Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2023) | Viewed by 49467

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School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712, Republic of Korea
Interests: carbon fiber for energy applications; biomaterials; carbon-based materials; hydrogels; device fabrication
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Energy & Environmental Research Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA
Interests: nanotechnology; materials science; biosensor; solar energy; quantum dots
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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500‐757, Republic of Korea
Interests: electrocatalysis; material science; carbon chemistry; fuel cells; batteries

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Guest Editor
Energy & Environmental Research Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA
Interests: nanotechnology; materials science; rare earth elements; fuel cells; battery; energy storage; environmental sustainability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, nanomaterials and nanostructures play a vital role in the advancment of some key technologies. These kinds of materials show new physical properties and are able to offer new possibilities for various applications. Nanomaterials or nanostructures offer many advantages in energy conversion and storage application. Energy conversion and storage involve physical interaction and/or chemical reaction at the surface or interface, so the specific surface area, surface energy, and surface chemistry play a very important role. The surface impacts are not limited to the kinetics and rate only; the surface energy and surface chemistry can have appreciable or significant influences on the thermodynamics of heterogeneous reactions occurring at the interface and the nucleation and subsequent growth when phase transitions are involved. The smaller dimensions of nanomaterials may also offer more favorable mass, heat, and charge transfer, as well as accommodate dimensional changes associated with some chemical reactions and phase transitions. In addition, the effective design and fabrication of different types of materials such as flexible materials have added advantages in terms of practical benefits. Nanomaterials also introduce new challenges in a wide range of applications.

This Special Issue on “Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials’ Synthesis and Application” mainly aims to widen and strengthen nanomaterials’ application and their synthesis methods to address the following challenges.  This Special Issue includes, but is not limited to:

  • Key new technology in the synthesis and application of nanomaterials;
  • Synthesis and application of composite nanomaterials;
  • Technical or review or mini review articles based on nanomaterials/nanostructured composites in the field of energy conversion and storage, and environmental applications;
  • Any new concepts or new ideas on the development of nanomaterials;
  • Flexible materials based on nanostructured materials are also welcome.

Dr. Mohammad Boshir Ahmed
Dr. Md Ashraf Hossain
Dr. Mohammad Shamsuddin Ahmed
Dr. Jivan Thakare
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • flexible materials
  • energy materials
  • composite materials
  • nanomaterial fabrication

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 7038 KiB  
Article
Click Addition Reaction of Urethane–Acrylate Resin Using Octa(3-thiopropyl)silsesquioxane Derivatives as Cross-Linking Agents
by Daria Pakuła, Bogna Sztorch, Robert E. Przekop and Bogdan Marciniec
Processes 2023, 11(12), 3285; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11123285 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 904
Abstract
In this work, new partially substituted derivatives of octa(3-thiopropyl)silsesquioxane (SSQ-8SH) were synthesized. The article compares the thiol-ene reaction using two methods: radical mechanism, thermally initiated (AIBN), and in the presence of a photoinitiator (DMPA). Both the crystalline and the oil forms of SSQ-8SH [...] Read more.
In this work, new partially substituted derivatives of octa(3-thiopropyl)silsesquioxane (SSQ-8SH) were synthesized. The article compares the thiol-ene reaction using two methods: radical mechanism, thermally initiated (AIBN), and in the presence of a photoinitiator (DMPA). Both the crystalline and the oil forms of SSQ-8SH were functionalized. Olefins with nonpolar alkyl groups (hexene, octene, and octadecene) and vinyltrimethoxysilane, allyl glycidyl ether, allyl 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentylether, allyl methacrylate, and styrene were used in the reactions, allowing to obtain seven new derivatives. All compounds were characterized using spectroscopic (1H NMR and 29Si NMR) and spectrometric (MALDI-TOF-MS) methods. The influence of functional groups on the water contact angle value was determined. The functionalization of the compound led to a contact angle value above 95° (SSQ-4SH-4OD). Density measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were carried out for all compounds. The highest onset temperature (357.4 °C) and temperature at the maximum mass loss rate (377.3 °C) were observed for SSQ-SH-4OD. The addition of alkyl groups significantly decreased the density of compounds with increasing chain length (1.198 g/cm3; 1.162 g/cm3; 1.095 g/cm3 for hexene, octene, and octadecene, respectively). Silsesquioxanes have potential applications in various materials, such as UV-curable resins, allowing to modify, for example, their surface properties. Modification of a commercial photocurable resin with selected derivatives was carried out to determine the impact on physicochemical properties (TGA, WCA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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24 pages, 6272 KiB  
Article
Perovskite Type B-CaTiO3 Coupled with Graphene Oxide as Efficient Bifunctional Composites for Environmental Remediation
by Ilknur Altin
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3191; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113191 - 8 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
To prepare boron doped perovskite CaTiO3 nanocubes coupled with graphene oxide (B-CaTiO3/GO), B-CaTiO3 photocatalyst was initially synthesized by the solvothermal method and subsequently attached on GO by a simple hydrothermal process. The phase structure and optical features of the [...] Read more.
To prepare boron doped perovskite CaTiO3 nanocubes coupled with graphene oxide (B-CaTiO3/GO), B-CaTiO3 photocatalyst was initially synthesized by the solvothermal method and subsequently attached on GO by a simple hydrothermal process. The phase structure and optical features of the prepared materials were efficiently characterized by several techniques. The XRD patterns indicated that boron doping could not give rise to lattice disruption of CaTiO3. The results of XPS, HRTEM and Raman measurements revealed that the presence of B-CaTiO3 is anchored on the surface of GO effectively. The morphology of the B-CaTiO3/5GO was nanocube particles. The photocatalytic capacity of B-CaTiO3/GO nanocomposites was determined by investigating the degradation of a model dye, methylene blue (MB). Their degradation performance could be enhanced by altering the ratio between B-CaTiO3 and GO. The most effective GO incorporation is 5 wt%, and at this loading percentage, B-CaTiO3/GO nanocomposite showed improved photocatalytic activity compared with CaTiO3 and B-CaTiO3 photocatalyst, which could be attributed to the synergistic efficacy of the adsorbed MB molecule on the GO followed by their degradation after 180 min of visible light. Additionally, the active species trapping tests confirm the dominant role performed by ·OH and O2· during the degradation of MB. The presence of HCO3 and Cl indicated moderate prohibitive effect on the degradation of MB, while NO3 and SO42− negatively affected the catalytic activity in a non-significant way. In brief, the results of this study show that boron doped perovskite-type semiconductor catalysts by combining with graphene has significant efficiency in the removal of MB from aqueous solution, which can be employed as effective photocatalyst materials for the treatment of other organic pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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19 pages, 4099 KiB  
Article
Computational Assessment of ZrO2-Al2O3/EG and ZrO2-Al2O3-Cu/EG Nanomaterial on Blasius-Rayleigh-Stokes Flow Influenced by an Aligned Magnetic Field
by Huda Alfannakh and Basma Souayeh
Processes 2023, 11(10), 2860; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11102860 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
In this work, the flow of a modified nanofluid is analysed as it passes over a moving surface to investigate the influence of nonlinear radiative heat transfer and the effects of magnetic fields that are aligned. In addition, ethylene glycol is used as [...] Read more.
In this work, the flow of a modified nanofluid is analysed as it passes over a moving surface to investigate the influence of nonlinear radiative heat transfer and the effects of magnetic fields that are aligned. In addition, ethylene glycol is used as the solvent while zirconium oxide and alumina are combined to generate a hybrid nanomaterial. Ternary nanomaterials consist of zirconium oxide, alumina, and copper dissolved in the ethylene glycol. For this mathematical model, Navier–Stokes equations were used to represent the assumed flow. The Navier–Stokes equations were approximated using the boundary layer method under the flow assumptions, yielding the PDE’s. Similarity transformations are used to translate this system into ODE’s. The bvp4c method is used to explain a dimensionless system. The impacts of the relevant physical parameters are elucidated quantitatively and visually. A greater temperature ratio parameter is observed to increase the temperature profile. In addition to this, when the magnetic field parameter is increased, the momentum layer becomes thicker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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14 pages, 2177 KiB  
Article
Performance Simulation of Permeable Concrete Materials Combined with Nanotechnology in Rainwater Management
by Jianfeng Li, Mengmeng Jin, Junbo Chen, Zucan Weng, Miao Sun, Danhong Wu, Huihui Yan, Zhigang Huang, Jinglan Xue and Feilan Wang
Processes 2023, 11(3), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030768 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
In recent years, China has entered a period of rapid urban development, but most of the cities with rapid development still have ground hardening, which makes it difficult for rainwater to penetrate and discharge. In order to achieve the rapid drainage of accumulated [...] Read more.
In recent years, China has entered a period of rapid urban development, but most of the cities with rapid development still have ground hardening, which makes it difficult for rainwater to penetrate and discharge. In order to achieve the rapid drainage of accumulated water in the city, nanotechnology was introduced, and permeable concrete based on NC and NS nanomaterials was proposed. Combined with finite element analysis, the permeable properties and mechanical properties of permeable concrete mixed with nanomaterials were analyzed. A comprehensive performance analysis of pervious concrete shows that the viscosity of permeable concrete mixed with nanomaterials is significantly higher than that of non-mixed pervious concrete, and the permeability coefficient of permeable concrete mixed with nanomaterials can reach 0.43 cm/s. A finite element analysis shows that the incorporation of nanomaterials can improve the compressive strength of permeable concrete. At the same time, under a rainwater environment simulation, the rainwater retention time of pervious concrete is only 2.35 s. The above results show that the incorporation of nanomaterials into pervious concrete can improve the water permeability of pervious concrete, improve the mechanical properties of pervious concrete, and increase its service life, which is of great significance to urban development and urban management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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13 pages, 4573 KiB  
Article
Cobalt Oxide Nanorod-Modified GCE as Sensitive Electrodes for Simultaneous Detection of Hydroquinone and Catechol
by Nasrin Sultana, Sanjay Datta Shawon, S. M. Abu Nayem, Md. Mahedi Hasan, Tamanna Islam, Syed Shaheen Shah, Mohammad Mahbub Rabbani, Md. Abdul Aziz and A. J. Saleh Ahammad
Processes 2022, 10(2), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10020390 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3354
Abstract
An electrochemical sensor based on a cobalt oxide nanorod (Co3O4NR) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) (Co3O4NR-GCE) was prepared for simultaneous and selective determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CT). Surface morphology and crystallinity of Co [...] Read more.
An electrochemical sensor based on a cobalt oxide nanorod (Co3O4NR) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) (Co3O4NR-GCE) was prepared for simultaneous and selective determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CT). Surface morphology and crystallinity of Co3O4NR were investigated employing field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The structure (16 nm) of the Co3O4 nanorod was observed in the FESEM image. A sharp peak pattern in the XRD survey revealed the following crystal planes in Co3O4NR material: (111), (220), (311), (222), (400), (422), (511), and (440). Electrochemical characterization of modified Co3O4NR-GCE was carried out performing cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Selective and simultaneous detection of HQ and CT was carried out by performing CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. In both studies, modified Co3O4NR-GCE showed well defined oxidation and reduction peaks for HQ and CT with enhanced peak current, and the oxidation peaks for HQ and CT were observed at 0.152 V and 0.254 V, respectively, in the CV analysis. Scan rate and pH variation analysis were performed to evaluate different kinetic parameters, including charge transfer coefficient (α = 0.56 for HQ and 0.66 for CT), heterogeneous charge transfer rate constant (ks = 56 for HQ and 72 for CT), and the number of electrons involved in HQ and CT oxidation. Quantitative analysis of HQ and CT was studied by observing the current response of DPV analysis with respect to concentration variation. Here, the detection limit was calculated as 0.2 µM for HQ with a linear concentration range of 5–200 µM, and 0.4 µM for CT with a linear concentration range of 5–150 µM. The practical applicability of the proposed sensor was investigated using sample solutions prepared in tap water. The reported sensor showed impressive selectivity towards HQ and CT in the presence of common interferents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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Review

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23 pages, 4747 KiB  
Review
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Modification, and Applications in Food and Agriculture
by Xian-Qing Zhou, Zakir Hayat, Dong-Dong Zhang, Meng-Yao Li, Si Hu, Qiong Wu, Yu-Fei Cao and Ying Yuan
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041193 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 27005
Abstract
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have gained significant interest in the agricultural and food industry as a means of killing or reducing the activity of microorganisms. The antibacterial properties of ZnO-NPs may improve food quality, which has a direct impact on human health. ZnO-NPs [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have gained significant interest in the agricultural and food industry as a means of killing or reducing the activity of microorganisms. The antibacterial properties of ZnO-NPs may improve food quality, which has a direct impact on human health. ZnO-NPs are one of the most investigated inorganic nanoparticles and have been used in various related sectors, with the potential to rapidly gain attention and increase interest in the agriculture and food industries. In this review, we describe various methods for preparing ZnO-NPs, their characterizations, modifications, applications, antimicrobial activity, testing procedures, and effects, including bactericidal and bacteriostatic mechanisms. It is hoped that this review could provide a better understanding of the preparation and application of ZnO nanoparticles in the field of food and agriculture, and promote their development to advance the field of food and agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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24 pages, 5256 KiB  
Review
Shape Memory Graphene Nanocomposites—Fundamentals, Properties, and Significance
by Ayesha Kausar, Ishaq Ahmad, O. Aldaghri, Khalid H. Ibnaouf and M. H. Eisa
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041171 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Shape memory nanocomposites are excellent smart materials which can switch between a variable temporary shape and their original shape upon exposure to external stimuli such as heat, light, electricity, magnetic fields, moisture, chemicals, pH, etc. Numerous nanofillers have been introduced in shape memory [...] Read more.
Shape memory nanocomposites are excellent smart materials which can switch between a variable temporary shape and their original shape upon exposure to external stimuli such as heat, light, electricity, magnetic fields, moisture, chemicals, pH, etc. Numerous nanofillers have been introduced in shape memory polymers such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, carbon nanofibers, etc. Among nanocarbons, graphene has attracted research interest for the development of shape memory polymer/graphene nanocomposites. Graphene is a unique one-atom-thick two-dimensional nanosheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms. Graphene has been used as an effective nanofiller in shape memory polymeric nanocomposites owing to its remarkable electrical conductivity, flexibility, strength, and heat stability. Thermoplastics as well as thermoset matrices have been used to form the shape memory nanomaterials with graphene nanofiller. In shape memory polymer/graphene nanocomposites, their shape has been fixed above the transition temperature and then transformed to the original shape through an external stimulus. The inclusion of graphene in nanocomposites can cause fast switching of their temporary shape to their original shape. Fine graphene dispersion, matrix–nanofiller interactions, and compatible interface development can lead to high-performance shape memory graphene-derived nanocomposites. Consequently, this review focuses on an important class of shape memory graphene-based nanocomposites. The fabrication, physical properties, and shape memory actuation of polymer/graphene nanocomposites are discussed. The stimuli-responsive polymer/graphene nanocomposites mostly revealed heat-, electricity-, and light-induced effects. The inclusion of graphene enhanced the physical/covalent linking, shape recovery, shape fixity, flexibility, and crystallization effects in the polymers. Furthermore, potential applications of these materials are observed in the aerospace/automobile industries, civil engineering, and biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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26 pages, 9471 KiB  
Review
Graphene in Polymeric Nanocomposite Membranes—Current State and Progress
by Ayesha Kausar, Ishaq Ahmad, Tingkai Zhao, O. Aldaghri and M. H. Eisa
Processes 2023, 11(3), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030927 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2467
Abstract
One important application of polymer/graphene nanocomposites is in membrane technology. In this context, promising polymer/graphene nanocomposites have been developed and applied in the production of high-performance membranes. This review basically highlights the designs, properties, and use of polymer/graphene nanocomposite membranes in the field [...] Read more.
One important application of polymer/graphene nanocomposites is in membrane technology. In this context, promising polymer/graphene nanocomposites have been developed and applied in the production of high-performance membranes. This review basically highlights the designs, properties, and use of polymer/graphene nanocomposite membranes in the field of gas separation and purification. Various polymer matrices (polysulfone, poly(dimethylsiloxane), poly(methyl methacrylate), polyimide, etc.), have been reinforced with graphene to develop nanocomposite membranes. Various facile strategies, such as solution casting, phase separation, infiltration, self-assembly, etc., have been employed in the design of gas separation polymer/graphene nanocomposite membranes. The inclusion of graphene in polymeric membranes affects their morphology, physical properties, gas permeability, selectivity, and separation processes. Furthermore, the final membrane properties are affected by the nanofiller content, modification, dispersion, and processing conditions. Moreover, the development of polymer/graphene nanofibrous membranes has introduced novelty in the field of gas separation membranes. These high-performance membranes have the potential to overcome challenges arising from gas separation conditions. Hence, this overview provides up-to-date coverage of advances in polymer/graphene nanocomposite membranes, especially for gas separation applications. The separation processes of polymer/graphene nanocomposite membranes (in parting gases) are dependent upon variations in the structural design and processing techniques used. Current challenges and future opportunities related to polymer/graphene nanocomposite membranes are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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25 pages, 9621 KiB  
Review
Polymer/Graphene Nanocomposites via 3D and 4D Printing—Design and Technical Potential
by Ayesha Kausar, Ishaq Ahmad, Tingkai Zhao, O. Aldaghri and M. H. Eisa
Processes 2023, 11(3), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030868 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3449
Abstract
Graphene is an important nanocarbon nanofiller for polymeric matrices. The polymer–graphene nanocomposites, obtained through facile fabrication methods, possess significant electrical–thermal–mechanical and physical properties for technical purposes. To overcome challenges of polymer–graphene nanocomposite processing and high performance, advanced fabrication strategies have been applied to [...] Read more.
Graphene is an important nanocarbon nanofiller for polymeric matrices. The polymer–graphene nanocomposites, obtained through facile fabrication methods, possess significant electrical–thermal–mechanical and physical properties for technical purposes. To overcome challenges of polymer–graphene nanocomposite processing and high performance, advanced fabrication strategies have been applied to design the next-generation materials–devices. This revolutionary review basically offers a fundamental sketch of graphene, polymer–graphene nanocomposite and three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) printing techniques. The main focus of the article is to portray the impact of 3D and 4D printing techniques in the field of polymer–graphene nanocomposites. Polymeric matrices, such as polyamide, polycaprolactone, polyethylene, poly(lactic acid), etc. with graphene, have been processed using 3D or 4D printing technologies. The 3D and 4D printing employ various cutting-edge processes and offer engineering opportunities to meet the manufacturing demands of the nanomaterials. The 3D printing methods used for graphene nanocomposites include direct ink writing, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling and other approaches. Thermally stable poly(lactic acid)–graphene oxide nanocomposites have been processed using a direct ink printing technique. The 3D-printed poly(methyl methacrylate)–graphene have been printed using stereolithography and additive manufacturing techniques. The printed poly(methyl methacrylate)–graphene nanocomposites revealed enhanced morphological, mechanical and biological properties. The polyethylene–graphene nanocomposites processed by fused diffusion modeling have superior thermal conductivity, strength, modulus and radiation- shielding features. The poly(lactic acid)–graphene nanocomposites have been processed using a number of 3D printing approaches, including fused deposition modeling, stereolithography, etc., resulting in unique honeycomb morphology, high surface temperature, surface resistivity, glass transition temperature and linear thermal coefficient. The 4D printing has been applied on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, poly(lactic acid) and thermosetting matrices with graphene nanofiller. Stereolithography-based 4D-printed polymer–graphene nanomaterials have revealed complex shape-changing nanostructures having high resolution. These materials have high temperature stability and high performance for technical applications. Consequently, the 3D- or 4D-printed polymer–graphene nanocomposites revealed technical applications in high temperature relevance, photovoltaics, sensing, energy storage and other technical fields. In short, this paper has reviewed the background of 3D and 4D printing, graphene-based nanocomposite fabrication using 3D–4D printing, development in printing technologies and applications of 3D–4D printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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42 pages, 3029 KiB  
Review
Recent Criterion on Stability Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells
by Md Saif Hasan, Jahangir Alom, Md Asaduzzaman, Mohammad Boshir Ahmed, Md Delowar Hossain, ASM Saem, Jahangir Masud, Jivan Thakare and Md Ashraf Hossain
Processes 2022, 10(7), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10071408 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5660
Abstract
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have captured the attention of the global energy research community in recent years by showing an exponential augmentation in their performance and stability. The supremacy of the light-harvesting efficiency and wider band gap of perovskite sensitizers have led to [...] Read more.
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have captured the attention of the global energy research community in recent years by showing an exponential augmentation in their performance and stability. The supremacy of the light-harvesting efficiency and wider band gap of perovskite sensitizers have led to these devices being compared with the most outstanding rival silicon-based solar cells. Nevertheless, there are some issues such as their poor lifetime stability, considerable J–V hysteresis, and the toxicity of the conventional constituent materials which restrict their prevalence in the marketplace. The poor stability of PSCs with regard to humidity, UV radiation, oxygen and heat especially limits their industrial application. This review focuses on the in-depth studies of different direct and indirect parameters of PSC device instability. The mechanism for device degradation for several parameters and the complementary materials showing promising results are systematically analyzed. The main objective of this work is to review the effectual strategies of enhancing the stability of PSCs. Several important factors such as material engineering, novel device structure design, hole-transporting materials (HTMs), electron-transporting materials (ETMs), electrode materials preparation, and encapsulation methods that need to be taken care of in order to improve the stability of PSCs are discussed extensively. Conclusively, this review discusses some opportunities for the commercialization of PSCs with high efficiency and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advancements in Nanomaterials Synthesis and Application)
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