Special Issue "Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wenguo Cui

Shanghai Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025, China
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Interests: electrospun fibers, hydrogel, drug delivery, micro-scaffolds, regeneration
Guest Editor
Dr. Xin Zhao

Department of Biomedical Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HungHom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
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Interests: biomaterials, tissue engineering, drug delivery, cell microenvironment, microfluidics
Guest Editor
Prof. David Nisbet

Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
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Interests: Biomedical Engineering; Biomaterials; Central Nervous System; Cellular Interactions (Incl. Adhesion, Matrix, Cell Wall); Cell Development, Proliferation And Death; Regenerative Medicine (Incl. Stem Cells And Tissue Engineering); Nanobiotechnology; Nanomaterials; Functional Materials;Polymers And Plastics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials, such as polymers, have been widely used in medical, personal care, and diagnostic applications, across all disciplines. This Special Issue will focus on polymers used in the biomedical field, specifically those designed as scaffolds for use in regenerative medicine. Areas of active research include: Biomaterials design with the incorporation of chemical and physical (mechanical/structural) properties to guide cell and tissue organization; cell/scaffold integration involving recruiting the host cells that interact with implanted scaffolds; biomolecule delivery including growth factors, genes and/or small molecules or peptides to promote cell survival and tissue regeneration; and polymer scaffolds for 3D cell culture for engineering organoid, spheroid, and organ on-a-chip models. However, topics are not limited to these studies, but can cover all research areas concerning polymer scaffolds for biomedical applications.

Considering your prominent contribution in this interesting research topic, I would like to cordially invite you to submit an article to this Special Issue. This Special Issue will publish full research papers, communications, and review articles. I would like to bring together a collection of comprehensive reviews from leading experts and up-to-date researches from notable groups in the community.

The manuscript should be submitted online before 30 September 2018. I would very much appreciate if you would consider being one of our authors.

Prof. Dr. Wenguo Cui
Dr. Xin Zhao
Prof. David Nisbet
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polymer scaffolds design
  • hydrogel
  • nanofibrous scaffolds
  • drug delivery scaffolds
  • tissue engineering scaffolds
  • natural and synthetic polymers
  • cell-material interactions
  • cell-loaded scaffolds
  • scaffolds for 3D cell culture for organs on a chip application

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Laser Surface Microstructuring of a Bio-Resorbable Polymer to Anchor Stem Cells, Control Adipocyte Morphology, and Promote Osteogenesis
Polymers 2018, 10(12), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10121337
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
New strategies in regenerative medicine include the implantation of stem cells cultured in bio-resorbable polymeric scaffolds to restore the tissue function and be absorbed by the body after wound healing. This requires the development of appropriate micro-technologies for manufacturing of functional scaffolds with
[...] Read more.
New strategies in regenerative medicine include the implantation of stem cells cultured in bio-resorbable polymeric scaffolds to restore the tissue function and be absorbed by the body after wound healing. This requires the development of appropriate micro-technologies for manufacturing of functional scaffolds with controlled surface properties to induce a specific cell behavior. The present report focuses on the effect of substrate topography on the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) before and after co-differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts. Picosecond laser micromachining technology (PLM) was applied on poly (L-lactide) (PLLA), to generate different microstructures (microgrooves and microcavities) for investigating cell shape, orientation, and MSCs co-differentiation. Under certain surface topographical conditions, MSCs modify their shape to anchor at specific groove locations. Upon MSCs differentiation, adipocytes respond to changes in substrate height and depth by adapting the intracellular distribution of their lipid vacuoles to the imposed physical constraints. In addition, topography alone seems to produce a modest, but significant, increase of stem cell differentiation to osteoblasts. These findings show that PLM can be applied as a high-efficient technology to directly and precisely manufacture 3D microstructures that guide cell shape, control adipocyte morphology, and induce osteogenesis without the need of specific biochemical functionalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Soy Protein-Based Composite Hydrogels: Physico-Chemical Characterization and In Vitro Cytocompatibility
Polymers 2018, 10(10), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10101159
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Novel composite hydrogels based on the combination of alginate (Alg), soy protein isolate (SPI) and bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles were developed for soft tissue engineering. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and normal human dermal fibroblasts were cultivated on hydrogels for 7, 14
[...] Read more.
Novel composite hydrogels based on the combination of alginate (Alg), soy protein isolate (SPI) and bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles were developed for soft tissue engineering. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and normal human dermal fibroblasts were cultivated on hydrogels for 7, 14 and 21 days. Cell morphology was visualized using fluorescent staining at Days 7 and 14 for fibroblast cells and Days 14 and 21 for HUVEC. Metabolic activity of cells was analyzed using a colorimetric assay (water soluble tetrazolium (WST) assay). Compared to pure Alg, Alg/SPI and Alg/SPI/BG provided superior surfaces for both types of cells, supporting their attachment, growth, spreading and metabolic activity. Fibroblasts showed better colonization and growth on Alg/SPI/BG hydrogels compared to Alg/SPI hydrogels. The results indicate that such novel composite hydrogels might find applications in soft tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Poly(HEMA-Am) Polymer Hydrogel Filler for Soft Tissue Reconstruction by Facile Polymerization
Polymers 2018, 10(7), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070772
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
The number of breast reconstruction surgeries has been increasing due to the increase in mastectomies. Surgical implants (the standard polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) implants) are widely used to reconstruct breast tissues, however, it can cause problems such as adverse immune reactions, fibrosis, rupture, and additional
[...] Read more.
The number of breast reconstruction surgeries has been increasing due to the increase in mastectomies. Surgical implants (the standard polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) implants) are widely used to reconstruct breast tissues, however, it can cause problems such as adverse immune reactions, fibrosis, rupture, and additional surgery. Hence, polymeric fillers have recently garnered increasing attention as strong alternatives for breast reconstruction materials. Polymeric fillers offer noninvasive methods of reconstruction, thereby reducing the possible adverse effects and simplifying the treatment. In this study, we synthesized a 2-hydroxylethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (Am) copolymer (Poly(HEMA-Am)) by redox polymerization to be used as a biocompatible filler material for breast reconstruction. The synthesized hydrogel swelled in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) shows an average modulus of 50 Pa, which is a characteristic similar to that of the standard dermal acrylamide filler. To investigate the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the Poly(HEMA-Am) hydrogel, we evaluated an in vitro cytotoxicity assay on human fibroblasts (hFBs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) with the hydrogel eluate, and confirmed a cell viability of over 80% of the cell viability with the Poly(HEMA-Am) hydrogel. These results suggest our polymeric hydrogel is a promising filler material in soft tissue augmentation including breast reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Electrohydrodynamic Jet 3D Printed Nerve Guide Conduits (NGCs) for Peripheral Nerve Injury Repair
Polymers 2018, 10(7), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070753
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 8 July 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of peripheral nerve injuries resulting in loss of motor function, sensory function, or both, is on the rise. Artificial Nerve Guide Conduits (NGCs) are considered an effective alternative treatment for autologous nerve grafts, which is the current gold-standard for treating peripheral
[...] Read more.
The prevalence of peripheral nerve injuries resulting in loss of motor function, sensory function, or both, is on the rise. Artificial Nerve Guide Conduits (NGCs) are considered an effective alternative treatment for autologous nerve grafts, which is the current gold-standard for treating peripheral nerve injuries. In this study, Polycaprolactone-based three-dimensional porous NGCs are fabricated using Electrohydrodynamic jet 3D printing (EHD-jetting) for the first time. The main advantage of this technique is that all the scaffold properties, namely fibre diameter, pore size, porosity, and fibre alignment, can be controlled by tuning the process parameters. In addition, EHD-jetting has the advantages of customizability, repeatability, and scalability. Scaffolds with five different pore sizes (125 to 550 μm) and porosities (65 to 88%) are fabricated and the effect of pore size on the mechanical properties is evaluated. In vitro degradation studies are carried out to investigate the degradation profile of the scaffolds and determine the influence of pore size on the degradation rate and mechanical properties at various degradation time points. Scaffolds with a pore size of 125 ± 15 μm meet the requirements of an optimal NGC structure with a porosity greater than 60%, mechanical properties closer to those of the native peripheral nerves, and an optimal degradation rate matching the nerve regeneration rate post-injury. The in vitro neural differentiation studies also corroborate the same results. Cell proliferation was highest in the scaffolds with a pore size of 125 ± 15 μm assessed by the PrestoBlue assay. The Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) results involving the three most important genes concerning neural differentiation, namely β3-tubulin, NF-H, and GAP-43, confirm that the scaffolds with a pore size of 125 ± 15 μm have the highest gene expression of all the other pore sizes and also outperform the electrospun Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. The immunocytochemistry results, expressing the two important nerve proteins β3-tubulin and NF200, showed directional alignment of the neurite growth along the fibre direction in EHD-jet 3D printed scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Human Engineered Cartilage and Decellularized Matrix as an Alternative to Animal Osteoarthritis Model
Polymers 2018, 10(7), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070738
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (16013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Objective: to obtain a reproducible, robust, well-defined, and cost-affordable in vitro model of human cartilage degeneration, suitable for drug screening; (2) Methods: we proposed 3D models of engineered cartilage, considering two human chondrocyte sources (articular/nasal) and five culture methods (pellet, alginate beads,
[...] Read more.
(1) Objective: to obtain a reproducible, robust, well-defined, and cost-affordable in vitro model of human cartilage degeneration, suitable for drug screening; (2) Methods: we proposed 3D models of engineered cartilage, considering two human chondrocyte sources (articular/nasal) and five culture methods (pellet, alginate beads, silk/alginate microcarriers, and decellularized cartilage). Engineered cartilages were treated with pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β to promote cartilage degradation; (3) Results: articular chondrocytes have been rejected since they exhibit low cellular doubling with respect to nasal cells, with longer culture time for cell expansion; furthermore, pellet and alginate bead cultures lead to insufficient cartilage matrix production. Decellularized cartilage resulted as good support for degeneration model, but long culture time and high cell amount are required to obtain the adequate scaffold colonization. Here, we proposed, for the first time, the combined use of decellularized cartilage, as aggrecanase substrate, with pellet, alginate beads, or silk/alginate microcarriers, as polymeric scaffolds for chondrocyte cultures. This approach enables the development of suitable models of cartilaginous pathology. The results obtained after cryopreservation also demonstrated that beads and microcarriers are able to preserve chondrocyte functionality and metabolic activity; (4) Conclusions: alginate and silk/alginate-based scaffolds can be easily produced and cryopreserved to obtain a cost-affordable and ready-to-use polymer-based product for the subsequent screening of anti-inflammatory drugs for cartilage diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Scaffolds Formed via the Non-Equilibrium Supramolecular Assembly of the Synergistic ECM Peptides RGD and PHSRN Demonstrate Improved Cell Attachment in 3D
Polymers 2018, 10(7), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070690
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
Self-assembling peptides (SAPs) are a relatively new class of low molecular weight gelators which immobilize their solvent through the spontaneous formation of (fibrillar) nanoarchitectures. As peptides are derived from proteins, these hydrogels are ideal for use as biocompatible scaffolds for regenerative medicine. Importantly,
[...] Read more.
Self-assembling peptides (SAPs) are a relatively new class of low molecular weight gelators which immobilize their solvent through the spontaneous formation of (fibrillar) nanoarchitectures. As peptides are derived from proteins, these hydrogels are ideal for use as biocompatible scaffolds for regenerative medicine. Importantly, due to the propensity of peptide sequences to act as signals in nature, they are easily functionalized to be cell instructive via the inclusion of bioactive epitopes. In nature, the fibronectin peptide sequence, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) synergistically promotes the integrin α5β1 mediated cell adhesion with another epitope, proline-histidine-serine-arginine-asparagine (PHSRN); however most functionalization strategies focus on RGD alone. Here, for the first time, we discuss the biomimetic inclusion of both these sequences within a self-assembled minimalistic peptide hydrogel. Here, based on our work with Fmoc-FRGDF (N-flourenylmethyloxycarbonyl phenylalanine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-phenylalanine), we show it is possible to present two epitopes simultaneously via the assembly of the epitopes by the coassembly of two SAPs, and compare this to the effectiveness of the signals in a single peptide; Fmoc-FRGDF: Fmoc-PHSRN (N-flourenylmethyloxycarbonyl-proline-histidine-serine-arginine-asparagine) and Fmoc-FRGDFPHSRN (N-flourenylmethyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-arginine-glycine-asparticacid-phenylalanine-proline-histidine-serine-arginine-asparagine). We show both produced self-supporting hydrogel underpinned by entangled nanofibrils, however, the stiffness of coassembled hydrogel was over two orders of magnitude higher than either Fmoc-FRGDF or Fmoc-FRGDFPHSRN alone. In-vitro three-dimensional cell culture of human mammary fibroblasts on the hydrogel mixed peptide showed dramatically improved adhesion, spreading and proliferation over Fmoc-FRGDF. However, the long peptide did not provide effective cell attachment. The results demonstrated the selective synergy effect of PHSRN with RGD is an effective way to augment the robustness and functionality of self-assembled bioscaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Gelatin/Nanohyroxyapatite Cryogel Embedded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid)/Nanohydroxyapatite Microsphere Hybrid Scaffolds for Simultaneous Bone Regeneration and Load-Bearing
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060620
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is desirable to combine load-bearing and bone regeneration capabilities in a single bone tissue engineering scaffold. For this purpose, we developed a high strength hybrid scaffold using a sintered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/nanohydroxyapatite (nHAP) microsphere cavity fitted with gelatin/nHAP cryogel disks
[...] Read more.
It is desirable to combine load-bearing and bone regeneration capabilities in a single bone tissue engineering scaffold. For this purpose, we developed a high strength hybrid scaffold using a sintered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/nanohydroxyapatite (nHAP) microsphere cavity fitted with gelatin/nHAP cryogel disks in the center. Osteo-conductive/osteo-inductive nHAP was incorporated in 250–500 μm PLGA microspheres at 40% (w/w) as the base matrix for the high strength cavity-shaped microsphere scaffold, while 20% (w/w) nHAP was incorporated into gelatin cryogels as an embedded core for bone regeneration purposes. The physico-chemical properties of the microsphere, cryogel, and hybrid scaffolds were characterized in detail. The ultimate stress and Young’s modulus of the hybrid scaffold showed 25- and 21-fold increases from the cryogel scaffold. In vitro studies using rabbit bone marrow-derived stem cells (rBMSCs) in cryogel and hybrid scaffolds through DNA content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition by SEM/EDS, showed the prominence of both scaffolds in cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs in a normal medium. Calcium contents analysis, immunofluorescent staining of collagen I (COL I), and osteocalcin (OCN) and relative mRNA expression of COL I, OCN and osteopontin (OPN) confirmed in vitro differentiation of rBMSCs in the hybrid scaffold toward the bone lineage. From compression testing, the cell/hybrid scaffold construct showed a 1.93 times increase of Young’s modulus from day 14 to day 28, due to mineral deposition. The relative mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes COL I, OCN, and OPN showed 5.5, 18.7, and 7.2 folds increase from day 14 to day 28, respectively, confirming bone regeneration. From animal studies, the rBMSCs-seeded hybrid constructs could repair mid-diaphyseal tibia defects in rabbits, as evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) and histological analyses. The hybrid scaffold will be useful for bone regeneration in load-bearing areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Phospholipid-Coated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Acting as Lubricating Drug Nanocarriers
Polymers 2018, 10(5), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10050513
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (8400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a severe disease caused by wear and inflammation of joints. In this study, phospholipid-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles ([email protected]) were prepared in order to treat OA at an early stage. The phospholipid layer has excellent lubrication capability in aqueous media due
[...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a severe disease caused by wear and inflammation of joints. In this study, phospholipid-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles ([email protected]) were prepared in order to treat OA at an early stage. The phospholipid layer has excellent lubrication capability in aqueous media due to the hydration lubrication mechanism, while mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) act as effective drug nanocarriers. The [email protected] were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectrum, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic light scattering techniques to confirm that the phospholipid layer was coated onto the surface of MSNs successfully. A series of tribological tests were performed under different experimental conditions, and the results showed that [email protected] with multi-layers of phospholipids greatly reduced the friction coefficient in comparison with MSNs. Additionally, [email protected] demonstrated sustained drug release behavior and were biocompatible based on CCK-8 assay using MC3T3-E1 cells. The [email protected] developed in the present study, acting as effective lubricating drug nanocarriers, may represent a promising strategy to treat early stage OA by lubrication enhancement and drug delivery therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle ECM Decorated Electrospun Nanofiber for Improving Bone Tissue Regeneration
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030272
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Optimization of nanofiber surface properties can lead to enhanced tissue regeneration outcomes in the context of bone tissue engineering. Herein, we developed a facile strategy to decorate elctrospun nanofibers using extracellular matrix (ECM) in order to improve their performance for bone tissue engineering.
[...] Read more.
Optimization of nanofiber surface properties can lead to enhanced tissue regeneration outcomes in the context of bone tissue engineering. Herein, we developed a facile strategy to decorate elctrospun nanofibers using extracellular matrix (ECM) in order to improve their performance for bone tissue engineering. Electrospun PLLA nanofibers (PLLA NF) were seeded with MC3T3-E1 cells and allowed to grow for two weeks in order to harvest a layer of ECM on nanofiber surface. After decellularization, we found that ECM was successfully preserved on nanofiber surface while maintaining the nanostructure of electrospun fibers. ECM decorated on PLLA NF is biologically active, as evidenced by its ability to enhance mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) adhesion, support cell proliferation and promote early stage osteogenic differentiation of mBMSCs. Compared to PLLA NF without ECM, mBMSCs grown on ECM/PLLA NF exhibited a healthier morphology, faster proliferation profile, and more robust osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, our study suggests that ECM decoration on electrospun nanofibers could serve as an efficient approach to improving their performance for bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Collagen-Coated Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/Hydroxyapatite Scaffold Incorporated with DGEA Peptide for Synergistic Repair of Skull Defect
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020109
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The treatment of large-area bone defects remains a challenge; however, various strategies have been developed to improve the performances of scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. In this study, poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) scaffold was coated with Asp-Gly-Glu-Ala (DGEA)-incorporated collagen for the repair of
[...] Read more.
The treatment of large-area bone defects remains a challenge; however, various strategies have been developed to improve the performances of scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. In this study, poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) scaffold was coated with Asp-Gly-Glu-Ala (DGEA)-incorporated collagen for the repair of rat skull defect. Our results indicated that the mechanical strength and hydrophilicity of the PLGA/HA scaffold were clearly improved and conducive to cell adhesion and proliferation. The collagen-coated scaffold with DGEA significantly promoted the repair of skull defect. These findings indicated that a combination of collagen coating and DGEA improved scaffold properties for bone regeneration, thereby providing a new potential strategy for scaffold design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Matrix Topographical Cue-Mediated Myogenic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derivatives
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110580
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 5 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Biomaterials varying in physical properties, chemical composition and biofunctionalities can be used as powerful tools to regulate skeletal muscle-specific cellular behaviors, including myogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. Biomaterials with defined topographical cues (e.g., patterned substrates) can mediate cellular alignment of progenitor cells and
[...] Read more.
Biomaterials varying in physical properties, chemical composition and biofunctionalities can be used as powerful tools to regulate skeletal muscle-specific cellular behaviors, including myogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. Biomaterials with defined topographical cues (e.g., patterned substrates) can mediate cellular alignment of progenitor cells and improve myogenic differentiation. In this study, we employed soft lithography techniques to create substrates with microtopographical cues and used these substrates to study the effect of matrix topographical cues on myogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived mesodermal progenitor cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). Our results show that the majority (>80%) of PDGFRA+ cells on micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were aligned along the direction of the microgrooves and underwent robust myogenic differentiation compared to those on non-patterned surfaces. Matrix topography-mediated alignment of the mononucleated cells promoted their fusion resulting in mainly (~86%–93%) multinucleated myotube formation. Furthermore, when implanted, the cells on the micropatterned substrates showed enhanced in vivo survival (>5–7 times) and engraftment (>4–6 times) in cardiotoxin-injured tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice compared to cells cultured on corresponding non-patterned substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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