Special Issue "Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Raffaele Persico
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Ambiente – DIAm, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 - Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
Interests: remote sensing; earth sciences; geophysics; applied geophysics; scattering; inversion; remote sensing applications; antennas; inverse problems; ground penetrating radar; radar systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Radar technology is now pervasive in society and is crucial for tackling social and economic issues for the wellbeing of the population. In fact, in addition to the classical application fields, i.e., navigation, air traffic control, and surveillance, new emerging applications are arising, which range from diagnostics and monitoring in civil engineering and cultural heritage, to medical applications, monitoring of environmental parameters and security in urban areas. These new applications are possible thanks to the improved capabilities of radar systems, accompanied by new advanced modeling and data processing, able to tackle electromagnetically complex scenarios. This Special Issue aims at giving an overview of the recent advances in approaches for detection and tracking, as well as in radar imaging, with a focus on classical and new application fields.

We invite you to submit your latest research results in radar hardware development, electromagnetic modeling, and signal and data processing with respect to the effective deployment of radar in the following areas (but not limited to):

  • Urban surveillance and imaging in buildings
  • Critical infrastructure and cultural heritage monitoring
  • Estimation of environmental parameters (air, sea, earth)
  • Medical applications and elderly care
  • Underground inspection
  • Security and border surveillance

Authors are required to check and follow specific Instructions to Authors, see https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/165068305/Remote_Sensing-Additional_Instructions.pdf

Dr. Francesco Soldovieri
Dr. Raffaele Persico
Guest Editors     

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges”
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(12), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9121284 - 11 Dec 2017
Abstract
The special issue (SI) “Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges” is an updated survey of recent advances in radar systems, encompassing several application fields and related to the impact on society [...]
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Metrological Characterization for Vital Sign Detection by a Bioradar
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(10), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9100996 - 26 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
In space missions, during the long isolation at extreme conditions for human health, it is of paramount importance to monitor vital parameters. One such parameter is the breathing rate. Indeed, several factors can induce some breathing anomalies during the sleep, which may cause [...] Read more.
In space missions, during the long isolation at extreme conditions for human health, it is of paramount importance to monitor vital parameters. One such parameter is the breathing rate. Indeed, several factors can induce some breathing anomalies during the sleep, which may cause apnea episodes. In order to act timely with the right therapy, an early diagnosis is required. Conventional devices are usually uncomfortable since they require electrodes or probes in contact with the subject. An alternative way to perform this kind of measurement in a remote sensing modality is provided by a continuous wave bioradar operating in the microwave frequency band. This is an effective contactless tool for monitoring the respiratory activity through the measurement of chest deformation due to inhalation and exhalation. The radar emits a low power electromagnetic wave at a single frequency, which is reflected by the human chest. By measuring of the phase shift between the incident and reflected wave, it is possible to detect and monitor the respiratory rate. The main contribution of this work is concerned with a metrological characterization of the continuous wave bioradar; which is a topic not thoroughly assessed in the relevant literature. In particular, the bioradar measurements are also compared with data recorded by a spirometer, which is a standard medical device that measures the air volume inhaled and exhaled by the subject. The purpose of this study is the characterization of the measurement standard uncertainty to enable the assessment of the bioradar system performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Two-Dimensional Linear Inversion of GPR Data with a Shifting Zoom along the Observation Line
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(10), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9100980 - 22 Sep 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Linear inverse scattering problems can be solved by regularized inversion of a matrix, whose calculation and inversion may require significant computing resources, in particular, a significant amount of RAM memory. This effort is dependent on the extent of the investigation domain, which drives [...] Read more.
Linear inverse scattering problems can be solved by regularized inversion of a matrix, whose calculation and inversion may require significant computing resources, in particular, a significant amount of RAM memory. This effort is dependent on the extent of the investigation domain, which drives a large amount of data to be gathered and a large number of unknowns to be looked for, when this domain becomes electrically large. This leads, in turn, to the problem of inversion of excessively large matrices. Here, we consider the problem of a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey in two-dimensional (2D) geometry, with antennas at an electrically short distance from the soil. In particular, we present a strategy to afford inversion of large investigation domains, based on a shifting zoom procedure. The proposed strategy was successfully validated using experimental radar data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards an Operational Use of Geophysics for Archaeology in Henan (China): Methodological Approach and Results in Kaifeng
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(8), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9080809 - 06 Aug 2017
Cited by 23
Abstract
One of the major issues in buried archeological sites especially if characterized by intense human activity, complex structures, and several constructive phases, is: to what depth conduct the excavation? The answer depends on a number of factors, among these one of the most [...] Read more.
One of the major issues in buried archeological sites especially if characterized by intense human activity, complex structures, and several constructive phases, is: to what depth conduct the excavation? The answer depends on a number of factors, among these one of the most important is the a priori and reliable knowledge of what the subsoil can preserve. To this end, geophysics (if used in strong synergy with archaeological research) can help in the planning of time, depth, and modes of excavation also when the physical characteristics of the remains and their matrix are not ideal for archaeo-geophysical applications. This is the case of a great part of the archaeological sites in Henan, the cradle of the most important cultures in China and the seat of several capitals for more than two millennia. There, the high depth of buried remains covered by alluvial deposits and the building materials, mainly made by rammed earth, did not favor the use of geophysics. In this paper, we present and discuss the GPR and ERT prospection we conducted in Kaifeng (Henan, China), nearby a gate of the city walls dated to the Northern Song Dynasty. The integration of GPR and ERT provided useful information for the identification and characterization of archaeological remains buried at different depths. Actually, each geophysical technique, GPR frequency (used for the data acquisition) as well as each way to analyze and visualize the results (from radargrams to time slice) only provided partial information of little use if alone. The integration of the diverse techniques, data processing and visualization enabled us to optimize the penetration capability, the resolution for the detection of archaeological features and their interpretation. Finally, the results obtained from the GPR and ERT surveys were correlated with archaeological stratigraphy, available nearby the investigated area. This enabled us to further improve the interpretation of results from GPR and ERT survey and also to date the anthropogenic layers from Qing to Yuan Dynasty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Sea State Observation through a Three-Antenna Hybrid XT/AT InSAR Configuration: A Preliminary Study Based on the InSAeS4 Airborne System
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(8), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9080792 - 01 Aug 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this work, we investigate the sea surface monitoring capabilities of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system equipped with a three-antenna hybrid Across Track (XT)/Along Track (AT) inteferometric configuration. To do this, we focus on the X-Band airborne InSAeS4 SAR system. Moreover, we [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigate the sea surface monitoring capabilities of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system equipped with a three-antenna hybrid Across Track (XT)/Along Track (AT) inteferometric configuration. To do this, we focus on the X-Band airborne InSAeS4 SAR system. Moreover, we propose a simple but effective methodology that allows simultaneous retrieval of the sea surface height and velocity by means of a straightforward, easy-to-implement, linear inversion procedure, which is very general and can be implemented with any system equipped with a three-antenna hybrid XT/AT Interferometric SAR (InSAR) configuration. In our case, we present an experiment carried out in January 2013 in South Italy over the coastline stretch of the Campania region including the Volturno River outlet. In this regard, we highlight that in situ measurements of the retrieved sea surface height and velocity at the time of the airborne mission are unfortunately not available. Notwithstanding, the obtained results show some interesting evidence that the estimated quantities are physically sound. This, on the one side, provides a preliminary validation of the effectiveness of the overall presented methodology and, on the other side, highlights the potentialities of the three-antenna hybrid XT/AT InSAR configuration of the InSAeS4 system for sea state monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Passive Radar Array Processing with Non-Uniform Linear Arrays for Ground Target’s Detection and Localization
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(7), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9070756 - 22 Jul 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
The problem of ground target detection with passive radars is considered. The design of an antenna array based on commercial elements is presented, based on a non-uniform linear array optimized according to sidelobe level requirements. Array processing techniques are applied in the cross-ambiguity [...] Read more.
The problem of ground target detection with passive radars is considered. The design of an antenna array based on commercial elements is presented, based on a non-uniform linear array optimized according to sidelobe level requirements. Array processing techniques are applied in the cross-ambiguity function domain to exploit integration gain, system resolution and the sparsity of targets in this domain. A modified two-stage detection scheme is described, which is based on a previously-published one by other authors. All of these contributions are validated in a real semiurban scenario, proving the capabilities of detection, the direction of arrival estimation and the tracking of ground targets in the presence of big buildings that generate strong clutter returns. Detection performance is validated through the probability of false alarm and the probability of detection estimation with specified estimation errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Micro-Doppler Estimation and Analysis of Slow Moving Objects in Forward Scattering Radar System
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(7), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9070699 - 06 Jul 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Micro-Doppler signature can convey information of detected targets and has been used for target recognition in many Radar systems. Nevertheless, micro-Doppler for the specific Forward Scattering Radar (FSR) system has yet to be analyzed and investigated in detail; consequently, information carried by the [...] Read more.
Micro-Doppler signature can convey information of detected targets and has been used for target recognition in many Radar systems. Nevertheless, micro-Doppler for the specific Forward Scattering Radar (FSR) system has yet to be analyzed and investigated in detail; consequently, information carried by the micro-Doppler in FSR is not fully understood. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of FSR in detecting and extracting micro-Doppler signature generated from a target’s micro-motions. Comprehensive theoretical analyses and simulation results followed by experimental investigations into the feasibility of using the FSR for detecting micro-Doppler signatures are presented in this paper. The obtained results verified that the FSR system is capable of detecting micro-Doppler signature of a swinging pendulum placed on a moving trolley and discriminating different swinging speeds. Furthermore, human movement and micro-Doppler from hand motions can be detected and monitored by using the FSR system which resembles a potential application for human gait monitoring and classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
2D Normalized Iterative Hard Thresholding Algorithm for Fast Compressive Radar Imaging
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(6), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9060619 - 16 Jun 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Compressive radar imaging has attracted considerable attention because it substantially reduces imaging time through directly compressive sampling. However, a problem that must be addressed for compressive radar imaging systems is the high computational complexity of reconstruction of sparse signals. In this paper, a [...] Read more.
Compressive radar imaging has attracted considerable attention because it substantially reduces imaging time through directly compressive sampling. However, a problem that must be addressed for compressive radar imaging systems is the high computational complexity of reconstruction of sparse signals. In this paper, a novel algorithm, called two-dimensional (2D) normalized iterative hard thresholding (NIHT) or 2D-NIHT algorithm, is proposed to directly reconstruct radar images in the matrix domain. The reconstruction performance of 2D-NIHT algorithm was validated by an experiment on recovering a synthetic 2D sparse signal, and the superiority of the 2D-NIHT algorithm to the NIHT algorithm was demonstrated by a comprehensive comparison of its reconstruction performance. Moreover, to be used in compressive radar imaging systems, a 2D sampling model was also proposed to compress the range and azimuth data simultaneously. The practical application of the 2D-NIHT algorithm in radar systems was validated by recovering two radar scenes with noise at different signal-to-noise ratios, and the results showed that the 2D-NIHT algorithm could reconstruct radar scenes with a high probability of exact recovery in the matrix domain. In addition, the reconstruction performance of the 2D-NIHT algorithm was compared with four existing efficient reconstruction algorithms using the two radar scenes, and the results illustrated that, compared to the other algorithms, the 2D-NIHT algorithm could dramatically reduce the computational complexity in signal reconstruction and successfully reconstruct 2D sparse images with a high probability of exact recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Envisat RA-2 Individual Echoes: A Unique Dataset for a Better Understanding of Inland Water Altimetry Potentialities
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(6), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9060605 - 14 Jun 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
The exploitation of synthetic aperture properties in nadir-looking radars is opening new scenarios in the framework of satellite radar altimetry. Both recent and upcoming missions including Cryosat-2, Sentinel-3, Sentinel-6 and SWOT take benefit from the coherent processing of radar data, aimed at improving [...] Read more.
The exploitation of synthetic aperture properties in nadir-looking radars is opening new scenarios in the framework of satellite radar altimetry. Both recent and upcoming missions including Cryosat-2, Sentinel-3, Sentinel-6 and SWOT take benefit from the coherent processing of radar data, aimed at improving range measurements in particular contexts, such as ice, open ocean, coastal zone, and even inland waters. This work investigates the possibilities offered by current and future satellite radar altimetry missions for the study of inland water bodies, probing into the peculiarities of the expected radar returns and their potential usage. In this regard, signals collected by the RA-2 instrument (Radar Altimeter 2) onboard the Envisat mission offer an unprecedented possibility, even with a relatively low pulse repetition frequency, to analyze the peculiarities of actual signals for detecting and ranging small water surfaces. In particular, the RA-2 instrument offers a global archive of Individual Echoes (IEs), collected at the native sampling rate of 1795 Hz, in addition to the 18 Hz data obtained by incoherent averaging, which are typically delivered to the users as standard products. RA-2 shares with future radar platforms such as Sentinel-6 a continuous and interleaved working modality, as was recommended by the scientific community in designing next missions’ requirements. This is a further reason to consider the usage of RA-2 IEs as particularly attractive. Whilst only available for a small percentage of the earth’s surface, sufficient IE data exist to study the height retrieval capability of these echoes, in particular for what concerns small water bodies, where we show that enough coherence is exhibited for focusing relatively narrow surfaces and range them correctly. A peculiar aspect of this work lies in the assumption that most of the returned echoes (in RA-2 IEs) are specular. A theoretical framework is developed according to this assumption, which is validated by investigating real RA-2 data and observing their related specular features. In particular, we discuss how specular echoes are expected to be very common in inland altimetry, and are most often associated with small to medium size lakes and rivers. This paper illustrates the expected electromagnetic behavior of specular water targets by exploiting the classical radar cross-section (RCS) theory for specular surfaces. Results from the model are compared with real IE data in three selected case studies, regarding two rivers of variable width and one flood plain, in order to check different hydrological regimes. The model very closely matches the data in all cases, making the results of this validation activity very promising. In particular, we demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite radar altimetry in rivers much smaller than what was considered possible until now. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Classification of Personnel Targets with Baggage Using Dual-band Radar
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(6), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9060594 - 12 Jun 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
In this paper, we aim to identify passengers with different baggage by analyzing the micro-Doppler radar signatures corresponding to different kinds of gaits, which is helpful to improve the efficiency of security check in airports. After performing time-frequency analysis on the X-band and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we aim to identify passengers with different baggage by analyzing the micro-Doppler radar signatures corresponding to different kinds of gaits, which is helpful to improve the efficiency of security check in airports. After performing time-frequency analysis on the X-band and K-band radar data, three kinds of micro-Doppler features, i.e., the period, the Doppler offset, and the bandwidth, are extracted from the time-frequency domain. By combining the features extracted by dual-band radar with the one-versus-one support vector machine (SVM) classifier, three kinds of gaits, i.e., walking with no bag, walking with only one carry-on baggage by one hand, and walking with one carry-on baggage by one hand and one handbag by another hand, can be accurately classified. The experimental results based on the measured data demonstrate that the classification accuracy using dual-band radar is higher than that using only a single-band radar sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
A Three-Dimensional Localization Method for Multistatic SAR Based on Numerical Range-Doppler Algorithm and Entropy Minimization
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(5), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9050470 - 11 May 2017
Cited by 18
Abstract
In traditional localization methods for synthetic aperture radar (SAR), the range sum estimation and Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) are required. The DCE error can influence the localization accuracy greatly. In addition, the target height information cannot be obtained by these methods. In this [...] Read more.
In traditional localization methods for synthetic aperture radar (SAR), the range sum estimation and Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) are required. The DCE error can influence the localization accuracy greatly. In addition, the target height information cannot be obtained by these methods. In this paper, a three-dimensional localization method for multistatic SAR based on the numerical range-Doppler (RD) algorithm and entropy minimization principle is proposed. In this method, the raw data from each transmitter and receiver (T/R) pair are focused by the numerical RD algorithm with the initial location value of the reference target. Then, Newton iteration is used to solve the target location value with the information of the bistatic range sum (BRS) in different SAR images with respect to different T/R pairs. Generally, the initial location value of the reference target is not accurate, and it can influence the imaging quality and accuracy of other target locations. We use entropy to measure image quality and iterate imaging with the new location value of the reference target, until the entropy gets the minimum value. Therefore, we can get the optimal location value of the reference target, which can make image entropy reach the minimum. Finally, all targets can be located by the Newton iteration method with their BRS in each T/R pair that are obtained from the images with minimum entropy. Compared with traditional localization methods for monostatic SAR, the proposed method not only effectively eliminates the influences of DCE errors, but also can get the target height information. Therefore, it improves the localization accuracy and can achieve three-dimensional localization. The effectiveness of the localization approach is validated by a numerical simulation experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Precision Near-Field Reconstruction in the Time Domain via Minimum Entropy for Ultra-High Resolution Radar Imaging
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(5), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9050449 - 06 May 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ultra-high resolution (UHR) radar imaging is used to analyze the internal structure of objects and to identify and classify their shapes based on ultra-wideband (UWB) signals using a vector network analyzer (VNA). However, radar-based imaging is limited by microwave propagation effects, wave scattering, [...] Read more.
Ultra-high resolution (UHR) radar imaging is used to analyze the internal structure of objects and to identify and classify their shapes based on ultra-wideband (UWB) signals using a vector network analyzer (VNA). However, radar-based imaging is limited by microwave propagation effects, wave scattering, and transmit power, thus the received signals are inevitably weak and noisy. To overcome this problem, the radar may be operated in the near-field. The focusing of UHR radar signals over a close distance requires precise geometry in order to accommodate the spherical waves. In this paper, a geometric estimation and compensation method that is based on the minimum entropy of radar images with sub-centimeter resolution is proposed and implemented. Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging is used because it is applicable to several fields, including medical- and security-related applications, and high quality images of various targets have been produced to verify the proposed method. For ISAR in the near-field, the compensation for the time delay depends on the distance from the center of rotation and the internal RF circuits and cables. Required parameters for the delay compensation algorithm that can be used to minimize the entropy of the radar images are determined so that acceptable results can be achieved. The processing speed can be enhanced by performing the calculations in the time domain without the phase values, which are removed after upsampling. For comparison, the parameters are also estimated by performing random sampling in the data set. Although the reduced data set contained only 5% of the observed angles, the parameter optimization method is shown to operate correctly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Motion and Structural Instability Monitoring of Ming Dynasty City Walls by Two-Step Tomo-PSInSAR Approach in Nanjing City, China
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(4), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9040371 - 15 Apr 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
Spaceborne Multi-Temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (MT-InSAR) has been a valuable tool in mapping motion phenomena in different scenarios. Recently, the capabilities of MT-InSAR for risk monitoring and preventive analysis of heritage sites have increasingly been exploited. Considering the limitations of conventional [...] Read more.
Spaceborne Multi-Temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (MT-InSAR) has been a valuable tool in mapping motion phenomena in different scenarios. Recently, the capabilities of MT-InSAR for risk monitoring and preventive analysis of heritage sites have increasingly been exploited. Considering the limitations of conventional MT-InSAR techniques, in this study a two-step Tomography-based Persistent Scatterers (PS) Interferometry (Tomo-PSInSAR) approach is proposed for monitoring ground deformation and structural instabilities over the Ancient City Walls (Ming Dynasty) in Nanjing city, China. For the purpose of this study we utilized 26 Stripmap acquisitions from TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X missions, spanning from May 2013 to February 2015. As a first step, regional-scale surface deformation rates on single PSs were derived (ranging from −40 to +5 mm/year) and used for identifying deformation hotspots as well as for the investigation of a potential correlation between urbanization and the occurrence of surface subsidence. As a second step, structural instability parameters of ancient walls (linear motion rates, non-linear motions and material thermodynamics) were estimated by an extended four-dimensional Tomo-PSInSAR model. The model applies a two-tier network strategy; that is, the detection of most reliable single PSs in the first-tier Delaunay triangulation network followed by the detection of remaining single PSs and double PSs on the second-tier local star network referring to single SPs extracted in the first-tier network. Consequently, a preliminary phase calibration relevant to the Atmospheric Phase Screen (APS) is not needed. Motion heterogeneities in the spatial domain, either caused by thermal kinetics or displacement trends, were also considered. This study underlines the potential of the proposed Tomo-PSInSAR solution for the monitoring and conservation of cultural heritage sites. The proposed approach offers a quantitative indicator to local authorities and planners for assessing potential damages as well as for the design of remediation activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
A Sparse SAR Imaging Method Based on Multiple Measurement Vectors Model
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9030297 - 22 Mar 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
In recent decades, compressive sensing (CS) is a popular theory for studying the inverse problem, and has been widely used in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image processing. However, the computation complexity of CS-based methods limits its wide applications in SAR imaging. In this [...] Read more.
In recent decades, compressive sensing (CS) is a popular theory for studying the inverse problem, and has been widely used in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image processing. However, the computation complexity of CS-based methods limits its wide applications in SAR imaging. In this paper, we propose a novel sparse SAR imaging method using the Multiple Measurement Vectors model to reduce the computation cost and enhance the imaging result. Based on using the structure information and the matched filter processing, the new CS-SAR imaging method can be applied to high-quality and high-resolution imaging under sub-Nyquist rate sampling with the advantages of saving the computational cost substantially both in time and memory. The results of simulations and real SAR data experiments suggest that the proposed method can realize SAR imaging effectively and efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
MHHT-Based Method for Analysis of Micro-Doppler Signatures for Human Finer-Grained Activity Using Through-Wall SFCW Radar
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9030260 - 12 Mar 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Ultra-wideband radar-based penetrating detection and recognition of human activities has become a focus on remote sensing in various military applications in recent years, such as urban warfare, hostage rescue, and earthquake post-disaster rescue. However, an excellent micro-Doppler signature (MDS) extracting method of human [...] Read more.
Ultra-wideband radar-based penetrating detection and recognition of human activities has become a focus on remote sensing in various military applications in recent years, such as urban warfare, hostage rescue, and earthquake post-disaster rescue. However, an excellent micro-Doppler signature (MDS) extracting method of human motion with high time-frequency resolution, outstanding anti-interference ability, and extensive adaptability, which aims to provide favorable and more detailed features for human activity recognition and classification, especially in the non-free space detection environment, is in great urgency. To cope with the issue, a multiple Hilbert-Huang transform (MHHT) method is proposed for high-resolution time-frequency analysis of finer-grained human activity MDS hidden in ultra-wideband (UWB) radar echoes during the through-wall detection environment. Based on the improved HHT with effective intrinsic mode function (IMF) selection according to the cosine similarity (CS) principle, the improved HHT is applied to each channel signal in the effective channel scope of the UWB radar signal and then integrated along the range direction. The activities of swinging one or two arms while standing at a spot 3 m from a wall were used to validate the abilities of the proposed method for extracting and separating the MDS of different moving body structures with a high time-frequency resolution. Simultaneously, the corresponding relationship between the frequency components in MHHT-based spectra and structures of the moving human body was demonstrated according to the radar Doppler principle combined with the principle of human body kinematics. Moreover, six common finer-grained human activities and a piaffe at different ranges under the through-wall detection environment were exploited to confirm the adaptability of the novel method for different activities and pre-eminent anti-interference ability under a low signal-noise-clutter ratio (SNCR) environment, which is critical for remote sensing in various military application, such as urban warfare, hostage rescue, earthquake post-disaster rescue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Texture-Analysis-Incorporated Wind Parameters Extraction from Rain-Contaminated X-Band Nautical Radar Images
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9020166 - 16 Feb 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
In this paper, a method for extracting wind parameters from rain-contaminated X-band nautical radar images is presented. The texture of the radar image is first generated based on spatial variability analysis. Through this process, the rain clutter in an image can be removed [...] Read more.
In this paper, a method for extracting wind parameters from rain-contaminated X-band nautical radar images is presented. The texture of the radar image is first generated based on spatial variability analysis. Through this process, the rain clutter in an image can be removed while the wave echoes are retained. The number of rain-contaminated pixels in each azimuthal direction of the texture is estimated, and this is used to determine the azimuthal directions in which the rain-contamination is negligible. Then, the original image data in these directions are selected for wind direction and speed retrieval using the modified intensity-level-selection-based wind algorithm. The proposed method is applied to shipborne radar data collected from the east Coast of Canada. The comparison of the radar results with anemometer data shows that the standard deviations of wind direction and speed using the rain mitigation technique can be reduced by about 14.5° and 1.3 m/s, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Forward Scatter Radar for Air Surveillance: Characterizing the Target-Receiver Transition from Far-Field to Near-Field Regions
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9010050 - 08 Jan 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
A generalized electromagnetic model is presented in order to predict the response of forward scatter radar (FSR) systems for air-target surveillance applications in both far-field and near-field conditions. The relevant scattering problem is tackled by developing the Helmholtz–Kirchhoff formula and Babinet’s principle to [...] Read more.
A generalized electromagnetic model is presented in order to predict the response of forward scatter radar (FSR) systems for air-target surveillance applications in both far-field and near-field conditions. The relevant scattering problem is tackled by developing the Helmholtz–Kirchhoff formula and Babinet’s principle to express the scattered and the total fields in typical FSR configurations. To fix the distinctive features of this class of problems, our approach is applied here to metallic targets with canonical rectangular shapes illuminated by a plane wave, but the model can straightforwardly be used to account for more general scenarios. By exploiting suitable approximations, a simple analytical formulation is derived allowing us to efficiently describe the characteristics of the FSR response for a target transitioning with respect to the receiver from far-field to near-field regions. The effects of different target electrical sizes and detection distances on the received signal, as well as the impact of the trajectory of the moving object, are evaluated and discussed. All of the results are shown in terms of quantities normalized to the wavelength and can be generalized to different configurations once the carrier frequency of the FSR system is set. The range of validity of the proposed closed-form approach has been checked by means of numerical analyses, involving comparisons also with a customized implementation of a full-wave commercial CAD tool. The outcomes of this study can pave the way for significant extensions on the applicability of the FSR technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Joint Time-Frequency Signal Processing Scheme in Forward Scattering Radar with a Rotational Transmitter
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8121028 - 17 Dec 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper explores the concept of a Forward Scattering Radar (FSR) system with a rotational transmitter for target detection and localization. Most of the research and development in FSR used a fixed dedicated transmitter; therefore, the detection of stationary and slow moving target [...] Read more.
This paper explores the concept of a Forward Scattering Radar (FSR) system with a rotational transmitter for target detection and localization. Most of the research and development in FSR used a fixed dedicated transmitter; therefore, the detection of stationary and slow moving target is very difficult. By rotating the transmitter, the received signals at the receiver contain extra information carried by the Doppler due to the relative movement of the transmitter-target-receiver. Hence, rotating the transmitter enhances the detection capability especially for a stationary and slow-moving target. In addition, it increases the flexibility of the transmitter to control the signal direction, which broadens the coverage of FSR networks. In this paper, a novel signal processing for the new mode of FSR system based on the signal’s joint time-frequency is proposed and discussed. Additionally, the concept of the FSR system with the rotational transmitter is analyzed experimentally for the detection and localization of a stationary target, at very low speed and a low profile target crossing the FSR baseline. The system acts as a virtual fencing of a remote sensor for area monitoring. The experimental results show that the proposed mode with the new signal processing scheme can detect a human intruder. The potential applications for this system could be used for security and border surveillance, debris detection on an airport runway, ground aerial monitoring, intruder detection, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Sparsity-Inducing Super-Resolution Passive Radar Imaging with Illuminators of Opportunity
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(11), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8110929 - 08 Nov 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Multiple illuminators of opportunity (IOs) and a large rotation angle are often required for current passive radar imaging techniques. However, a large rotation angle demands a long observation time, which cannot be implemented for actual passive radar system. To overcome this disadvantage, this [...] Read more.
Multiple illuminators of opportunity (IOs) and a large rotation angle are often required for current passive radar imaging techniques. However, a large rotation angle demands a long observation time, which cannot be implemented for actual passive radar system. To overcome this disadvantage, this paper proposes a super-resolution passive radar imaging framework with a sparsity-inducing compressed sensing (CS) technique, which allows for fewer IOs and a smaller rotation angle. In the proposed imaging framework, the sparsity-based passive radar imaging is modeled mathematically, and the spatial frequencies and amplitudes of different scatterers on the target are recovered by the log-sum penalty function-based CS reconstruction algorithm. In doing so, a super-resolution passive radar imagery is obtained by the frequency searching approach. Simulation results not only validate that the proposed method outperforms existing super-resolution algorithms, such as ESPRIT and RELAX, especially in the cases with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and limited number of measurements, but also have shown that our proposed method can perform robust reconstruction no matter if the target is on grid or not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Interference Mitigation Achieved with a Reconfigurable Stepped Frequency GPR System
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(11), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8110926 - 07 Nov 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this contribution, some possible effects of large band electromagnetic interferences on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data are shown, and a possible way to counteract them is shown, too. The mitigation of the interferences is implemented thanks to a prototypal reconfigurable stepped frequency [...] Read more.
In this contribution, some possible effects of large band electromagnetic interferences on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data are shown, and a possible way to counteract them is shown, too. The mitigation of the interferences is implemented thanks to a prototypal reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system, that allows to program the integration time of the harmonic tones vs. the frequency. In particular, an algorithm for the measurement of the effects of the interferences in the field (linked to the signal to interference ratio) is proposed and tested vs. experimental data. The paper will show some advantages and some drawbacks of the proposed procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison between Drifter and X-Band Wave Radar for Sea Surface Current Estimation
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(9), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8090695 - 24 Aug 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
This paper deals with exploitation of the wave radar system for sea surface current estimation in a coastal zone. In particular, we present the results of the processing of the radar data collected by an X-band marine radar installed in Capo Granitola site, [...] Read more.
This paper deals with exploitation of the wave radar system for sea surface current estimation in a coastal zone. In particular, we present the results of the processing of the radar data collected by an X-band marine radar installed in Capo Granitola site, which is located in the south-west part of Sicily, on 15 May 2015. The effectiveness of the data processing is analyzed by comparing the wave radar estimated sea surface current with that provided by the Lagrangian drifters along its movement trajectory. During the measurement campaign, three drifter releases are carried out and for each one the comparison is provided in terms of the mean error and standard deviation. In addition, we report the characteristic sea state parameters, in terms of peak wavelength (λp), peak direction propagation (θp), peak period (Tp) and significant wave height (Hs) of the dominant waves estimated by the wave radar system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Through-Wall Situation Awareness Using a Microwave Doppler Radar Sensor
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(8), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8080621 - 27 Jul 2016
Cited by 28
Abstract
This paper deals with the development of a short-range radar suitable for the detection of humans behind visually opaque structures such as building walls. The system consists in a continuous wave Doppler radar operating in the S-band of the electromagnetic spectrum in order [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the development of a short-range radar suitable for the detection of humans behind visually opaque structures such as building walls. The system consists in a continuous wave Doppler radar operating in the S-band of the electromagnetic spectrum in order to ensure an adequate signal penetration through the walls. Based on the interaction of the electromagnetic waves with human targets, a phase modulation of the radar signal arises due to their movements and tiny periodic chest displacements associated with the respiratory activity. A simple and effective radar data processing algorithm is proposed to detect, in real-time, the presence of one or several human subjects in the through-wall scene. Such an algorithm automatically provides also an indication on whether the subjects are static or moving in the environment. As shown by experimental tests carried out in an indoor scenario, the proposed sensing device and related signal processing yields prompt and reliable information about the scene thus confirming its practical value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Systems for the Societal Challenges)
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