Special Issue "Carbon-Based Polymer Nanocomposites for High-Performance Applications"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ana María Díez-Pascual

Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Sciences, Alcalá University, Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomaterials; polymers; nanocomposites; inorganic nanoparticles; antibacterial agents; surfactants; interphases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and its derivatives, nanodiamond, fullerenes, and other nano-sized carbon allotropes have recently attracted a lot of attention among the scientific community due to their enormous potential for a wide number of applications arising from their large specific surface area, high electrical and thermal conductivity, and good mechanical properties.  The combination of carbon nanomaterials with polymers leads to new nanocomposites with improved structural and functional properties due to synergistic effects. In particular, the properties of carbon-based polymer nanocomposites can be easily tuned by carefully controlling the carbon nanomaterial synthesis route and additionally the versatile synergistic interactions amongst the nanomaterials and polymers.

This Special Issue aims to offer a forum for the publication of original research/review articles regarding carbon nanomaterial-reinforced polymeric composites. It includes all types of polymeric matrices (i.e., thermoplastics, epoxies, conducting polymers, bio-polymers, etc.) and covers all branches and aspects of new processing techniques, testing methods, and standards, along with their applications. Novel surface modifications of carbon nanomaterials to develop nanocomposites are welcome, as well as the investigation of the advanced, physicochemical properties of the nanocomposites (as compared with conventional materials). Authors are encouraged to submit their original works stressing the applications of the nanocomposites in a variety of fields, such as in electronics, energy storage, automobiles, aerospace engineering, biomedicine, and so forth.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Novel techniques for the development of carbon-based polymer nanocomposites;
  • The morphological characterization of carbon-based polymer nanocomposites;
  • The mechanical and tribological properties of carbon nanomaterial/polymer composites;
  • Thermal studies on carbon nanomaterial/polymer composites;  
    The conducting or optical properties of the nanocomposites;
  • The surface modification of carbon nanomaterials for improving the interaction with functional groups of polymers and sensing studies;
  • Biomedical applications of carbon based-polymer nanocomposites;
  • Energy and solar cell applications of carbon nanomaterial/polymer composites.

Prof. Dr. Ana María Díez-Pascual
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanomaterials
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Graphene
  • Fullerenes
  • Mechanical properties
  • Optical properties
  • Thermal properties
  • Biomedical applications
  • Energy applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Hexamethylene Diisocyanate-Modified Graphene Oxide as a Nanofiller Material on the Properties of Conductive Polyaniline
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11061032
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
Conducting polymers like polyaniline (PANI) have gained a lot of interest due to their outstanding electrical and optoelectronic properties combined with their low cost and easy synthesis. To further exploit the performance of PANI, carbon-based nanomaterials like graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and their [...] Read more.
Conducting polymers like polyaniline (PANI) have gained a lot of interest due to their outstanding electrical and optoelectronic properties combined with their low cost and easy synthesis. To further exploit the performance of PANI, carbon-based nanomaterials like graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and their derivatives can be incorporated in a PANI matrix. In this study, hexamethylene diisocyanate-modified GO (HDI-GO) nanosheets with two different functionalization degrees have been used as nanofillers to develop high-performance PANI/HDI-GO nanocomposites via in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of HDI-GO followed by ultrasonication and solution casting. The influence of the HDI-GO concentration and functionalization degree on the nanocomposite properties has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile tests, zeta potential and four-point probe measurements. SEM analysis demonstrated a homogenous dispersion of the HDI-GO nanosheets that were coated by the matrix particles during the in situ polymerization. Raman spectra revealed the existence of very strong PANI-HDI-GO interactions via π-π stacking, H-bonding, and hydrophobic and electrostatic charge-transfer complexes. A steady enhancement in thermal stability and electrical conductivity was found with increasing nanofiller concentration, the improvements being higher with increasing HDI-GO functionalization level. The nanocomposites showed a very good combination of rigidity, strength, ductility and toughness, and the best equilibrium of properties was attained at 5 wt % HDI-GO. The method developed herein opens up a versatile route to prepare multifunctional graphene-based nanocomposites with conductive polymers for a broad range of applications including flexible electronics and organic solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Polymer Nanocomposites for High-Performance Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Direct Writing Supercapacitors Using a Carbon Nanotube/Ag Nanoparticle-Based Ink on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Paper
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11060973
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
In this work, we present a cellulose acetate membrane flexible supercapacitor prepared through a direct writing method. A carbon nanotube (CNT) and silver (Ag) nanoparticle were prepared into ink for direct writing. The composite electrode displayed excellent electrochemical and mechanical electrochemical performance. Furthermore, [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a cellulose acetate membrane flexible supercapacitor prepared through a direct writing method. A carbon nanotube (CNT) and silver (Ag) nanoparticle were prepared into ink for direct writing. The composite electrode displayed excellent electrochemical and mechanical electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the CNT-Ag displayed the highest areal capacity of 72.8 F/cm3. The assembled device delivered a high areal capacity (17.68 F/cm3) at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2, a high areal energy (9.08–5.87 mWh/cm3) at a power density of 1.18–0.22 W/cm3, and showed no significant decrease in performance with a bending angle of 180°. The as-fabricated CNT/Ag electrodes exhibited good long-term cycling stability after 1000 time cycles with 75.92% capacitance retention. The direct writing was a simple, cost-effective, fast, and non-contact deposition method. This method has been used in current printed electronic devices and has potential applications in energy storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Polymer Nanocomposites for High-Performance Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Wet-Spinning Assembly of Continuous, Highly Stable Hyaluronic/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Microfibers
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050867
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
Effective multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fiber manufacturing methods have received a substantial amount of attention due to the low cost and excellent properties of MWCNTs. Here, we fabricated hybrid microfibers composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a wet-spinning [...] Read more.
Effective multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fiber manufacturing methods have received a substantial amount of attention due to the low cost and excellent properties of MWCNTs. Here, we fabricated hybrid microfibers composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a wet-spinning method. HA acts as a biosurfactant and an ionic crosslinker, which improves the dispersion of MWCNTs and helps MWCNT to assemble into microfibers. The effects of HA concentration, dispersion time, injection speed, and MWCNT concentration on the formation, mechanical behavior, and conductivity of the HA/MWCNT hybrid microfibers were comprehensively investigated through SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, tensile testing, and conductivity testing. The obtained HA/MWCNT hybrid microfibers presented excellent tensile properties in regard to Young’s modulus (9.04 ± 1.13 GPa) and tensile strength (130.25 ± 10.78 MPa), and excellent flexibility and stability due to the superior mechanical and electrical properties of MWCNTs. This work presents an effective and easy-to-handle preparation method for high-performance MWCNT hybrid microfibers assembly, and the obtained HA/MWCNT hybrid microfibers have promising applications in the fields of energy storage, sensors, micro devices, intelligent materials, and high-performance fiber-reinforced composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Polymer Nanocomposites for High-Performance Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Combined In-Mold Decoration and Microcellular Injection Molding Method for Preparing Foamed Products with Improved Surface Appearance
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050778
Received: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
A combined in-mold decoration and microcellular injection molding (IMD/MIM) method by integrating in-mold decoration injection molding (IMD) with microcellular injection molding (MIM) was proposed in this paper. To verify the effectiveness of the IMD/MIM method, comparisons of in-mold decoration injection molding (IMD), conventional [...] Read more.
A combined in-mold decoration and microcellular injection molding (IMD/MIM) method by integrating in-mold decoration injection molding (IMD) with microcellular injection molding (MIM) was proposed in this paper. To verify the effectiveness of the IMD/MIM method, comparisons of in-mold decoration injection molding (IMD), conventional injection molding (CIM), IMD/MIM and microcellular injection molding (MIM) simulations and experiments were performed. The results show that compared with MIM, the film flattens the bubbles that have not been cooled and turned to the surface, thus improving the surface quality of the parts. The existence of the film results in an asymmetrical temperature distribution along the thickness of the sample, and the higher temperature on the film side leads the cell to move toward it, thus obtaining a cell-offset part. However, the mechanical properties of the IMD/MIM splines are degraded due to the presence of cells, while specific mechanical properties similar to their solid counterparts are maintained. Besides, the existence of the film reduces the heat transfer coefficient of the film side so that the sides of the part are cooled asymmetrically, causing warpage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Polymer Nanocomposites for High-Performance Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Properties of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Waterborne Polyurethane Conductive Coatings Prepared by Electrostatic Spraying
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040714
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Electrostatic spraying (ES) was used to prepare multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/waterborne polyurethane (WPU) abrasion-proof, conductive coatings to improve the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of WPU coatings. The dispersity of MWCNTs and the electrical conductivity, surface hardness, and wear resistance of the coating [...] Read more.
Electrostatic spraying (ES) was used to prepare multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/waterborne polyurethane (WPU) abrasion-proof, conductive coatings to improve the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of WPU coatings. The dispersity of MWCNTs and the electrical conductivity, surface hardness, and wear resistance of the coating prepared by ES (ESC) were investigated. The ESC was further compared with coatings prepared by brushing (BrC). The results provide a theoretical basis for the preparation and application of conductive WPU coatings with excellent wear resistance. The dispersity of MWCNTs and the surface hardness and wear resistance of ESC were obviously better than those of BrC. With an increase in the MWCNT content, the surface hardness of both ESC and BrC went up. As the MWCNT content increased, the wear resistance of ESC first increased and then decreased, while the wear resistance of BrC decreased. It was evident that ESC with 0.3 wt% MWCNT was fully capable of conducting electricity, but BrC with 0.3 wt% MWCNT failed to conduct electricity. The best wear resistance was achieved for ESC with 0.3 wt% MWCNT. Its wear rate (1.18 × 10−10 cm3/mm N) and friction coefficient (0.28) were the lowest, which were 50.21% and 20.00% lower, respectively, than those of pure WPU ESC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Polymer Nanocomposites for High-Performance Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Using an Ionic Liquid to Reduce the Electrical Percolation Threshold in Biobased Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Graphene Nanocomposites
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030435
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
PDF Full-text (26755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Biobased thermoplastic polyurethane (bTPU)/unmodified graphene (GR) nanocomposites (NCs) were obtained by melt-mixing in a lab-scaled conventional twin-screw extruder. Alternatively, GR was also modified with an ionic liquid (GR-IL) using a simple preparation method with the aim of improving the dispersion level. XRD diffractograms [...] Read more.
Biobased thermoplastic polyurethane (bTPU)/unmodified graphene (GR) nanocomposites (NCs) were obtained by melt-mixing in a lab-scaled conventional twin-screw extruder. Alternatively, GR was also modified with an ionic liquid (GR-IL) using a simple preparation method with the aim of improving the dispersion level. XRD diffractograms indicated a minor presence of well-ordered structures in both bTPU/GR and bTPU/GR-IL NCs, which also showed, as observed by TEM, nonuniform dispersion. Electrical conductivity measurements pointed to an improved dispersion level when GR was modified with the IL, because the bTPU/GR-IL NCs showed a significantly lower electrical percolation threshold (1.99 wt%) than the bTPU/GR NCs (3.21 wt%), as well as higher conductivity values. Young’s modulus increased upon the addition of the GR (by 65% with 4 wt%), as did the yield strength, while the ductile nature of the bTPU matrix maintained in all the compositions, with elongation at break values above 200%. This positive effect on the mechanical properties caused by the addition of GR maintained or slightly increased when GR-IL was used, pointing to the success of this method of modifying the nanofiller to obtain bTPU/GR NCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Polymer Nanocomposites for High-Performance Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
The Structure and Properties of Polyacrylonitrile Nascent Composite Fibers with Grafted Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Wet Spinning Method
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030422
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) grafted amino-functionalized multi walled carbon nanotubes (amino-MWCNTs) were synthesized by in situ polymerization under aqueous solvent. The grafted MWCNT/PAN nascent composite fibers were prepared by the wet spinning method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the amino-MWCNTs and [...] Read more.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) grafted amino-functionalized multi walled carbon nanotubes (amino-MWCNTs) were synthesized by in situ polymerization under aqueous solvent. The grafted MWCNT/PAN nascent composite fibers were prepared by the wet spinning method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the amino-MWCNTs and PAN macromolecular chains had interfacial interactions and formed chemical bonds. The grafting content of the PAN polymer on the amino-MWCNTs was up to 73.2% by thermo gravimetric analysis. The incorporation of the grafted MWCNTs improved the degree of crystallization and crystal size of PAN nascent fibers, and changed the thermal properties during exothermic processing in an air atmosphere. Morphology analysis and testing of mechanical properties showed that the grafted MWCNT/PAN nascent composite fibers with a more uniform diameter distribution and larger diameter had higher tensile strength and tensile modulus than the control PAN nascent fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Polymer Nanocomposites for High-Performance Applications)
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