The article presents an overview of the theoretical and experimental work related to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) motion parameters estimation based on the integration of video measurements obtained by the on-board optoelectronic camera and data from the UAV’s own inertial navigation system (INS). The use of various approaches described in the literature which show good characteristics in computer simulations or in fairly simple conditions close to laboratory ones demonstrates the sufficient complexity of the problems associated with adaption of camera parameters to the changing conditions of a real flight. In our experiments, we used computer simulation methods applying them to the real images and processing methods of videos obtained during real flights. For example, it was noted that the use of images that are very different in scale and in the aspect angle from the observed images in flight makes it very difficult to use the methodology of singular points. At the same time, the matching of the observed and reference images using rectilinear segments, such as images of road sections and the walls of the buildings look quite promising. In addition, in our experiments we used the projective transformation matrix computation from frame to frame, which together with the filtering estimates for the coordinate and angular velocities provides additional possibilities for estimating the UAV position. Data on the UAV position determining based on the methods of video navigation obtained during real flights are presented. New approaches to video navigation obtained using the methods of conjugation rectilinear segments, characteristic curvilinear elements and segmentation of textured and colored regions are demonstrated. Also the application of the method of calculating projective transformations from frame-to-frame is shown which gives estimates of the displacements and rotations of the apparatus and thereby serves to the UAV position estimation by filtering. Thus, the aim of the work was to analyze various approaches to UAV navigation using video data as an additional source of information about the position and velocity of the vehicle.
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