Special Issue "Functional and Conductive Polymer Thin Films I"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Yen-Zen Wang
Website
Guest Editor
http://www.che.yuntech.edu.tw/en/full-time-faculty.html
Interests: nanocomposite; biomedical materials; separation technology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of materials is the key factor for industrial growth and innovation. This leads to the enhancement of material functionalities that effectively promote profundity and expand upon the breadth of the original material applications. Material functionality methods include chemical modifications and compounds from physical blending. Functional polymers are polymers bearing functional groups that have a greater polarity or reactivity than simple linear backbones. Polymer functionalization aims at offering new properties to materials. These include separation membranes for fuel cells, electrodes in batteries, organic catalysis, medicine, optoelectronics, biomaterials, photographic materials, and fuel additives, amongst others. Conductive polymers are organic polymers that conduct electricity. Their electrical properties can be modulated through organic synthesis methods and by excellent dispersion techniques. It is worth mentioning that according to the scientific database, the total number of papers on conducting polymers up to 2019 is over 300,000. A review of the literature suggests that conducting polymers have shown promise in a wide range of applications, including in catalysts, photovoltaic cells, batteries, organic solar cells, batteries, transistor, printing electronic circuits, organic light-emitting diodes, actuators, electrochromism, supercapacitors, chemical sensors and biosensors, flexible transparent displays, electromagnetic shielding and microwave-absorbent coatings, and others. A thin film is a layer of material ranging from nanometer scale to several micrometers in thickness. Since the layers are thin relative to the length, interface effects are much more important than in bulk materials, bringing about novel physical properties. Study of the film properties and functions has become a major research field. The synthesis of polymers as thin films is a key step in numerous applications (e.g., protection, smart coatings to electronics, sensors and display technology, as well as serving biological and medical purposes).

This Special Issue aims to highlight the fundamental research and latest advancement in the synthesis, fabrication, characterization, properties, and foresights of functional and conductive polymer thin films, as well as their copolymers, composites, and nanocomposites.

Prof. Yen-Zen Wang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • synthesis and fabrication of functional and conductive polymer thin films
  • polymers for green energy cells
  • polymers for electrodes in batteries
  • polymers for supercapacitors
  • polymers for flexible transparent displays
  • polymers for chemical sensors and biosensors
  • polymers for electrochromism
  • polymers for electromagnetic shielding
  • polymers for 3D printing
  • semiconducting polymers

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Phosphorus-Containing Polyanilines by Electrochemical Copolymerization
Polymers 2020, 12(5), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12051029 - 01 May 2020
Abstract
In this study, the phosphonation of a polyaniline (PANI) backbone was achieved in an acid medium by electrochemical methods using aminophenylphosphonic (APPA) monomers. This was done through the electrochemical copolymerization of aniline with either 2- or 4-aminophenylphosphonic acid. Stable, electroactive polymers were obtained [...] Read more.
In this study, the phosphonation of a polyaniline (PANI) backbone was achieved in an acid medium by electrochemical methods using aminophenylphosphonic (APPA) monomers. This was done through the electrochemical copolymerization of aniline with either 2- or 4-aminophenylphosphonic acid. Stable, electroactive polymers were obtained after the oxidation of the monomers up to 1.35 V (reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that the position of the phosphonic group in the aromatic ring of the monomer affected the amount of phosphorus incorporated into the copolymer. In addition, the redox transitions of the copolymers were examined by in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and it was concluded that their electroactive structures were analogous to those of PANI. From the APPA monomers it was possible to synthesize, in a controlled manner, polymeric materials with significant amounts of phosphorus in their structure through copolymerization with PANI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Conductive Polymer Thin Films I)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of Hollow-Sphered Poly(N-methyaniline) for Enhanced Electrical Conductivity Based on the Anionic Surfactant Templates and Doping
Polymers 2020, 12(5), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12051023 - 01 May 2020
Abstract
Poly(N-methylaniline) (PNMA) is a polyaniline derivative with a methyl substituent on the nitrogen atom. PNMA is of interest owing to its higher solubility in organic solvents when compared to the unsubstituted polyaniline. However, the electrical conductivity of polyaniline derivatives suffers from chemical substitution. [...] Read more.
Poly(N-methylaniline) (PNMA) is a polyaniline derivative with a methyl substituent on the nitrogen atom. PNMA is of interest owing to its higher solubility in organic solvents when compared to the unsubstituted polyaniline. However, the electrical conductivity of polyaniline derivatives suffers from chemical substitution. PNMA was synthesized via emulsion polymerization using three different anionic surfactants, namely sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The effects of surfactant structures and concentrations on electrical conductivity, doping level, crystallinity, morphology, and thermal stability were investigated. The re-doping step using perchloric acid (HClO4) as a dopant was sequentially proceeded to enhance electrical conductivity. PNMA synthesized in SDBS at five times its critical micelle concentration (CMC) demonstrated the highest electrical conductivity, doping level, and thermal stability among all surfactants at identical concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that the PNMA particle shapes and sizes critically depended on the surfactant types and concentrations, and the doping mole ratios in the re-doping step. The highest electrical conductivity of 109.84 ± 20.44 S cm−1 and a doping level of 52.45% were attained at the doping mole ratio of 50:1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Conductive Polymer Thin Films I)
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Open AccessArticle
Polyaniline Based Pt-Electrocatalyst for a Proton Exchanged Membrane Fuel Cell
Polymers 2020, 12(3), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030617 - 08 Mar 2020
Abstract
Calcination reduction reaction is used to prepare Pt/EB (emeraldine base)-XC72 (Vulcan carbon black) composites as the cathode material of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The EB-XC72 core-shell composite obtained from directly polymerizing aniline on XC72 particles is able to chelate and [...] Read more.
Calcination reduction reaction is used to prepare Pt/EB (emeraldine base)-XC72 (Vulcan carbon black) composites as the cathode material of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The EB-XC72 core-shell composite obtained from directly polymerizing aniline on XC72 particles is able to chelate and capture the Pt-ions before calcination. X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrate Pt particles are successfully obtained on the EB-XC72 when the calcined temperature is higher than 600 °C. Micrographs of TEM and SEM illustrate the affluent, Pt nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on EB-XC72 at 800 °C (Pt/EB-XC72/800). More Pt is deposited on Pt/EB-XC72 composite as temperatures are higher than 600 °C. The Pt/EB-XC72/800 catalyst demonstrates typical type of a cyclic voltammograms (C-V) curve of a Pt-catalyst with clear Pt–H oxidation and Pt–O reduction peaks. The highest number of transferred electrons during ORR approaches 3.88 for Pt/EB-XC72/800. The maximum power density of the single cell based on Pt/EB-XC72/800 reaches 550 mW cm−2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Conductive Polymer Thin Films I)
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Open AccessArticle
Radiation-Induced Transient Currents in Films of Poly(arylene ether ketone) Including Phthalide Moiety
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010013 - 19 Dec 2019
Abstract
The electrical properties of thin films of poly(arylene ether ketone) copolymers (co-PAEKs) with a fraction of phthalide-containing units of 3, 5, and 50 mol% in the main chain were investigated by using radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) measurements. Transient current signals and current-voltage (I-V [...] Read more.
The electrical properties of thin films of poly(arylene ether ketone) copolymers (co-PAEKs) with a fraction of phthalide-containing units of 3, 5, and 50 mol% in the main chain were investigated by using radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) measurements. Transient current signals and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were obtained by exposing 20 ÷ 25 μm thick films of the co-PAEKs to monoenergetic electron pulses with energy ranging from 3 to 50 keV in an electric field ranging from 5 to 40 V/μm. The Rose-Fowler-Vaisberg semi-empirical model based on a multiple trapping formalism was used for an analysis of the RIC data, and the parameters of the highly dispersive charge carrier transport were evaluated. The analysis revealed that charge carriers moved in isolation from each other, and the applied electric fields were below the threshold field triggering the switching effect (a reversible high-to-low resistivity transition) in the co-PAEK films. It was also found that the co-PAEK films, due to the super-linear I-V characteristics, are highly resistant to electrostatic discharges arising from the effects of ionizing radiation. This property is important for the development of protective coatings for electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Conductive Polymer Thin Films I)
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Open AccessArticle
Time-Resolved Radiation-Induced Conductivity of Polyimide and Its Description Using the Multiple Trapping Formalism
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122061 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Polymer dielectrics subjected to intense radiation fluxes exhibit a radiation-induced conductivity (RIC). Polyimide is a good dielectric with excellent mechanical and thermal properties featuring high radiation resistance currently widely used in the spacecraft industry. Its RIC has been extensively studied in several laboratories. [...] Read more.
Polymer dielectrics subjected to intense radiation fluxes exhibit a radiation-induced conductivity (RIC). Polyimide is a good dielectric with excellent mechanical and thermal properties featuring high radiation resistance currently widely used in the spacecraft industry. Its RIC has been extensively studied in several laboratories. The purpose of the present study is to make a direct measurement of the RIC for both pulsed and continuous irradiation using a current sensing technique, which is contrary to the indirect method employing a surface-potential decay technique that is now preferred by spacecraft charging engineers. Our experiments are done in a small-signal regime excluding any recombination and dose effects. In combination with existing computer codes, we managed to develop further the conventional multiple trapping formalism and the RIC theory based on it. The main idea is to supplement an exponential trap distribution responsible for a dominant dispersive carrier transport in polymers with a small concentration of inherent deep traps which may or may not have an energy distribution. In line with this reasoning, we propose a tentative set of RIC model parameters for polyimide that accounts for the observed experimental data. The findings and their implications are discussed in a broad context of previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Conductive Polymer Thin Films I)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of Novel D-A Type Neutral Blue Electrochromic Polymers Containing Pyrrole[3-c]Pyrrole-1,4-Diketone as the Acceptor Units and the Aromatics Donor Units with Different Planar Structures
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122023 - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Three soluble conjugated polymers, named BEDPP, FLDPP, and CADPP, were prepared through the Suzuki polymerized reaction, and employed benzene (BE), fluorene (FL), and carbazole (CA) as the donor units, respectively. The electron-deficient molecule 2,5-bis-(2-octyldodecyl)-3,6-bis-(5-bromo-thiophene)-pyrrole[3-c]pyrrole-1,4-diketone(DPP) was introduced and used as the acceptor unit. The [...] Read more.
Three soluble conjugated polymers, named BEDPP, FLDPP, and CADPP, were prepared through the Suzuki polymerized reaction, and employed benzene (BE), fluorene (FL), and carbazole (CA) as the donor units, respectively. The electron-deficient molecule 2,5-bis-(2-octyldodecyl)-3,6-bis-(5-bromo-thiophene)-pyrrole[3-c]pyrrole-1,4-diketone(DPP) was introduced and used as the acceptor unit. The properties of these three copolymers were studied by a series of detailed characterization analysis, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), colorimetry, electrochemical measurements, spectroelectrochemistry, kinetics, quantitative calculation, and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, etc. The results revealed that BEDPP displayed a blue color in the neutral state and a light brown color in the oxidized state, FLDPP exhibited a cyan color in the neutral state and a gray color in the oxidized state, while CADPP displayed pure blue color in the neutral state and a light gray color in the oxidized state. All these polymers possess narrow optical band gaps lower than 1.80 eV and satisfactory thermal stability. The kinetic characterization showed that the optical contrasts (ΔT%) in the near-infrared region were superior to the visible region. The optical contrasts of BEDPP, FLDPP, and CADPP are 41.32%, 42.39%, and 45.95% in the near-infrared region, respectively, which made them a good application prospect in the near-infrared region. Amid the three polymers, CADPP has the highest coloration efficiency (around about 288 cm2·C−1) and fast switching times (0.77 s in the coloring process and 0.52 s in the bleaching process) in the visible region, and the comprehensive performance of CADPP can be comparable to that of the reported D-A (Donor-Acceptor) type blue color polymers. In general, based on the good performances and the stable neutral blue color, the three polymers had profound theoretical significance for the development of electrochromic material and the completion of the RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Conductive Polymer Thin Films I)
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