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Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2023) | Viewed by 19811

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Departamento de Ingeniería Cartográfica, Geodésica y Fotogrametría, Universidad de Jaén, Edificio de Ingeniería y Tecnología A3, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Interests: deformation monitoring; InSAR; MT-InSAR; GNSS; geodesy; remote sensing
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Engineering Department, School of Science and Technology, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: UAV; image processing algorithms (RGB, NIR, multi- and hyperspectral, thermal and LiDAR sensors); InSAR; precision agriculture; precision forestry
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Department of Mathematics and Data Science. University CEU San Pablo Julián Romea, 23, 28003 Madrid, Spain
Interests: GNSS (global navigation satellite system); Galileo; geodesy; deformation monitoring; geoid
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Monitoring the structural health of dams is critical to ensuring their safety conditions and maintaining their operational functions. Dam failures can lead to significant social, economic, and environmental impacts, constituting high risks for people, human settlements, infrastructures, as well as the environment. Therefore, continuous surveillance and safety programs are necessary in order to detect any critical situations that may cause catastrophic losses of infrastructures and lives. Occasionally, failures do not occur completely, but the operational conditions of dams cannot be fully guaranteed, thus producing important economic losses, for example, due to the interruption of energy production or other related activities such as hydraulic regulation and water storage.

The complexity of dams requires the use of multiple sensors for their surveillance. Each sensor focuses on a specific area of the dam, the slopes surrounding the reservoir, or the structures of public services. The purpose of monitoring is not only to early warn about a future collapse but also to provide useful information to verify the design parameters, investigate the reasons that may cause deformation processes, and extract necessary lessons that can be implemented in future projects.

Although deformation monitoring of this type of man-made infrastructure is a mandatory task, undeniably very accurate and reliable, it is usually time-consuming and very expensive. The monitoring measurements include the establishment of classical geodetic networks (triangulations/trilaterations and leveling) and GNSS networks for monitoring the structure and surrounding areas, the inclusion of geotechnical/structural sensors to measure local deformations and other physical quantities, and the application of other remote sensing techniques from ground-based and satellite platforms, such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GBSAR), or spaceborne SAR interferometry (InSAR).

Currently, in many cases, integrated monitoring systems combine information from several sources in order to monitor different processes that may affect the stability of the structure or cross-validate different results. Space geodetic techniques have great advantages compared to other conventional geodetic techniques, which turns them into efficient monitoring methods in terms of time and cost. In particular, the use of GNSS and InSAR techniques, together with the high availability of medium- and high-spatial-resolution images from the latest generations of SAR constellations with shorter revisit times and the continuous development of algorithms for time series analysis, aims to accelerate the collection of results and their reliability.

To summarise, the analysis and computation methods for stability monitoring in civil engineering have been improved as a result of developments in measuring instruments, computer science, and Global Earth Observation Systems. The goal of this Special Issue is to promote satellite geodesy as a tool for monitoring dams, collecting success cases in which these monitoring techniques, alone or in combination with other techniques, allow to detect deformations of this type of structures.

We are looking forward to receiving your contribution to this Special Issue on “Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy”.

Prof. Antonio Miguel Ruiz Armenteros
Prof. Roberto Tomás
Prof. Joaquim João Sousa
Prof. M. Clara de Lacy
Prof. Dr. Zhenhong Li
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Dam
  • Satellite geodesy
  • Remote sensing
  • GNSS
  • Radar interferometry
  • InSAR
  • Deformation monitoring
  • Geodetic measurements
  • Geotechnical measurements
  • Infrastructure
  • Earth observation
  • Sensors

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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28 pages, 54449 KiB  
Article
Soil and Rockfill Dams Safety Assessment for Henan Province: Monitoring, Analysis and Prediction
by Hui Liu, Mengyuan Zhu, Wu Zhu, Wenfei Zhao, Zechao Bai, Bochen Zhou, Geshuang Li and Yuanxi Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(17), 4293; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15174293 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
It is of great significance to explore the spatial and temporal evolution of soil and rockfill dam deformation, ensuring the safety of people’s lives and healthy economic development. The spatial and temporal evolution patterns of deformation of 17 large soil and rockfill dams [...] Read more.
It is of great significance to explore the spatial and temporal evolution of soil and rockfill dam deformation, ensuring the safety of people’s lives and healthy economic development. The spatial and temporal evolution patterns of deformation of 17 large soil and rockfill dams in Henan Province were analyzed by using the PS-InSAR technique and 55 Sentinel-1A images from March 2017 to September 2021. Based on factors such as reservoir water level and rainfall, a series of analyses were conducted on the Xiaolangdi soil and rockfill dam, which has the highest dam height and the most prominent deformation problem. The monitoring results show that all the soil and rockfill dams in Henan Province have different degrees of deformation, and there is a close relationship between dam height and deformation. In addition, the deformation rate of the Xiaolangdi soil and rockfill dam in the past five years presents a “Stepped Shape” deformation trend from the top to the bottom of the dam. The deformation of the upper, middle, and lower parts of the dam body reaches 80 mm, 40 mm, and 20 mm, respectively, among which the middle part of the dam crest has the largest deformation. Furthermore, the time series prediction model for sparrow search algorithm Long Short-Term Memory considering the moving average filter (MAF-SSA-LSTM) is proposed to predict and accurately analyze the future deformation of Xiaolangdi soil and rockfill dam with RMSE of 1.526 mm, MAE of 1.447 mm, and MAPE of 2.22%, which proved that the model has high prediction accuracy. It can truly reflect the overall deformation trend of the dam body. The results provide a theoretical basis and decision basis for the census of reservoir safety conditions and deformation history retrieval in Henan Province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy)
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22 pages, 30133 KiB  
Article
Investigating Deformation Mechanism of Earth-Rock Dams with InSaR and Numerical Simulation: Application to Liuduzhai Reservoir Dam, China
by Guoshi Liu, Jun Hu, Leilei Liu, Qian Sun and Wenqing Wu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(16), 4110; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15164110 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Ground deformation is the direct manifestation of the earth-rock dam's hazard potential. Therefore, it is essential to monitor deformation for dam warning and security evaluation. The Liuduzhai Dam, a clay-core dam of a large reservoir in China, was reinforced with plastic concrete cut-off [...] Read more.
Ground deformation is the direct manifestation of the earth-rock dam's hazard potential. Therefore, it is essential to monitor deformation for dam warning and security evaluation. The Liuduzhai Dam, a clay-core dam of a large reservoir in China, was reinforced with plastic concrete cut-off walls between 13 January 2009 and 29 May 2010, as it was subject to leakage and deformation. However, the deformation development and the mechanism of the dam are still unclear. In this study, the deformation fields before and after the reinforcement of the Liuduzhai Dam were yielded by using the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique. Furthermore, a numerical simulation method was employed to obtain the dynamic seepage field of the dam during the InSAR observation period. The results indicated that the average deformation velocity and maximum deformation velocity are −11.7 mm/yr and −22.5 mm/yr, respectively, and the cumulative displacement exceeds 100 mm, which shows typical continuous growth characteristics in a time series. In contrast, the dam deformation tended to be stable after reinforcement, with the average deformation velocity and maximum deformation velocity being −0.4 mm/yr and −1.2 mm/yr, respectively, behaving as cyclical deformation time series. According to the results of InSAR and seepage analysis, it is shown that: (1) dynamic seepage was the main mechanism controlling dam deformation prior to reinforcement; (2) the concentrated load caused by construction and the rapid dissipation of pore water pressure caused by the sudden drop of the infiltration line were the reasons for the acceleration of deformation during and after construction; and (3) the plastic concrete cut-off walls effectively reduced the dynamic seepage field, while the water level fluctuations were the main driving factor of elastic deformation of the dam after reinforcement. This study provides a novel approach to investigating the deformation mechanism of earth-rock dams. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that InSAR can identify the seepage deformation of dams by detecting surface movements. It is recommended that InSAR deformation monitoring should be incorporated into future dam safety programs to provide detailed deformation signals. By analyzing the temporal and spatial characteristics of the deformation signal, we can identify areas where dam performance has degraded. This crucial information aids in conducting a comprehensive dam safety assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy)
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25 pages, 23610 KiB  
Article
MT-InSAR and Dam Modeling for the Comprehensive Monitoring of an Earth-Fill Dam: The Case of the Benínar Dam (Almería, Spain)
by Miguel Marchamalo-Sacristán, Antonio Miguel Ruiz-Armenteros, Francisco Lamas-Fernández, Beatriz González-Rodrigo, Rubén Martínez-Marín, José Manuel Delgado-Blasco, Matus Bakon, Milan Lazecky, Daniele Perissin, Juraj Papco and Joaquim J. Sousa
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(11), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15112802 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
The Benínar Dam, located in Southeastern Spain, is an earth-fill dam that has experienced filtration issues since its construction in 1985. Despite the installation of various monitoring systems, the data collected are sparse and inadequate for the dam’s lifetime. The present research integrates [...] Read more.
The Benínar Dam, located in Southeastern Spain, is an earth-fill dam that has experienced filtration issues since its construction in 1985. Despite the installation of various monitoring systems, the data collected are sparse and inadequate for the dam’s lifetime. The present research integrates Multi-Temporal Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (MT-InSAR) and dam modeling to validate the monitoring of this dam, opening the way to enhanced integrated monitoring systems. MT-InSAR was proved to be a reliable and continuous monitoring system for dam deformation, surpassing previously installed systems in terms of precision. MT-InSAR allowed the almost-continuous monitoring of this dam since 1992, combining ERS, Envisat, and Sentinel-1A/B data. Line-of-sight (LOS) velocities of settlement in the crest of the dam evolved from maximums of −6 mm/year (1992–2000), −4 mm/year (2002–2010), and −2 mm/year (2015–2021) with median values of −2.6 and −3.0 mm/year in the first periods (ERS and Envisat) and −1.3 mm/year in the Sentinel 1-A/B period. These results are consistent with the maximum admissible modeled deformation from construction, confirming that settlement was more intense in the dam’s early stages and decreased over time. MT-InSAR was also used to integrate the monitoring of the dam basin, including critical slopes, quarries, and infrastructures, such as roads, tracks, and spillways. This study allows us to conclude that MT-InSAR and dam modeling are important elements for the integrated monitoring systems of embankment dams. This conclusion supports the complete integration of MT-InSAR and 3D modeling into the monitoring systems of embankment dams, as they are a key complement to traditional geotechnical monitoring and can overcome the main limitations of topographical monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy)
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21 pages, 7610 KiB  
Article
Risk Evaluation of the Sanalona Earthfill Dam Located in Mexico Using Satellite Geodesy Monitoring and Numerical Modeling
by J. René Vázquez-Ontiveros, Antonio Miguel Ruiz-Armenteros, M. Clara de Lacy, J. Ramon Gaxiola-Camacho, Miguel Anaya-Díaz and G. Esteban Vázquez-Becerra
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(3), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15030819 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Dams are essential structures in the growth of a region due to their ability to store large amounts of water and manage it for different social activities, mainly for human consumption. The study of the structural behavior of dams during their useful life [...] Read more.
Dams are essential structures in the growth of a region due to their ability to store large amounts of water and manage it for different social activities, mainly for human consumption. The study of the structural behavior of dams during their useful life is a fundamental factor for their safety. In terms of structural monitoring, classic terrestrial techniques are usually costly and require much time. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technology through the persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) technique has been widely applied to measure millimeter displacements of a dam crest. In this context, this paper presents an investigation about the structural monitoring of the crest of the Sanalona dam in Mexico, applying two geodetic satellite techniques and mathematical modeling to extract the risk of the dam–reservoir system. The applicability of the InSAR technique for monitoring radial displacements in dams is evaluated and compared with both GPS systems and an analytical model based on the finite element method (FEM). The radial displacements of the Sanalona dam follow a seasonal pattern derived from the reservoir level, reaching maximum radial magnitudes close to 13 mm in November when the rainy season ends. GPS recorded and FEM simulated maximum displacements of 7.3 and 6.7 mm, respectively. InSAR derived radial displacements, and the reservoir water level presented a high similarity with a correlation index equal to 0.8. In addition, it was found that the Sanalona dam presents the greatest deformation in the central zone of the crest. On the other hand, based on the reliability analysis, the probability of failure values lower than 8.3 × 102 was obtained when the reservoir level was maximum, which means that the radial displacements did not exceed the limit states of the dam–reservoir system in the evaluated period. Finally, the extracted values of the probability of failure demonstrated that the Sanalona dam does not represent a considerable risk to society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy)
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19 pages, 5400 KiB  
Article
Monitoring of Radial Deformations of a Gravity Dam Using Sentinel-1 Persistent Scatterer Interferometry
by Jannik Jänichen, Christiane Schmullius, Jussi Baade, Katja Last, Volker Bettzieche and Clémence Dubois
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(5), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14051112 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
Dams have many important socio-economic functions, fulfilling roles ranging from storing water to power generation, but also serving as leisure areas. Monitoring of their deformation is usually performed using time-consuming traditional terr estrial techniques, leading to a yearly monitoring cycle. To increase the [...] Read more.
Dams have many important socio-economic functions, fulfilling roles ranging from storing water to power generation, but also serving as leisure areas. Monitoring of their deformation is usually performed using time-consuming traditional terr estrial techniques, leading to a yearly monitoring cycle. To increase the monitoring cycle, new methods are needed. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a well-established technique for monitoring millimeter deformation of the Earth’s surface. The availability of free and open SAR data with a repeat cycle of 6 to 12 days from the Copernicus mission Sentinel-1, allows PSI to be used complementary to traditional surveying techniques. This present study investigates deformation dynamics at the Moehne gravity dam in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The applicability of the PSI technique to the deformation monitoring of dams is evaluated, in relation to the necessary accuracy requirements. For this purpose, Sentinel-1 data from January 2015 to November 2020 are analyzed and the deformation estimates are assessed with in situ information. Using a precise dam model, the radial deformation of the dam could be extracted and compared to trigonometric and plumb measurements. The first results show that the movements of the Moehne dam follow a seasonal pattern, reaching a maximum radial deformation of up to 4 mm in Spring, following a decline to −4 mm in the late summer. RMSE between 1.1 mm and 1.5 mm were observed between the PSI observations and the in situ data, showing that the PSI technique achieves the necessary accuracy requirements for gravity dam monitoring from space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy)
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19 pages, 6687 KiB  
Article
Toward a Comprehensive Dam Monitoring: On-Site and Remote-Retrieved Forcing Factors and Resulting Displacements (GNSS and PS–InSAR)
by Antonino Maltese, Claudia Pipitone, Gino Dardanelli, Fulvio Capodici and Jan-Peter Muller
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(8), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13081543 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3745
Abstract
Many factors can influence the displacements of a dam, including water level variability and environmental temperatures, in addition to the dam composition. In this work, optical-based classification, thermal diachronic analysis, and a quasi-PS (Persistent Scatter) Interferometric SAR technique have been applied to determine [...] Read more.
Many factors can influence the displacements of a dam, including water level variability and environmental temperatures, in addition to the dam composition. In this work, optical-based classification, thermal diachronic analysis, and a quasi-PS (Persistent Scatter) Interferometric SAR technique have been applied to determine both forcing factors and resulting displacements of the crest of the Castello dam (South Italy) over a one-year time period. The dataset includes Sentinel-1A images acquired in Interferometric Wide swath mode using the Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans SAR (TOPSAR); Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) thermal images, and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for interpreting the motion of the top of the dam retrieved via interferometry. Results suggest that it is possible to monitor both dam water level and temperature periodic forcing factors and resulting displacements via a synergistic use of different satellite images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy)
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31 pages, 16443 KiB  
Article
Coastal Dam Inundation Assessment for the Yellow River Delta: Measurements, Analysis and Scenario
by Guoyang Wang, Peng Li, Zhenhong Li, Dong Ding, Lulu Qiao, Jishang Xu, Guangxue Li and Houjie Wang
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3658; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213658 - 8 Nov 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3676
Abstract
Coastal dams along the Yellow River Delta are built to prevent seawater intrusion. However, land subsidence caused by significant oil, gas and brine extraction, as well as sediment compaction, could exacerbate the flooding effects of sea-level rise and storm surge. In order to [...] Read more.
Coastal dams along the Yellow River Delta are built to prevent seawater intrusion. However, land subsidence caused by significant oil, gas and brine extraction, as well as sediment compaction, could exacerbate the flooding effects of sea-level rise and storm surge. In order to evaluate the coastal dam vulnerability, we combined unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) with small baseline subsets (SBAS) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) results to generate an accurate coastal dam digital elevation model (DEM) over the next 10, 30 and 80 years. Sea-level simulation was derived from the relative sea-level rise scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and local long-term tide gauge records. Assuming that the current rate of dam vertical deformation and sea-level rise are linear, we then generated different inundation scenarios by the superposition of DEMs and sea-levels at different periods by way of a bathtub model. We found that the overtopping event would likely occur around Year 2050, and the northern part of the dam would lose its protective capability almost entirely by the end of this century. This article provides an alternative cost-effective method for the detection, extraction and monitoring of coastal artificial infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy)
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14 pages, 5625 KiB  
Technical Note
Analysis of BDS/GPS Deformation Monitoring for the Lake Sarez Dam
by Junqiang Han, Rui Tu, Xiaochun Lu, Lihong Fan, Wenquan Zhuang, Weisheng Wang, Feng Zhao, Bayin Dalai, Gulayozov Majid Shonazarovich and Mustafo Safarov
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(19), 4773; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15194773 - 29 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
The Sarez Dam, currently recognized as the world’s highest natural dam, holds immense economic significance, necessitating the reliable monitoring and early detection of potential deformations. This study utilizes the Beidou high-precision deformation monitoring system for the dam. Employing baseline network solutions, precise point [...] Read more.
The Sarez Dam, currently recognized as the world’s highest natural dam, holds immense economic significance, necessitating the reliable monitoring and early detection of potential deformations. This study utilizes the Beidou high-precision deformation monitoring system for the dam. Employing baseline network solutions, precise point positioning, and real-time kinematic positioning, the monitoring data from October 2021 to March 2023 were meticulously processed and comparatively analyzed. The results reveal varied degrees of displacement deformation at all sites, with horizontal deformation towards the lake center and vertical deformation showing subsidence. The three-dimensional vector average displacement is 29.1 mm, with an average monthly rate of 4.3 mm/month, and the maximum deformation is 41.4 mm. The cause of the horizontal deformation towards the lake center may be a slow collapse of the coastal soil and rock towards the lake center. Additionally, the monitoring detected a 7.2-magnitude earthquake on 23 February 2023, 52 km from the dam, causing an average displacement of 22.5 mm towards the south, which is 20 times the monthly deformation rate. In summary, deformation is present within the dam monitoring area, with a relatively stable deformation rate, warranting continued tracking and monitoring. Furthermore, earthquakes significantly impact dam deformation, necessitating heightened attention to the potential for seismic-induced dam damage in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy)
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