We proposed a novel kind of absolute capacitive grating displacement measuring system with both high accuracy and long range in a previous article. The measuring system includes both a MOVER and a STATOR, the contact surfaces of which are coated by a thin layer of dielectric film with a low friction coefficient and high hardness. The measuring system works in contact mode to minimize the gap changes. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the influence of some factors, including fabrication errors, installation errors, and environment disturbance, on measurement signals. The measuring signal model was modified according to the analysis. The signal processing methods were investigated to improve the signal sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The displacement calculation model shows that the design of orthogonal signals can solve the dead-zone problem. Absolute displacement was obtained by a simple method using two coarse signals and highly accurate displacement was further obtained while using two fine signals with the help of absolute information. According to the displacement calculation model and error analysis, the error in fine calculation functions mainly determines the model’s accuracy and is locally affected by coarse calculation functions. It was also determined that amplitude differences, non-orthogonality, and signal offsets are not related to the accuracy of the displacement calculation model. The experiments were carried out to confirm the abovementioned theoretical analysis. The experimental results show that the displacement resolution and error in the displacement calculation model reach ±4.8 nm and ±34 nm, respectively, in the displacement range of 5 mm. The experiments and the theoretical analyses both indicate that our proposed measuring system has great potential for achieving an accuracy of tens of nanometers and a range of hundreds of millimeters.
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