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Optical Sensors for Multi-Axis Angle and Displacement Measurement Using Grating Reflectors

Precision Nanometrology Laboratory, Department of Finemechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
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Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5289; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235289
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Precision Dimensional Metrology)
In dimensional metrology it is necessary to carry out multi-axis angle and displacement measurement for high-precision positioning. Although the state-of-the-art linear displacement sensors have sub-nanometric measurement resolution, it is not easy to suppress the increase of measurement uncertainty when being applied for multi-axis angle and displacement measurement due to the Abbe errors and the influences of sensor misalignment. In this review article, the state-of-the-art multi-axis optical sensors, such as the three-axis autocollimator, the three-axis planar encoder, and the six-degree-of-freedom planar encoder based on a planar scale grating are introduced. With the employment of grating reflectors, measurement of multi-axis translational and angular displacement can be carried out while employing a single laser beam. Fabrication methods of a large-area planar scale grating based on a single-point diamond cutting with the fast tool servo technique and the interference lithography are also presented, followed by the description of the evaluation method of the large-area planar scale grating based on the Fizeau interferometer. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical sensor; multi-axis angle and displacement measurement; dimensional metrology; planar encoder; planar scale grating; interference lithography optical sensor; multi-axis angle and displacement measurement; dimensional metrology; planar encoder; planar scale grating; interference lithography
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Shimizu, Y.; Matsukuma, H.; Gao, W. Optical Sensors for Multi-Axis Angle and Displacement Measurement Using Grating Reflectors. Sensors 2019, 19, 5289.

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