Special Issue "Feature Papers in Recycling 2021"

A special issue of Recycling (ISSN 2313-4321).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Francesco Paolo La Mantia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Unit INSTM—Department of Engineering, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo, Italy
Interests: polymer processing; mechanical behaviour of polymer-based systems; rheological behaviour of polymer-based systems; green composites; biocomposites; nanocomposites; biodegradable polymers; polymer blends; degradation and recycling of polymer-based systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Beatrice Castellani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, CIRIAF, University of Perugia, Via G.Duranti 67, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Interests: energy storage and energy systems; natural gas hydrates; clathrate hydrates; CO2 capture; energy efficiency; waste management
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to announce a new Special Issue entitled “Feature Papers in Recycling 2021.” This is a collection of important high-quality papers (original research articles or comprehensive review papers) published in open access format by prominent scholars. Recycling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the area of waste reutilization and resource recycling. It provides an international online forum for studies related to recycling, resource recovery and waste utilisation across many industries, including glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. We intend for this issue to be the best forum for disseminating excellent research findings, as well as sharing innovative ideas in the field.

In this Special Issue, we aim to collect contributions in the main fields covered by the journal:·      

Resource recycling

Waste processing technologies·      

Circular economy·      

Zero waste programs·      

Environmental and social impact of recycling·      

Product (eco) design and recycling

Prof. Dr. Francesco Paolo La Mantia
Dr. Beatrice Castellani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Recycling is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Metal recycling
  • Polymers recycling
  • Biomass recycling
  • Chemicals recycling
  • E-waste recycling
  • Energy recycling
  • Waste management
  • Recycling policies
  • The economics of recycling

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Rheological, Mechanical and Morphological Characterization of Monopolymer Blends Made by Virgin and Photo-Oxidized Polypropylene
Recycling 2021, 6(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling6030051 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 252
Abstract
In this work, monopolymer blends of virgin polypropylene and photo-oxidized polypropylene were prepare and characterized. The polypropylene samples were subjected to accelerated ageing to simulate the effects of outdoor exposure of polypropylene. After exposure, samples were pelletized and mixed with the same virgin [...] Read more.
In this work, monopolymer blends of virgin polypropylene and photo-oxidized polypropylene were prepare and characterized. The polypropylene samples were subjected to accelerated ageing to simulate the effects of outdoor exposure of polypropylene. After exposure, samples were pelletized and mixed with the same virgin polymer. The rheological, mechanical and morphological characterization was conducted on both the polymers and the blends. Both viscosity and mechanical properties decrease with increases in the content of recycled, photo-oxidized components and of the level of degradation of this component. In addition, the experimental data were compared with a model that takes into account both the effect of the change of the molecular weight and of the presence of oxygenated groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Recycling 2021)
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Article
A Gap Analysis of Ship-Recycling Practices in Indonesia
Recycling 2021, 6(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling6030048 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Ship recycling is gaining attention in Indonesia due to the increase in end-of-life ships and uneconomical nationally flagged ships, and is considered a prospective source of economic development and employment opportunity, and yet conceivably poses a threat to the health and safety of [...] Read more.
Ship recycling is gaining attention in Indonesia due to the increase in end-of-life ships and uneconomical nationally flagged ships, and is considered a prospective source of economic development and employment opportunity, and yet conceivably poses a threat to the health and safety of workers and the environment. There are international and national regulations that govern ship-recycling activities to ensure that the hazardous impacts of the industry are minimized. We investigated the disparity between current ship-breaking practices in Indonesia and the requirements of related international and national regulations, with the findings intended for use as a stepping stone to proposing a strategy to establish a green and sustainable ship-recycling industry. A benchmark study of the world’s leading ship-recycling countries was conducted, and a gap analysis was performed by comparing existing international and national regulations with current ship-breaking practices in Indonesia. We identified two types of ship-breaking practices in Indonesia: Conventional environmentally unfriendly ship-breaking method, conducted by most Indonesian ship-breaking yards, and a rather modern, more environmentally friendly method, conducted by ship-repair yards. However, neither of the practices met the requirements of the regulations, and improvements are therefore needed to make the ship-recycling industry more green and sustainable, and to gain international recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Recycling 2021)
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Article
Using Artificial Intelligence for Optimizing Natural Frequency of Recycled Concrete for Mechanical Machine Foundation
Recycling 2021, 6(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling6030043 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
This paper investigates the mechanical properties of two different types of recycled concrete, which use wood and rubber, relative to those characteristics of pure concrete, in terms of maximum load and natural frequencies. This paper contributes to the state of the art in [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the mechanical properties of two different types of recycled concrete, which use wood and rubber, relative to those characteristics of pure concrete, in terms of maximum load and natural frequencies. This paper contributes to the state of the art in this area in a number of ways. Firstly, the paper provides furtherance to the progressively growing literature in the field of recycled concrete and mechanical properties of materials. Secondly, the paper investigates the mechanical properties of two different types of recycled concrete by means of investigating the natural frequency of the samples, which is a new contribution. Lastly, the results from predicting the natural frequencies of concrete using fuzzy logic have been effectively assessed and compared with the analytical results. Results from the study show that the pure concrete samples produced maximum natural frequency, then concrete samples with wood, and lastly, concrete samples with rubber. The tolerance between the lab test results and fuzzy logic is approximately 5%. These results could have significant implications for furthering recycled concrete research and for designing machine foundations. Evidence of the applicability of fuzzy logic as a predictive and analysis tool for the mechanical properties of recycled concrete are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Recycling 2021)
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Article
Appraisal of Households’ Knowledge and Perception towards E-Waste Management in Limpopo Province, South Africa
Recycling 2021, 6(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling6020039 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
The generation of electronic waste (e-waste) is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. This waste stream is also emanating from household appliances due to beneficial attributes accrued to the use of these electronic devices. At the same time, these devices are [...] Read more.
The generation of electronic waste (e-waste) is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. This waste stream is also emanating from household appliances due to beneficial attributes accrued to the use of these electronic devices. At the same time, these devices are a source of concern considering the environmental impacts as well the threat of health hazards they possess to human wellbeing. In appraising household knowledge and perception on e-waste management in Limpopo Province of South Africa, 200 semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used in eliciting data from the participants. The results indicated that 76% of the respondents believed that e-waste streams have negatively affected their environment. Additionally, 85% of the survey households are willing to pay for the proper disposal of their e-waste. Furthermore, the results indicated a statistically significance between gender and knowledge on e-waste management (p-value 0.003) while there was no statistically significant difference between gender and perception (p-value 0.318) on e-waste management. Based on the results, the study recommends awareness and educational campaigns as a step in changing the perception of households on e-waste and environmental consciousness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Recycling 2021)
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Article
Characterization of Cytisus striatus (Hill) Rothm.: Waste Biomass Energy Recovery as a Measure to Reduce the Risk of Rural Fires
Recycling 2021, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling6020036 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Shrub species play a critical ecological role in ecosystems, covering significant areas. However, with the current development of vegetation cover, conditioned by climate change, certain species have acquired a dominant role, which suffocates the other ecosystem species in a natural monoculture model. Thus, [...] Read more.
Shrub species play a critical ecological role in ecosystems, covering significant areas. However, with the current development of vegetation cover, conditioned by climate change, certain species have acquired a dominant role, which suffocates the other ecosystem species in a natural monoculture model. Thus, some species, such as Cytisus striatus (Hill) Rothm., have acquired preponderance, mainly due to the dense forests they establish. This situation has contributed to the increased risk of rural fires, forcing permanent actions to control the settlements. These actions entail costs that make the continuity and permanence of control unsustainable. The energetic valorization of residual biomass resulting from operations to reduce fuel load is an option that seems viable, mainly if used in the production of biomass pellets in a mixture with other biomasses, such as Pinus pinaster or Eucalyptus globulus. The laboratory characterization tests demonstrated that the residual biomass of C. striatus presents parameters that fall within limits defined by the standard ENPlus®. The processing of this residual biomass on an industrial scale line is also feasible. However, given the configuration of the material to be processed, production lines may be necessary, especially concerning the detachment of the material. The logistical issue may also impose restrictions since the material has a low density, even when baled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Recycling 2021)
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Review

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Review
Factors Affecting Mobile Waste Recycling through RSCM: A Literature Review
Recycling 2021, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling6020030 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Mobile phone consumers have been motivated by the rapid growth of technology and encouraged to update their devices regularly to keep up with new innovations, architectures, and capabilities. Consequently, mobile/cell phone waste has risen significantly in the last decade. Due to their small [...] Read more.
Mobile phone consumers have been motivated by the rapid growth of technology and encouraged to update their devices regularly to keep up with new innovations, architectures, and capabilities. Consequently, mobile/cell phone waste has risen significantly in the last decade. Due to their small size, it is convenient for users to keep outdated or unused mobile phones at home or the office, rather than recycling them appropriately. A reverse supply chain (RSC) is one possible method of mitigating the questionable e-waste activity present in the ecosystem. RSC has been significant for the mobile phone industry, user states, analysts, and scholars. This paper reviews the available literature in the RSC management (RSCM) domain, along with its processes and strategies. The paper reviews 223 published scholarly papers in the domain of mobile phone waste recycling and investigates 22 papers related to factors influencing consumers’ intention with regard to electronic recycling, focusing on mobile devices, which contribute significantly to electronic waste management practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Recycling 2021)
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Review
Recycling of Aseptic Beverage Cartons: A Review
Recycling 2021, 6(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling6010020 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1158
Abstract
Aseptic beverage cartons are multilayer polymer-coated paperboards with a layer of aluminum foil. Due to their multilayer structure it is commonly assumed that they cannot be recycled. This is not the case and this review details the multifarious processes that are used to [...] Read more.
Aseptic beverage cartons are multilayer polymer-coated paperboards with a layer of aluminum foil. Due to their multilayer structure it is commonly assumed that they cannot be recycled. This is not the case and this review details the multifarious processes that are used to recycle aseptic beverage cartons. Hydrapulping to recover the paper fibers that constitute 75% of the carton is the most widespread process, followed by the manufacture of construction materials such as boards and tiles which utilize the complete carton. A range of mechanical, chemical and thermal processes are used to separate the PolyAl (polyethylene and aluminum) residual that remains after the paper fibers have been recovered. The simplest process involves agglutination followed by extrusion to obtain pellets that can then be used in industrial and consumer products or combined with other materials such as lignocellulosic wastes. Chemical approaches involve the solubilization of polyethylene and the removal of aluminum. Various thermal processes have also been investigated and a novel microwave-induced pyrolysis process appears the most commercially viable. It is concluded that the focus in future years is likely to be on recycling cartons into construction materials where there is a theoretical yield of 100% compared with 75% for hydrapulping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Recycling 2021)
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