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Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1583;

Speed Consistency in the Smart Tachograph

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) Directorate for Space, Security and Migration, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Borio, D.; Cano, E.; Baldini, G. Motion Conflict Detection in the Smart Tachograph. In Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference (ENC), Gothenburg, Sweden, 14–17 May 2018.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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In the transportation sector, safety risks can be significantly reduced by monitoring the behaviour of drivers and by discouraging possible misconducts that entail fatigue and can increase the possibility of accidents. The Smart Tachograph (ST), the new revision of the Digital Tachograph (DT), has been designed with this purpose: to verify that speed limits and compulsory rest periods are respected by drivers. In order to operate properly, the ST periodically checks the consistency of data from different sensors, which can be potentially manipulated to avoid the monitoring of the driver behaviour. In this respect, the ST regulation specifies a test procedure to detect motion conflicts originating from inconsistencies between Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and odometry data. This paper provides an experimental evaluation of the speed verification procedure specified by the ST regulation. Several hours of data were collected using three vehicles and considering light urban and highway environments. The vehicles were equipped with an On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) data reader and a GPS/Galileo receiver. The tests prescribed by the regulation were implemented with specific focus on synchronization aspects. The experimental analysis also considered aspects such as the impact of tunnels and the presence of data gaps. The analysis shows that the metrics selected for the tests are resilient to data gaps, latencies between GNSS and odometry data and simplistic manipulations such as data scaling. The new ST forces an attacker to falsify data from both sensors at the same time and in a coherent way. This makes more difficult the implementation of frauds in comparison to the current version of the DT. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite System; GNSS; motion conflict; odometer; Smart Tachograph; ST Global Navigation Satellite System; GNSS; motion conflict; odometer; Smart Tachograph; ST

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Borio, D.; Cano, E.; Baldini, G. Speed Consistency in the Smart Tachograph. Sensors 2018, 18, 1583.

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