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Through-Wall Radar Imaging and Indoor Surveillance

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensing Image Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 4672

Special Issue Editors

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Guest Editor
National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA), Via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Naples, Italy
Interests: electromagnetic scattering; radar imaging; ground penetrating radar; data integration; non-invasive monitoring tools
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA), Via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy
Interests: microwave sensors; radar imaging; electromagnetic scattering

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering and Naval Architecture (DITEN), University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 11A, I-16145 Genova, Italy
Interests: microwave imaging; radar imaging

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Interests: microwave sensors; radar imaging; radar target detection; through-barrier sensing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Through-wall radars are attracting notable interest for the identification of targets in complex and closed or inaccessible building environments, thanks to the capability of electromagnetic signals to penetrate opaque media in frequencies ranging from some hundreds of megahertz to a few gigahertz. As a result, these systems have profound implications in military and public security fields, such as search and rescue missions, law enforcement, indoor surveillance, and building interior reconstruction, to name but a few examples.

In the last decade, notable technological advances have led to the development of advanced radar systems based on different waveforms (pulsed, stepped-frequency, frequency-modulated continuous wave, noise, etc.) and operating under different (physical/synthetic) antenna array configurations (monostatic, bistatic, MIMO). Aside from active radar transceivers, passive through-wall radars exploiting ubiquitous devices as opportunistic illuminators (e.g., Wi-Fi access points) have also been developed.

Through-wall radar technology has now matured, but some technical issues demand signal-processing approaches capable of providing quick and reliable information at the scene under investigation. For example, the ringing effect caused by multiple reflections inside the front wall is a strong source of clutter to be filtered while imaging stationary targets. Aside from clutter rejection methods, SAR imaging algorithms play a crucial role in providing, to the end-user, a clear and focused image of the surveillance area which is more easily interpretable than raw data. In this respect, accurate modeling of the electromagnetic sensing process that also accounts for multipath radar signal propagation in the complex indoor environment can be exploited improve the imaging performance. Signal processing strategies can be also devised to mitigate the effect of artifacts produced by the mutual interactions between nearby targets.

The image formation process is preliminary to higher-level signal processing procedures such as automatic detection and tracking capable of estimating the real-time position and dynamics of targets in the scene. Similarly, classification algorithms play a relevant role for human activity recognition as well as building feature extraction.

This Special Issue aims at highlighting the most recent scientific and technological advances in the field of through-wall radar imaging and indoor surveillance with a focus on hardware, modeling, and data processing. We solicit the submission of original research articles as well as review articles that explore the following non-exhaustive list of topics.

  • Active/passive through-wall radar systems for real-time sensing and imaging
  • Forward and inverse electromagnetic scattering models
  • Clutter rejection and multipath exploitation data processing approaches
  • SAR focusing algorithms for UWB radar
  • Compressive sensing for through-wall radar imaging
  • Building layout imaging and feature extraction
  • Data processing approaches exploiting opportunistic sources for real-time surveillance
  • Moving human target detection and tracking in indoor environments
  • Statistical methods and artificial intelligence tools for radar image classification
  • Vital body and human activity signal detection and monitoring

Integration of radar systems in surveillance systems exploiting other kinds of sensors (optical camera, infrared cameras, lidar, magnetometers, optic fiber sensors, etc.)

Dr. Francesco Soldovieri
Dr. Gianluca Gennarelli
Prof. Matteo Pastorino
Prof. Ram Narayanan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • radar imaging
  • inverse electromagnetic scattering problem
  • UWB radar
  • Doppler and micro-Doppler detection
  • target detection and tracking

Published Papers (1 paper)

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17 pages, 4732 KiB  
A Through-the-Wall Imaging Approach Based on a TSVD/Variable-Exponent Lebesgue-Space Method
by Andrea Randazzo, Cristina Ponti, Alessandro Fedeli, Claudio Estatico, Paolo D’Atanasio, Matteo Pastorino and Giuseppe Schettini
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(11), 2028; - 21 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1985
A hybrid inversion scheme for through-the-wall imaging is proposed in this paper. The approach is based on a linearized model of the inverse-scattering problem, employing the Green’s function developed for a layered background. The reconstruction is obtained by means of a Landweber-like iterative [...] Read more.
A hybrid inversion scheme for through-the-wall imaging is proposed in this paper. The approach is based on a linearized model of the inverse-scattering problem, employing the Green’s function developed for a layered background. The reconstruction is obtained by means of a Landweber-like iterative method performing a regularization in the framework of variable-exponent Lebesgue spaces. Thanks to the non-conventional geometrical properties of such spaces, it is possible to enhance the reconstruction capabilities, e.g., by promoting sparseness and reducing over-smoothing. The exponent function defining the specific space adopted in the inversion procedure is adaptively obtained directly from the measured data, through a truncated-singular value decomposition method. In this way, it is possible to precompute and reuse in both steps, for a given scenario, all the matrices necessary in the inversion process, thus leading to a computationally efficient solving strategy. The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated by using experimental data obtained with a commercial GPR apparatus employing a pulsed source field. A fast Fourier transform is applied to the time-domain measurements to extract frequency-domain data at a set of frequencies in the source spectrum, which are fed in input to the imaging scheme. Very good reconstruction capabilities are obtained both with a single metallic target, as well as in a challenging two targets layout including both a metallic object and a low-permittivity target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Through-Wall Radar Imaging and Indoor Surveillance)
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