smaller acquisition times, better traceability, less user intervention, more autonomous systems, the development, characterization and calibration of sensors is even more imperative than before.

Works on classical technologies, such as LVDTs and capacitive displacement sensors, are welcome, as well as those based on innovative techniques, such as XCT, for in-products measurements, multi-wavelength digital holography for instantaneous surface measurements, application of Fabry-Perot interferometers to achieve the ultimate sensitivity in displacement measurements, etc. Manuscripts on the overcoming of challenges, related, for example, to in-process use of sensors for accurate dimensional measurements, will be also appreciated.

I cordially invite you to share your work, expertise and insights, with the dimensional measurement and calibration community, in the form of research articles and reviews.

Prof. Dr. Han Haitjema
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sensor
  • XCT
  • Interferometry
  • Digital Holography
  • Capacitive sensor
  • LVDT
  • Calibration
  • Traceability
  • Chromatic confocal sensor

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Low-Cost 2D Index and Straightness Measurement System Based on a CMOS Image Sensor
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5461; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245461 - 11 Dec 2019
Abstract
Accurate traceable measurement systems often use laser interferometers for position measurements in one or more dimensions. Since interferometers provide only incremental information, they are often combined with index sensors to provide a stable reference starting point. Straightness measurements are important for machine axis [...] Read more.
Accurate traceable measurement systems often use laser interferometers for position measurements in one or more dimensions. Since interferometers provide only incremental information, they are often combined with index sensors to provide a stable reference starting point. Straightness measurements are important for machine axis correction and for systems having several degrees of freedom. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy of an optical two-dimensional (2D) index sensor, which can also be used in a straightness measurement system, based on a fiber-coupled, collimated laser beam pointing onto an image sensor. Additionally, the sensor can directly determine a 2D position over a range of a few millimeters. The device is based on a simple and low-cost complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor chip and provides sub-micrometer accuracy. The system is an interesting alternative to standard techniques and can even be implemented on machines for real-time corrections. This paper presents the developed sensor properties for various applications and introduces a novel error separation method for straightness measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Error Analysis and Modeling for an Absolute Capacitive Displacement Measuring System with High Accuracy and Long Range
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5339; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245339 - 04 Dec 2019
Abstract
We proposed a novel kind of absolute capacitive grating displacement measuring system with both high accuracy and long range in a previous article. The measuring system includes both a MOVER and a STATOR, the contact surfaces of which are coated by a thin [...] Read more.
We proposed a novel kind of absolute capacitive grating displacement measuring system with both high accuracy and long range in a previous article. The measuring system includes both a MOVER and a STATOR, the contact surfaces of which are coated by a thin layer of dielectric film with a low friction coefficient and high hardness. The measuring system works in contact mode to minimize the gap changes. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the influence of some factors, including fabrication errors, installation errors, and environment disturbance, on measurement signals. The measuring signal model was modified according to the analysis. The signal processing methods were investigated to improve the signal sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The displacement calculation model shows that the design of orthogonal signals can solve the dead-zone problem. Absolute displacement was obtained by a simple method using two coarse signals and highly accurate displacement was further obtained while using two fine signals with the help of absolute information. According to the displacement calculation model and error analysis, the error in fine calculation functions mainly determines the model’s accuracy and is locally affected by coarse calculation functions. It was also determined that amplitude differences, non-orthogonality, and signal offsets are not related to the accuracy of the displacement calculation model. The experiments were carried out to confirm the abovementioned theoretical analysis. The experimental results show that the displacement resolution and error in the displacement calculation model reach ±4.8 nm and ±34 nm, respectively, in the displacement range of 5 mm. The experiments and the theoretical analyses both indicate that our proposed measuring system has great potential for achieving an accuracy of tens of nanometers and a range of hundreds of millimeters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Single-Shot Imaging of Two-Wavelength Spatial Phase-Shifting Interferometry
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5094; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235094 - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this investigation, we propose an effective method to measure 3D surface profiles of specimens with single-shot imaging. Based on the two-wavelength interferometric principle and spatial phase-shifting technique using a polarization pixelated camera, the proposed system can not only rapidly measure the phase, [...] Read more.
In this investigation, we propose an effective method to measure 3D surface profiles of specimens with single-shot imaging. Based on the two-wavelength interferometric principle and spatial phase-shifting technique using a polarization pixelated camera, the proposed system can not only rapidly measure the phase, but also overcome the 2π-ambiguity problem of typical phase-shifting interferometry. The rough surface profile can be calculated by the visibility of the interference fringe and can compensate for the height discontinuity by phase jumps occurring in a fine height map. An inclined plane mirror and a step height specimen with 9 μm were used for the validation of capability of measuring continuously smooth surface and large step heights. The measurement results were in good agreement with the results of typical two-wavelength interferometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanomechanical Characterization of Vertical Nanopillars Using an MEMS-SPM Nano-Bending Testing Platform
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4529; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204529 - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
Nanomechanical characterization of vertically aligned micro- and nanopillars plays an important role in quality control of pillar-based sensors and devices. A microelectromechanical system based scanning probe microscope (MEMS-SPM) has been developed for quantitative measurement of the bending stiffness of micro- and nanopillars with [...] Read more.
Nanomechanical characterization of vertically aligned micro- and nanopillars plays an important role in quality control of pillar-based sensors and devices. A microelectromechanical system based scanning probe microscope (MEMS-SPM) has been developed for quantitative measurement of the bending stiffness of micro- and nanopillars with high aspect ratios. The MEMS-SPM exhibits large in-plane displacement with subnanometric resolution and medium probing force beyond 100 micro-Newtons. A proof-of-principle experimental setup using an MEMS-SPM prototype has been built to experimentally determine the in-plane bending stiffness of silicon nanopillars with an aspect ratio higher than 10. Comparison between the experimental results and the analytical and FEM evaluation has been demonstrated. Measurement uncertainty analysis indicates that this nano-bending system is able to determine the pillar bending stiffness with an uncertainty better than 5%, provided that the pillars’ stiffness is close to the suspending stiffness of the MEMS-SPM. The MEMS-SPM measurement setup is capable of on-chip quantitative nanomechanical characterization of pillar-like nano-objects fabricated out of different materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Binocular Fringe Dynamic Projection Method for High Dynamic Range Measurement
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 4023; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19184023 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Three-dimensional measurement with fringe projection sensor has been commonly researched. However, the measurement accuracy and efficiency of most fringe projection sensors are still seriously affected by image saturation and the non-linear effects of the projector. In order to solve the challenge, in conjunction [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional measurement with fringe projection sensor has been commonly researched. However, the measurement accuracy and efficiency of most fringe projection sensors are still seriously affected by image saturation and the non-linear effects of the projector. In order to solve the challenge, in conjunction with the advantages of stereo vision technology and fringe projection technology, an adaptive binocular fringe dynamic projection method is proposed. The proposed method can avoid image saturation by adaptively adjusting the projection intensity. Firstly, the flowchart of the proposed method is explained. Then, an adaptive optimal projection intensity method based on multi-threshold segmentation is introduced to adjust the projection illumination. Finally, the mapping relationship of binocular saturation point and projection point is established by binocular transformation and left camera–projector mapping. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve higher accuracy for high dynamic range measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Influence of Oil Film, Position and Orientation Parameters on the Accuracy of a Laser Triangulation Probe
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081844 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The laser triangulation probe conveniently obtains surface topography data of a measured target. However, compared to the touch probe, its reliability and accuracy can be negatively affected by various factors associated with the object being measured and the probe itself. In this paper, [...] Read more.
The laser triangulation probe conveniently obtains surface topography data of a measured target. However, compared to the touch probe, its reliability and accuracy can be negatively affected by various factors associated with the object being measured and the probe itself. In this paper, to identify potential compensation strategies to improve the accuracy of depth measurement for laser triangulation probe, the measuring errors caused by an oil film on the measured surface, and the probe’s position and orientation parameters with respect to the measuring object (including scan depth, incident angle, and azimuth angle), were studied. A theoretical model based on the geometrical optics, and an empirical model from the error evaluations, were established to quantitatively characterize the error influence of oil film and probe’s parameters, respectively. We also investigated the influence pattern of different filtering methods with several comparison experiments. The verification procedures, measuring both a free-form surface (chevron-corrugated plate) and a gauge block covered with an oil film, demonstrate that these models and measurement suggestions are viable methods for predicting theoretical error and can be used as compensation references to improve the accuracy of depth measurement to the laser triangulation probe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Angular Accuracy of a Scanning Mirror Based on Error Modeling and Correction
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020367 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Scanning mirrors appear to be key components in optoelectronic systems for line-of-sight (LOS) stabilization. For improving the angular accuracy of a scanning mirror based on the eddy current displacement sensor measurement, an angular error-correction method is proposed and demonstrated. A mathematic angular error [...] Read more.
Scanning mirrors appear to be key components in optoelectronic systems for line-of-sight (LOS) stabilization. For improving the angular accuracy of a scanning mirror based on the eddy current displacement sensor measurement, an angular error-correction method is proposed and demonstrated. A mathematic angular error model with physical parameters was developed, and the cross-validation method was employed to determine the reasonable order of the Maclaurin series used in the error model, which increased the exactitude and robustness of the correction method. The error parameters were identified by accurately fitting the calibrated angular errors with the error model, which showed excellent error prediction performance. Based on the angular calculation model corrected by the error model, the closed-loop control system was established to obtain accurate deflection angles. Experimental results show that within the deflection angle of ±1.5 deg, the angular accuracy was improved from 0.28 deg to less than 1.1 arcsec, and the standard deviation for six measurements was less than 1.2 arcsec, which indicates that the angle correction method was effective in improving the linearity of the eddy current sensors and reducing the influence of manufacturing and installation errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Micro/Nano Probing System Using Double Elastic Mechanisms
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4229; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124229 - 02 Dec 2018
Abstract
To meet the requirement of high precision measurement of coordinate measurement machine system, a compact microprobe has been designed for 3D measurement in this paper. Aiming to reduce the influences of signal coupling during the probing process, the probe has been designed by [...] Read more.
To meet the requirement of high precision measurement of coordinate measurement machine system, a compact microprobe has been designed for 3D measurement in this paper. Aiming to reduce the influences of signal coupling during the probing process, the probe has been designed by adopting two elastic mechanisms, in which the horizontal and vertical motions of the probe tip can be separated by differential signals of quadrant photodetectors in each elastic mechanism. A connecting rod has been designed to transfer the displacement of the probe tip in vertical direction from lower to upper elastic mechanisms. The sensitivity models in horizontal and vertical directions have been established, and the sensor sensitivity has been verified through experiments. Furthermore, the signal coupling of three axes has been analyzed, and mathematical models have been proposed for decoupling. The probing performance has been verified experimentally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Calibration of Displacement Sensors
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030584 - 21 Jan 2020
Abstract
Displacement measuring sensors play an essential role in all aspects of dimensional metrology. They can be used for direct displacement measurements but more often they are part of a measurement system, such as an atomic force microscope, roughness tester or a coordinate measuring [...] Read more.
Displacement measuring sensors play an essential role in all aspects of dimensional metrology. They can be used for direct displacement measurements but more often they are part of a measurement system, such as an atomic force microscope, roughness tester or a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). In order to achieve traceable measurements that can be related to the meter, these sensors must be calibrated against a reference standard that is more noise- and error-free than the sensor under test. A description of the various methods to achieve the ultimate traceability, repeatability and accuracy of such a calibration system is the main part of this paper. Various interferometric methods will be reviewed including several methods that use directly a primary standard as a reference: either an iodine-stabilized laser or a frequency comb. It is shown that various methods exist to quantify or mitigate the periodic errors that are inherent to interferometric methods. Also it is shown that knowledge of this periodicity may lead to a separation of periodic and non-periodic non-linearity errors of both the calibration instrument as the sensor under test. This review is limited to small-range sensors, typically with a range <100 μm. It is concluded that today’s technology enables sound and traceable sensor calibration up to the sub-nano and even picometer level of uncertainties Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
Open AccessReview
Optical Sensors for Multi-Axis Angle and Displacement Measurement Using Grating Reflectors
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5289; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235289 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
In dimensional metrology it is necessary to carry out multi-axis angle and displacement measurement for high-precision positioning. Although the state-of-the-art linear displacement sensors have sub-nanometric measurement resolution, it is not easy to suppress the increase of measurement uncertainty when being applied for multi-axis [...] Read more.
In dimensional metrology it is necessary to carry out multi-axis angle and displacement measurement for high-precision positioning. Although the state-of-the-art linear displacement sensors have sub-nanometric measurement resolution, it is not easy to suppress the increase of measurement uncertainty when being applied for multi-axis angle and displacement measurement due to the Abbe errors and the influences of sensor misalignment. In this review article, the state-of-the-art multi-axis optical sensors, such as the three-axis autocollimator, the three-axis planar encoder, and the six-degree-of-freedom planar encoder based on a planar scale grating are introduced. With the employment of grating reflectors, measurement of multi-axis translational and angular displacement can be carried out while employing a single laser beam. Fabrication methods of a large-area planar scale grating based on a single-point diamond cutting with the fast tool servo technique and the interference lithography are also presented, followed by the description of the evaluation method of the large-area planar scale grating based on the Fizeau interferometer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
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