Special Issue "New Frontiers of Multiscale Monitoring, Analysis and Modeling of Environmental Systems via Integration of Remote and Proximal Sensing Measurements"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Pietro Tizzani
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
National Research Council (CNR) - IREA, Via Diocleziano 328, Napoli (ITALY)
Interests: In the context of Earth Observation; research has focused on the structure of the Earth system and is specifically addressed to the quantitative analysis of the geodynamic processes that have characterized the evolution of volcanic; seismogenic; and geothermal areas. Specifically; studies have been carried out through integration and full exploitation of remote sensing data such as satellite RADAR; optical; thermal images and their integration with GPS; EDM; and other geodetic; geophysical measurements. In this framework; particular interest has been devoted to the development of quantitative methods of a physical; mathematical; and statistical tool to build analytical and numerical models and complete data fusion; for the interpretation and characterization of the sources that control short- and long-term evolution of volcanic systems.
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Dr. Luca D’Auria
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN), Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain; Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables (ITER), Granadilla de Abona, Tenerife, Spain
Dr. Nemesio M. Perez
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN), Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain; Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables (ITER), Granadilla de Abona, Tenerife, Spain
Dr. Antonello Bonfante
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del Mediterraneo, Via Patacca, 85 - 80056 Ercolano, Napoli, Italy
Interests: hydropedology; precision agriculture; crop adaptation to climate change
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue aims to present recent results and advances in approaches to investigate and understand environmental systems, with a focus on the study of the interaction between environmental processes occurring at different scales.

These advances have paved the way to the design and implementation of multi-platform remote and in-situ sensing systems, and tools for surveillance and monitoring. In particular, special attention is devoted to the development of new techniques and integrated instrumentation for multiscale monitoring of areas affected by high natural risks, such as volcanic, seismic, slope instability and other environmental contexts.

We expect contributions where remote sensing is combined with and improved by other disciplines such as applied geophysics, seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, volcanology, geotechnical and soil science. Contributions reporting analytical and numerical modeling of environmental processes are also welcome. Finally, a special focus will be on multi-parametric analysis by integrating data acquired by remote sensing with other different sources, including the use of GeoWeb platforms.

Dr. Pietro Tizzani
Dr. Luca D’Auria
Dr. NemesioPerez
Dr. Antonello Bonfante
Dr. Francesco Soldovieri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • remote sensing
  • multiscale monitoring, data analysis
  • modelling of environmental system

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A GeoNode-Based Platform for an Effective Exploitation of Advanced DInSAR Measurements
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(18), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182133 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
This work presents the development of an efficient tool for managing, visualizing, analysing, and integrating with other data sources, the deformation time-series obtained by applying the advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) techniques. To implement such a tool we extend the functionalities [...] Read more.
This work presents the development of an efficient tool for managing, visualizing, analysing, and integrating with other data sources, the deformation time-series obtained by applying the advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) techniques. To implement such a tool we extend the functionalities of GeoNode, which is a web-based platform providing an open source framework based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards, that allows development of Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) and Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI). In particular, our efforts have been dedicated to enable the GeoNode platform to effectively analyze and visualize the spatio/temporal characteristics of the DInSAR deformation time-series and their related products. Moreover, the implemented multi-thread based new functionalities allow us to efficiently upload and update large data volumes of the available DInSAR results into a dedicated geodatabase. The examples we present, based on Sentinel-1 DInSAR results relevant to Italy, demonstrate the effectiveness of the extended version of the GeoNode platform. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Irrigation Optimization Under a Limited Water Supply by the Integration of Modern Approaches into Traditional Water Management on the Cotton Fields
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(18), 2127; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182127 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
The ability to effectively develop agriculture with limited water resources is an important strategic objective to face future climate change and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG2) of the United Nations. Since new conditions increasingly point to a limited water supply, [...] Read more.
The ability to effectively develop agriculture with limited water resources is an important strategic objective to face future climate change and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG2) of the United Nations. Since new conditions increasingly point to a limited water supply, the aim of modern irrigation management is to be sure to maximize the crop yield and minimize water use. This study aims to explore the advantages of the traditional agronomic approach, agro-hydrological model and field feedback obtained by spectroscopy, to optimize irrigation water management in the example of a cotton field. The study was conducted for two summer growing seasons in 2015 and 2016 in Kibbutz Hazorea, near Haifa, Israel. The irrigation schedule was developed by farmers using weather forecasts and corrected by the results of field inspections. The Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP) model was applied to optimize seasonal water distribution based on different criteria (critical soil pressure head and allowable daily stress). A new optimization algorithm for irrigation schedules by weather forecasts and vegetation indices was developed and presented in this paper. A few indices related to physical parameters and plant health (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Red Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Modified Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Index 2, and Photochemical Reflectance Index) were considered. Red Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index proves itself as a suitable parameter for monitoring crop state due to its clear-cut response to irrigation treatments and was introduced in the developed algorithm. The performance of the considered irrigation scheduling approaches was assessed by a simulation model application for cotton fields in 2016. The results show, that the irrigation schedule developed by farmers did not compensate for the absence of precipitation in spring, which led to long-term lack of water during crop development. The optimization developed by SWAP allows determining the minimal amount of water which ensures appropriate yield. However, this approach could not take into account the non-linear effect of the lack of water at specific phenological stages on the yield. The new algorithm uses the minimal sufficient seasonal amount of water obtained from SWAP optimization. The approach designed allows one to prevent critical stress in cotton and distribute water in conformity with agronomic practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fractal Study of the 1997–2017 Italian Seismic Sequences: A Joint Analysis of Seismological Data and DInSAR Measurements
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(18), 2112; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182112 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
During the last 20 years (1997 to 2017), four seismic sequences with Mw ≥ 5.5 mainshocks nucleated along the Central and Northern Apennines chain (Italy), causing casualties and damage: the 1997 Colfiorito, the 2009 L’Aquila, the 2012 Emilia, and the most recent [...] Read more.
During the last 20 years (1997 to 2017), four seismic sequences with Mw ≥ 5.5 mainshocks nucleated along the Central and Northern Apennines chain (Italy), causing casualties and damage: the 1997 Colfiorito, the 2009 L’Aquila, the 2012 Emilia, and the most recent 2016–2017 Central Italy seismic sequences. In this work, we perform a novel joint analysis of seismological and remote-sensing data to achieve new insights into the faulting process evolution during the considered seismic sequences. To this aim, we study these seismic sequences by exploiting the available seismological data and by applying fractals theory to them. In particular, we characterize the different behavior of compressional and extensional seismic sequences by examining the temporal evolution of the fractal dimension values. In addition, we compare the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) displacement maps relevant to the considered seismic events (already published in our past papers) and the performed spatial and temporal seismological analyses, in order to emphasize some significant aspects of the different faulting processes active during these Italian seismic sequences. The analysis of the fractal dimension values shows that over time extensional seismic sequences are spatially distributed within a volume, whereas compressional ones are aligned along a preferential surface. These spatio-temporal patterns are confirmed by: (1) the spatial distribution of hypocenters for the events that occurred between the mainshock and the post-seismic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquisition; (2) the spatial extension of coseismic DInSAR ground-deformation patterns. The proposed seismic and ground-deformation analyses can thus typify different geodynamic contexts in Italy, providing a distinct image of articulated faulting processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of Ground-Based Remote-Sensing and In Situ Multidisciplinary Monitoring Data to Analyze the Eruptive Activity of Stromboli Volcano in 2017–2018
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(15), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11151813 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2222
Abstract
After a period of mild eruptive activity, Stromboli showed between 2017 and 2018 a reawakening phase, with an increase in the eruptive activity starting in May 2017. The alert level of the volcano was raised from “green” (base) to “yellow” (attention) on 7 [...] Read more.
After a period of mild eruptive activity, Stromboli showed between 2017 and 2018 a reawakening phase, with an increase in the eruptive activity starting in May 2017. The alert level of the volcano was raised from “green” (base) to “yellow” (attention) on 7 December 2017, and a small lava overflowed the crater rim on 15 December 2017. Between July 2017 and August 2018 the monitoring networks recorded nine major explosions, which are a serious hazard for Stromboli because they affect the summit area, crowded by tourists. We studied the 2017–2018 eruptive phase through the analysis of multidisciplinary data comprising thermal video-camera images, seismic, geodetic and geochemical data. We focused on the major explosion mechanism analyzing the well-recorded 1 December 2017 major explosion as a case study. We found that the 2017–2018 eruptive phase is consistent with a greater gas-rich magma supply in the shallow system. Furthermore, through the analysis of the case study major explosion, we identified precursory phases in the strainmeter and seismic data occurring 77 and 38 s before the explosive jet reached the eruptive vent, respectively. On the basis of these short-term precursors, we propose an automatic timely alarm system for major explosions at Stromboli volcano. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Temperature Multiscale Monitoring by Thermal Infrared Satellite and Ground Images at Campi Flegrei Volcanic Area (Italy)
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(9), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11091007 - 28 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
Land Surface Temperature (LST) from satellite data is a key component in many aspects of environmental research. In volcanic areas, LST is used to detect ground thermal anomalies providing a supplementary tool to monitor the activity status of a particular volcano. In this [...] Read more.
Land Surface Temperature (LST) from satellite data is a key component in many aspects of environmental research. In volcanic areas, LST is used to detect ground thermal anomalies providing a supplementary tool to monitor the activity status of a particular volcano. In this work, we describe a procedure aimed at identifying spatial thermal anomalies in thermal infrared (TIR) satellite frames which are corrected for the seasonal influence by using TIR images from ground stations. The procedure was applied to the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei (Italy) using TIR ASTER and Landsat 8 satellite imagery and TIR ground images acquired from the Thermal Infrared volcanic surveillance Network (TIRNet) (INGV, Osservatorio Vesuviano). The continuous TIRNet time-series images were processed to evaluate the seasonal component which was used to correct the surface temperatures estimated by the satellite’s discrete data. The results showed a good correspondence between de-seasoned time series of surface ground temperatures and satellite temperatures. The seasonal correction of satellite surface temperatures allows monitoring of the surface thermal field to be extended to all the satellite frames, covering a wide portion of Campi Flegrei volcanic area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multiscale Analysis of DInSAR Measurements for Multi-Source Investigation at Uturuncu Volcano (Bolivia)
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(6), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11060703 - 23 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Uturuncu volcano (southwestern Bolivia) is localized within one of the largest updoming volcanic zones, the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC). In several geodetic studies the observed uplift phenomenon is analyzed and modeled by considering a deep source, related to the Altiplano Puna Magma [...] Read more.
Uturuncu volcano (southwestern Bolivia) is localized within one of the largest updoming volcanic zones, the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC). In several geodetic studies the observed uplift phenomenon is analyzed and modeled by considering a deep source, related to the Altiplano Puna Magma Body (APMB). In this framework, we perform a multiscale analysis on the 2003–2010 ENVISAT satellite data to investigate the existence of a multi-source scenario for this region. The proposed analysis is based on Cross-correlation and Multiridge method, pointing out the spatial and temporal multiscale properties of the deformation field. In particular, we analyze the vertical component of ground deformation during two time interval: within the 2005–2008 time interval an inflating source at 18.7 km depth beneath the central zone of the APVC is retrieved; this result is in good agreement with those proposed by several authors for the APMB. Between August 2006 and February 2007, we identify a further inflating source at 4.5 km depth, beneath Uturuncu volcano; the existence of this latter, located just below the 2009–2010 seismic swarm, is supported by petrological, geochemical, and geophysical evidence, indicating as a possible interpretative scenario the action of shallow, temporarily trapped fluids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Refined Two-Stage Programming-Based Multi-Baseline Phase Unwrapping Approach Using Local Plane Model
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(5), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11050491 - 28 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
The problem of phase unwrapping (PU) in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) is caused by the measured range differences being ambiguous with the wavelength. Therefore, multi-baseline (MB) is a key processing step of MB InSAR. Compared with the traditional single-baseline (SB) PU, [...] Read more.
The problem of phase unwrapping (PU) in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) is caused by the measured range differences being ambiguous with the wavelength. Therefore, multi-baseline (MB) is a key processing step of MB InSAR. Compared with the traditional single-baseline (SB) PU, MB PU is advantageous in solving steep terrain due to its ability to break through the constraint of the phase continuity assumption. However, the accuracy of most of the existing MB PU methods is still limited to its mathematical foundation, i.e., the Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) is too sensitive to measurement bias. To solve this issue, this paper presents a refined algorithm based on the two-stage programming MB PU approach (TSPA) proposed by H. Yu. The significant advantage of the refined TSPA method (abbreviated as LPM-TSPA) is that it improves the performance of stage 1 of TSPA through assuming terrain height surface in the neighborhood pixels can be approximated by a plane to combine more information of the interferometric phase in the local region to estimate the ambiguity number gradient. The experiment results indicate that the LPM-TSPA method can significantly improve the accuracy of the MB PU solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Energy Release Measurement with Thermal Camera: The Case of La Solfatara Volcano (Italy)
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11020167 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Quiescent volcanoes dissipate a large part of their thermal energy through hot soils and ground degassing mainly in restricted areas called Diffuse Degassing Structures. La Solfatara crater represents the main spot of thermal release for the Campi Flegrei volcano (Italy) despite its reduced [...] Read more.
Quiescent volcanoes dissipate a large part of their thermal energy through hot soils and ground degassing mainly in restricted areas called Diffuse Degassing Structures. La Solfatara crater represents the main spot of thermal release for the Campi Flegrei volcano (Italy) despite its reduced dimensions with regards to the whole caldera. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to measure thermal energy release extrapolating it from the ground surface temperature. We used imaging from thermal cameras at short distances (1 m) to obtain a mapping of areas with thermal anomalies and a measure of their temperatures. We built a conceptual model of the energy release from the ground to atmosphere, which well fits the experimental data taken in the La Solfatara crater. Using our model and data, we could estimate the average heat flux in a portion of the crater as q a v g = 220 ± 40 W / m 2 , compatible with other measurements in literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Thermal Anomalies in Volcanic Areas Using Multiscale and Multitemporal Monitoring: Vulcano Island Test Case
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11020134 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Surface temperatures derived by 208 ASTER and L8 satellite imagery were analysed to test multiscale and multitemporal capability through available sets of thermal data to support the volcanic monitoring of Vulcano Island in Italy. The analysis of thermal historical series derived by ASTER [...] Read more.
Surface temperatures derived by 208 ASTER and L8 satellite imagery were analysed to test multiscale and multitemporal capability through available sets of thermal data to support the volcanic monitoring of Vulcano Island in Italy. The analysis of thermal historical series derived by ASTER and L8 shows that two are the main thermally active areas: La Fossa crater and the mud pool of Fangaia. In this work we aimed to assess the correlation between the satellite-retrieved temperatures with those measured during the daytime ground field campaign conducted within the same time period and, in particular cases, simultaneously. Moreover, nighttime data acquired by an airborne and field campaign were processed with the same methodology applied to satellite data for a multiscale approach verification. Historical meteorological data acquired from a weather station were also considered. Statistically significant correlations were observed between nighttime acquisitions and meteorological data. Correlations were also significant for temperature measured during the airborne campaign, while differences up to 50% with daytime acquisition during the ground field campaigns were observed. The analysis of the results suggests that within nighttime data acquisition, differences between satellite-derived temperatures and ground temperature measurements are considerably reduced; therefore nighttime data acquisition is recommended to detect thermal anomalies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Satellite and Ground Remote Sensing Techniques to Trace the Hidden Growth of a Lava Flow Field: The 2014–2015 Effusive Eruption at Fogo Volcano (Cape Verde)
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071115 - 12 Jul 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Fogo volcano erupted in 2014–2015 producing an extensive lava flow field in the summit caldera that destroyed two villages, Portela and Bangaeira. The eruption started with powerful explosive activity, lava fountains, and a substantial ash column accompanying the opening of an eruptive fissure. [...] Read more.
Fogo volcano erupted in 2014–2015 producing an extensive lava flow field in the summit caldera that destroyed two villages, Portela and Bangaeira. The eruption started with powerful explosive activity, lava fountains, and a substantial ash column accompanying the opening of an eruptive fissure. Lava flows spreading from the base of the eruptive fissure produced three arterial lava flows. By a week after the start of the eruption, a master lava tube had already developed within the eruptive fissure and along the arterial flow. In this paper, we analyze the emplacement processes based on observations carried out directly on the lava flow field, remote sensing measurements carried out with a thermal camera, SO2 fluxes, and satellite images, to unravel the key factors leading to the development of lava tubes. These were responsible for the rapid expansion of lava for the ~7.9 km length of the flow field, as well as the destruction of the Portela and Bangaeira villages. The key factors leading to the development of tubes were the low topography and the steady magma supply rate along the arterial lava flow. Comparing time-averaged discharge rates (TADR) obtained from satellite and Supply Rate (SR) derived from SO2 flux data, we estimate the amount and timing of the lava flow field endogenous growth, with the aim of developing a tool that could be used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation at this and other volcanoes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Controlled-Site Comparison of Microwave Tomography and Time-Reversal Imaging Techniques for GPR Surveys
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10020214 - 01 Feb 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
This paper provides a comparative study between microwave tomography and synthetic time-reversal imaging techniques as applied to ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. The comparison is carried out by processing experimental data collected at a controlled test site, with different types of buried targets [...] Read more.
This paper provides a comparative study between microwave tomography and synthetic time-reversal imaging techniques as applied to ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. The comparison is carried out by processing experimental data collected at a controlled test site, with different types of buried targets at given subsurface depths and representative soil conditions. It is shown that the two techniques allow us to obtain complementary information about position, depth and size of the targets from a single GPR survey. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Modeling 3D Free-geometry Volumetric Sources Associated to Geological and Anthropogenic Hazards from Space and Terrestrial Geodetic Data
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11172042 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Recent decades have shown an explosion in the quantity and quality of geodetic data, mainly space-based geodetic data, that are being applied to geological and anthropogenic hazards. This has produced the need for new approaches for analyzing, modeling and interpreting these geodetic data. [...] Read more.
Recent decades have shown an explosion in the quantity and quality of geodetic data, mainly space-based geodetic data, that are being applied to geological and anthropogenic hazards. This has produced the need for new approaches for analyzing, modeling and interpreting these geodetic data. Typically, modeling of deformation and gravity changes follows an inverse approach using analytical or numerical solutions, where normally regular geometries (point sources, disks, prolate or oblate spheroids, etc.) are assumed at the initial stages and the inversion is carried out in a linear context. Here we review an original methodology for the simultaneous, nonlinear inversion of gravity changes and/or surface deformation (measured with different techniques) to determine 3D (three-dimensional) bodies, without any a priori assumption about their geometries, embedded into an elastic or poroelastic medium. Such a fully nonlinear inversion has led to interesting results in volcanic environments and in the study of water tables variation due to its exploitation. This methodology can be used to invert geodetic remote sensing data or terrestrial data alone, or in combination. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note
Distributed Fiber Optic Sensors for the Monitoring of a Tunnel Crossing a Landslide
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(8), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10081291 - 15 Aug 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2822
Abstract
This work reports on the application of a distributed fiber-optic strain sensor for long-term monitoring of a railway tunnel affected by an active earthflow. The sensor has been applied to detect the strain distribution along an optical fiber attached along the two walls [...] Read more.
This work reports on the application of a distributed fiber-optic strain sensor for long-term monitoring of a railway tunnel affected by an active earthflow. The sensor has been applied to detect the strain distribution along an optical fiber attached along the two walls of the tunnel. The experimental results, relative to a two-year monitoring campaign, demonstrate that the sensor is able to detect localized strains, identify their location along the tunnel walls, and follow their temporal evolution. Full article
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