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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071115

Satellite and Ground Remote Sensing Techniques to Trace the Hidden Growth of a Lava Flow Field: The 2014–2015 Effusive Eruption at Fogo Volcano (Cape Verde)

1
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo (INGV-OE), 95125 Catania, Italy
2
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (DCT), University of Cabo Verde (UNICV), CP 279 Praia, Santiago 279, Cape Verd
3
Instituto Tecnológico de Energias Renovábles de Tenerife (ITER), 38611 Granadilla de Abona, Tenerife, Spain
4
Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN), 38400 Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain
5
Serviço Nacional de Proteção Civil de Cabo Verde, Praia, Santiago 279, Cape Verde
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract

Fogo volcano erupted in 2014–2015 producing an extensive lava flow field in the summit caldera that destroyed two villages, Portela and Bangaeira. The eruption started with powerful explosive activity, lava fountains, and a substantial ash column accompanying the opening of an eruptive fissure. Lava flows spreading from the base of the eruptive fissure produced three arterial lava flows. By a week after the start of the eruption, a master lava tube had already developed within the eruptive fissure and along the arterial flow. In this paper, we analyze the emplacement processes based on observations carried out directly on the lava flow field, remote sensing measurements carried out with a thermal camera, SO2 fluxes, and satellite images, to unravel the key factors leading to the development of lava tubes. These were responsible for the rapid expansion of lava for the ~7.9 km length of the flow field, as well as the destruction of the Portela and Bangaeira villages. The key factors leading to the development of tubes were the low topography and the steady magma supply rate along the arterial lava flow. Comparing time-averaged discharge rates (TADR) obtained from satellite and Supply Rate (SR) derived from SO2 flux data, we estimate the amount and timing of the lava flow field endogenous growth, with the aim of developing a tool that could be used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation at this and other volcanoes. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing monitoring; Fogo volcano; effusive eruption; lava flow inflation; lava tubes; time averaged discharge rate (TADR), magma supply rate (SR) remote sensing monitoring; Fogo volcano; effusive eruption; lava flow inflation; lava tubes; time averaged discharge rate (TADR), magma supply rate (SR)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Calvari, S.; Ganci, G.; Victória, S.S.; Hernandez, P.A.; Perez, N.M.; Barrancos, J.; Alfama, V.; Dionis, S.; Cabral, J.; Cardoso, N.; Fernandes, P.; Melian, G.; Pereira, J.M.; Semedo, H.; Padilla, G.; Rodriguez, F. Satellite and Ground Remote Sensing Techniques to Trace the Hidden Growth of a Lava Flow Field: The 2014–2015 Effusive Eruption at Fogo Volcano (Cape Verde). Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1115.

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