Application of Polymers in Food Sciences

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 18215

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología (Nanotech), Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua, Mexico
Interests: electron microscopy; nanostructured materials; polymer microstructure; microencapculation; functional foods

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Guest Editor
Academic Coordination, Altiplano Region, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi, Matehuala, San Luis Potosi, Mexico
Interests: food; chemistry; characterization; food engineering and technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymers in food science have promoted the development of novel functional foods, the preservation of organoleptic properties, and the increase in the shelf life of food products. In this Special Issue, we invite professors, academics, and researchers interested in contributing to the topic of "Polymer Applications in Food Science." The objective is to show innovative applications of natural and synthetic polymers in any of the different stages of the food production chain, from the synthesis and characterization of its properties to packaging and shelf-life tests.

For this Special Issue, we welcome original research articles and reviews covering (but not limited to) the following research topics:

  • Food chemistry, synthesis, and characterization;
  • Synthesis and characterizations of materials employed as aids in food development;
  • Packing polymers as protecting barriers;
  • Microencapsulation of active ingredients in the preparation of functional foods;
  • Development and optimization of novel food products.

Dr. César Leyva-Porras
Dr. Zenaida Saavedra-Leos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • foods
  • food chemistry
  • materials chemistry
  • polymeric materials
  • advanced materials characterization
  • food engineering and technology
  • food packaging and preservation
  • microencapsulation of active ingredients
  • polysaccharides as carrying agents

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
Stability and Biaxial Behavior of Fresh Cheese Coated with Nanoliposomes Encapsulating Grape Seed Tannins and Polysaccharides Using Immersion and Spray Methods
by Angela Monasterio, Emerson Núñez, Valeria Verdugo and Fernando A. Osorio
Polymers 2024, 16(11), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16111559 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 158
Abstract
In the food industry context, where fresh cheese stands out as a highly perishable product with a short shelf life, this study aimed to extend its preservation through multi-layer edible coatings. The overall objective was to analyze the biaxial behavior and texture of [...] Read more.
In the food industry context, where fresh cheese stands out as a highly perishable product with a short shelf life, this study aimed to extend its preservation through multi-layer edible coatings. The overall objective was to analyze the biaxial behavior and texture of fresh cheese coated with nanoliposomes encapsulating grape seed tannins (NTs) and polysaccharides (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; HPMC and kappa carrageenan; KC) using immersion and spray methods, establishing comparisons with uncoated cheeses and commercial samples, including an accelerated shelf-life study. NT, HPMC, and KC were employed as primary components in the multi-layer edible coatings, which were applied through immersion and spray. The results revealed significant improvements, such as a 20% reduction in weight loss and increased stability against oxidation, evidenced by a 30% lower peroxide index than the uncoated samples. These findings underscore the effectiveness of edible coatings in enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of fresh cheese, highlighting the innovative application of nanoliposomes and polysaccharide blends and the relevance of applying this strategy in the food industry. In conclusion, this study provides a promising perspective for developing dairy products with improved properties, opening opportunities to meet market demands and enhance consumer acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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19 pages, 6024 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Assessment of Tara Gum as a Wall Material: Physicochemical, Structural, Thermal, and Rheological Analyses of Different Drying Methods
by Elibet Moscoso-Moscoso, Carlos A. Ligarda-Samanez, David Choque-Quispe, Mary L. Huamán-Carrión, José C. Arévalo-Quijano, Germán De la Cruz, Rober Luciano-Alipio, Wilber Cesar Calsina Ponce, Reynaldo Sucari-León, Uriel R. Quispe-Quezada and Dante Fermín Calderón Huamaní
Polymers 2024, 16(6), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16060838 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 948
Abstract
Tara gum, a natural biopolymer extracted from Caesalpinia spinosa seeds, was investigated in this study. Wall materials were produced using spray drying, forced convection, and vacuum oven drying. In addition, a commercial sample obtained through mechanical methods and direct milling was used as [...] Read more.
Tara gum, a natural biopolymer extracted from Caesalpinia spinosa seeds, was investigated in this study. Wall materials were produced using spray drying, forced convection, and vacuum oven drying. In addition, a commercial sample obtained through mechanical methods and direct milling was used as a reference. The gums exhibited low moisture content (8.63% to 12.55%), water activity (0.37 to 0.41), bulk density (0.43 to 0.76 g/mL), and hygroscopicity (10.51% to 11.42%). This allows adequate physical and microbiological stability during storage. Polydisperse particles were obtained, ranging in size from 3.46 µm to 139.60 µm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterisation confirmed the polysaccharide nature of tara gum, primarily composed of galactomannans. Among the drying methods, spray drying produced the gum with the best physicochemical characteristics, including higher lightness, moderate stability, smaller particle size, and high glass transition temperature (141.69 °C). Regarding rheological properties, it demonstrated a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour that the power law could accurately describe. The apparent viscosity of the aqueous dispersions of the gum decreased with increasing temperature. In summary, the results establish the potential of tara gum as a wall material applicable in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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21 pages, 5501 KiB  
Article
Colorimetric Indicator Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Sodium Alginate for Monitoring Fish Spoilage
by Lissage Pierre, Julio Elías Bruna Bugueño, Patricio Alejandro Leyton Bongiorno, Alejandra Torres Mediano and Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Mercado
Polymers 2024, 16(6), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16060829 - 17 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
In this work, a colorimetric indicator based on gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and a biodegradable and eco-friendly polymer (sodium alginate, Alg.), was developed for the real-time detection of fish spoilage products. The AuNPs and the colorimetric indicator were characterized using UV-VIS, FTIR spectroscopies, TGA, [...] Read more.
In this work, a colorimetric indicator based on gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and a biodegradable and eco-friendly polymer (sodium alginate, Alg.), was developed for the real-time detection of fish spoilage products. The AuNPs and the colorimetric indicator were characterized using UV-VIS, FTIR spectroscopies, TGA, DSC, XRD, TEM, and colorimetry. The UV-VIS spectrum and TEM showed the successful synthesis, the spherical shape, and the size of AuNPs. The results indicated color changes of the indicator in packaged fish on day 9 of storage at a refrigerated temperature (5 °C. These results showed the successful application of the colorimetric indicator in the detection of TVB-N in packaged fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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18 pages, 2961 KiB  
Article
Development and Characterization of a Natural Antioxidant Additive in Powder Based on Polyphenols Extracted from Agro-Industrial Wastes (Walnut Green Husk): Effect of Chickpea Protein Concentration as an Encapsulating Agent during Storage
by Daniela Soto-Madrid, Florencia Arrau, Rommy N. Zúñiga, Marlén Gutiérrez-Cutiño and Silvia Matiacevich
Polymers 2024, 16(6), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16060777 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Developing a powder-form natural antioxidant additive involves utilizing polyphenols extracted from agro-industrial wastes (walnut green husk). This research explores chickpea proteins (CPP) as an emergent encapsulating agent to enhance the stability and shelf life of the antioxidant additive. This study aims to develop [...] Read more.
Developing a powder-form natural antioxidant additive involves utilizing polyphenols extracted from agro-industrial wastes (walnut green husk). This research explores chickpea proteins (CPP) as an emergent encapsulating agent to enhance the stability and shelf life of the antioxidant additive. This study aims to develop a natural antioxidant powder additive based on polyphenols obtained from walnut green husks encapsulated by chickpea protein (5%, 7.5%, and 10% w/v) to evaluate their effect under storage at relative humidities (33 and 75% RH). The physicochemical and structural properties analysis indicated that better results were obtained by increasing the protein concentration. This demonstrates the protective effect of CPP on the phenolic compounds and that it is potentially non-toxic. The results suggest that the optimal conditions for storing the antioxidant powder, focusing on antioxidant activity and powder color, involve low relative humidities (33%) and high protein concentration (10%). This research will contribute to demonstrating chickpea protein as an emerging encapsulating agent and the importance of the cytotoxic analysis of extracts obtained from agroindustrial wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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20 pages, 2812 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Strawberry Shelf Life via a Multisystem Coating Based on Lippia graveolens Essential Oil Loaded in Polymeric Nanocapsules
by Barbara Johana González-Moreno, Sergio Arturo Galindo-Rodríguez, Verónica Mayela Rivas-Galindo, Luis Alejandro Pérez-López, Graciela Granados-Guzmán and Rocío Álvarez-Román
Polymers 2024, 16(3), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16030335 - 26 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Strawberries (Fragaria xannanasa) are susceptible to mechanical, physical, and physiological damage, which increases their incidence of rot during storage. Therefore, a method of protection is necessary in order to minimize quality losses. One way to achieve this is by applying polymer [...] Read more.
Strawberries (Fragaria xannanasa) are susceptible to mechanical, physical, and physiological damage, which increases their incidence of rot during storage. Therefore, a method of protection is necessary in order to minimize quality losses. One way to achieve this is by applying polymer coatings. In this study, multisystem coatings were created based on polymer nanocapsules loaded with Lippia graveolens essential oil, and it was found to have excellent optical, mechanical, and water vapor barrier properties compared to the control (coating formed with alginate and with nanoparticles without the essential oil). As for the strawberries coated with the multisystem formed from the polymer nanocapsules loaded with the essential oil of Lippia graveolens, these did not present microbial growth and only had a loss of firmness of 17.02% after 10 days of storage compared to their initial value. This study demonstrated that the multisystem coating formed from the polymer nanocapsules loaded with the essential oil of Lippia graveolens could be a viable alternative to preserve horticultural products for longer storage periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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11 pages, 546 KiB  
Article
Effect of pH on the Mechanical Properties of Single-Biopolymer Mucilage (Opuntia ficus-indica), Pectin and Alginate Films: Development and Mechanical Characterisation
by Brandon Van Rooyen, Maryna De Wit, Gernot Osthoff, Johan Van Niekerk and Arno Hugo
Polymers 2023, 15(24), 4640; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15244640 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Pectin and alginate are well-established biopolymers used in natural film development. Single-polymer mucilage films were developed from freeze-dried native mucilage powder of two cultivars, ‘Algerian’ and ‘Morado’, and the films’ mechanical properties were compared to single-polymer pectin and alginate films developed from commercially [...] Read more.
Pectin and alginate are well-established biopolymers used in natural film development. Single-polymer mucilage films were developed from freeze-dried native mucilage powder of two cultivars, ‘Algerian’ and ‘Morado’, and the films’ mechanical properties were compared to single-polymer pectin and alginate films developed from commercially available pectin and alginate powders. The casting method prepared films forming solutions at 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% (w/w) for each polymer. Considerable variations were observed in the films’ strength and elasticity between the various films at different polymer concentrations. Although mucilage films could be produced at 5% (w/w), both cultivars could not produce films with a tensile strength (TS) greater than 1 MPa. Mucilage films, however, displayed > 20% elongation at break (%E) values, being noticeably more elastic than the pectin and alginate films. The mechanical properties of the various films were further modified by varying the pH of the film-forming solution. The various films showed increased TS and puncture force (PF) values, although these increases were more noticeable for pectin and alginate than mucilage films. Although single-polymer mucilage films exhibit the potential to be used in developing natural packaging, pectin and alginate films possess more suitable mechanical attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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13 pages, 1966 KiB  
Article
Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Calcium-Treated Cactus Pear Mucilage (Opuntia spp.), Pectin and Alginate Single-Biopolymer Films
by Brandon Van Rooyen, Maryna De Wit, Gernot Osthoff, Johan Van Niekerk and Arno Hugo
Polymers 2023, 15(21), 4295; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15214295 - 1 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Pectin and alginate satisfy multiple functional requirements in the food industry, especially relating to natural packaging formulation. The continuous need for economic and environmental benefits has promoted sourcing and investigating alternative biomaterials, such as cactus pear mucilage from the cladodes of Opuntia spp., [...] Read more.
Pectin and alginate satisfy multiple functional requirements in the food industry, especially relating to natural packaging formulation. The continuous need for economic and environmental benefits has promoted sourcing and investigating alternative biomaterials, such as cactus pear mucilage from the cladodes of Opuntia spp., as natural packaging alternatives. The structural and mechanical properties of mucilage, pectin and alginate films developed at a 5% (w/w) concentration were modified by treating the films with calcium (Ca) in the calcium chloride (CaCl2) form. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the 5% (w/w) ‘Algerian’ and ‘Morado’ films to display considerable microstructure variation compared to the 5% (w/w) pectin and alginate films, with calcium treatment of the films influencing homogeneity and film orientation. Treating the alginate films with a 10% (w/w) stock CaCl2 solution significantly increased (p < 0.05) the alginate films’ tensile strength (TS) and puncture force (PF) values. Consequently, the alginate films reported significantly higher (p < 0.05) film strength (TS and PF) than the pectin + Ca and mucilage + Ca films. The mucilage film’s elasticity was negatively influenced by CaCl2, while the pectin and alginate films’ elasticity was positively influenced by calcium treatment. These results suggest that the overall decreased calcium sensitivity and poor mechanical strength displayed by ‘the Algerian’ and ‘Morado’ films would not make them viable replacements for the commercial pectin and alginate films unless alternative applications were found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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21 pages, 8659 KiB  
Article
Suitability of MRF Recovered Post-Consumer Polypropylene Applications in Extrusion Blow Molded Bottle Food Packaging
by Ma. Cristine Concepcion D. Ignacio, Khairun N. Tumu, Mita Munshi, Keith L. Vorst and Greg W. Curtzwiler
Polymers 2023, 15(16), 3471; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15163471 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most abundant plastics used due to its low price, moldability, temperature and chemical resistance, and outstanding mechanical properties. Consequently, waste from plastic materials is anticipated to rapidly increase with continually increasing demand. When addressing the global problem [...] Read more.
Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most abundant plastics used due to its low price, moldability, temperature and chemical resistance, and outstanding mechanical properties. Consequently, waste from plastic materials is anticipated to rapidly increase with continually increasing demand. When addressing the global problem of solid waste generation, post-consumer recycled materials are encouraged for use in new consumer and industrial products. As a result, the demand is projected to grow in the next several years. In this study, material recovery facility (MRF)-recovered post-consumer PP was utilized to determine its suitability for extrusion blow molded bottle food packaging. PP was sorted and removed from mixed-polymer MRF-recovered bales, ground, trommel-washed, then washed following the Association of Plastics Recyclers’ protocols. The washed PCR-PP flake was pelletized then manually blended with virgin PP resin at 25%, 50%, 75, and 100% PCR-PP concentrations and fed into the extrusion blow molding (EBM) machine. The EBM bottles were then tested for physical performance and regulatory compliance (limits of TPCH: 100 μg/g). The results showed an increased crystallization temperature but no practical difference in crystallinity as a function of PCR-PP concentrations. Barrier properties (oxygen and water vapor) remained relatively constant except for 100% MRF-recovered PCR-PP, which was higher for both gas types. Stiffness significantly improved in bottles with PCR-PP (p-value < 0.05). In addition, a wider range of N/IAS was detected in PCR-PP due to plastic additives, food additives, and degradation byproducts. Lastly, targeted phthalates did not exceed the limits of TPCH, and trace levels of BPA were detected in the MRF PCR-PP. Furthermore, the study’s results provide critical information on the use of MRF recovered in food packaging applications without compromising performance integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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26 pages, 3845 KiB  
Article
A Novel Microwave Hot Pressing Machine for Production of Fixed Oils from Different Biopolymeric Structured Tissues
by Sherif S. Hindi, Uthman M. Dawoud, Iqbal M. Ismail, Khalid A. Asiry, Omer H. Ibrahim, Mohammed A. Al-Harthi, Zohair M. Mirdad, Ahmad I. Al-Qubaie, Mohamed H. Shiboob, Najeeb M. Almasoudi and Rakan A. Alanazi
Polymers 2023, 15(10), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15102254 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
A microwave hot pressing machine (MHPM) was used to heat the colander to produce fixed oils from each of castor, sunflower, rapeseed, and moringa seed and compared them to those obtained using an ordinary electric hot pressing machine (EHPM). The physical properties, namely [...] Read more.
A microwave hot pressing machine (MHPM) was used to heat the colander to produce fixed oils from each of castor, sunflower, rapeseed, and moringa seed and compared them to those obtained using an ordinary electric hot pressing machine (EHPM). The physical properties, namely the moisture content of seed (MCs), the seed content of fixed oil (Scfo), the yield of the main fixed oil (Ymfo), the yield of recovered fixed oil (Yrfo), extraction loss (EL), six Efficiency of fixed oil extraction (Efoe), specific gravity (SGfo), refractive index (RI) as well as chemical properties, namely iodine number (IN), saponification value (SV), acid value (AV), and the yield of fatty acid (Yfa) of the four oils extracted by the MHPM and EHPM were determined. Chemical constituents of the resultant oil were identified using GC/MS after saponification and methylation processes. The Ymfo and SV obtained using the MHPM were higher than those for the EHPM for all four fixed oils studied. On the other hand, each of the SGfo, RI, IN, AV, and pH of the fixed oils did not alter statistically due to changing the heating tool from electric band heaters into a microwave beam. The qualities of the four fixed oils extracted by the MHPM were very encouraging as a pivot of the industrial fixed oil projects compared to the EHPM. The prominent fatty acid of the castor fixed oil was found to be ricinoleic acid, making up 76.41% and 71.99% contents of oils extracted using the MHPM and EHPM, respectively. In addition, the oleic acid was the prominent fatty acid in each of the fixed oils of sunflower, rapeseed, and moringa species, and its yield by using the MHPM was higher than that for the EHPM. The role of microwave irradiation in facilitating fixed oil extrusion from the biopolymeric structured organelles (lipid bodies) was protruded. Since it was confirmed by the present study that using microwave irradiation is simple, facile, more eco-friendly, cost-effective, retains parent quality of oils, and allows for the warming of bigger machines and spaces, we think it will make an industrial revolution in oil extraction field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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16 pages, 4831 KiB  
Article
An Equilibrium State Diagram for Storage Stability and Conservation of Active Ingredients in a Functional Food Based on Polysaccharides Blends
by César Leyva-Porras, Zenaida Saavedra-Leos, Manuel Román-Aguirre, Carlos Arzate-Quintana, Alva R. Castillo-González, Andrés I. González-Jácquez and Fernanda Gómez-Loya
Polymers 2023, 15(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15020367 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
A functional food as a matrix based on a blend of carbohydrate polymers (25% maltodextrin and 75% inulin) with quercetin and Bacillus claussi to supply antioxidant and probiotic properties was prepared by spray drying. The powders were characterized physiochemically, including by moisture adsorption [...] Read more.
A functional food as a matrix based on a blend of carbohydrate polymers (25% maltodextrin and 75% inulin) with quercetin and Bacillus claussi to supply antioxidant and probiotic properties was prepared by spray drying. The powders were characterized physiochemically, including by moisture adsorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The type III adsorption isotherm developed at 35 °C presented a monolayer content of 2.79 g of water for every 100 g of dry sample. The microstructure determined by XRD presented three regions identified as amorphous, semicrystalline, and crystalline-rubbery states. SEM micrographs showed variations in the morphology according to the microstructural regions as (i) spherical particles with smooth surfaces, (ii) a mixture of spherical particles and irregular particles with heterogeneous surfaces, and (iii) agglomerated irregular-shape particles. The blend’s functional performance demonstrated antioxidant activities of approximately 50% of DPPH scavenging capacity and viability values of 6.5 Log10 CFU/g. These results demonstrated that the blend displayed functional food behavior over the complete interval of water activities. The equilibrium state diagram was significant for identifying the storage conditions that promote the preservation of functional food properties and those where the collapse of the microstructure occurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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13 pages, 1760 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Two Active System Encapsulant Matrices with Quercetin and Bacillus clausii for Functional Foods
by Hector Alfonso Enciso-Huerta, Miguel Angel Ruiz-Cabrera, Laura Araceli Lopez-Martinez, Raul Gonzalez-Garcia, Fidel Martinez-Gutierrez and Maria Zenaida Saavedra-Leos
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5225; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235225 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Currently, demand for functional foods is increasing in the public interest in order to improve life expectations and general health. Food matrices containing probiotic microorganisms and active compounds encapsulated into carrier agents are essential in this context. Encapsulation via the lyophilisation method is [...] Read more.
Currently, demand for functional foods is increasing in the public interest in order to improve life expectations and general health. Food matrices containing probiotic microorganisms and active compounds encapsulated into carrier agents are essential in this context. Encapsulation via the lyophilisation method is widely used because oxidation reactions that affect physicochemical and nutritional food properties are usually avoided. Encapsulated functional ingredients, such as quercetin and Bacillus clausii, using two carrier agents’ matrices—I [inulin (IN), lactose (L) and maltodextrin (MX)] and II [arabic (A), guar (G), and xanthan (X) gums)]—are presented in this work. A D-optimal procedure involving 59 experiments was designed to evaluate each matrix’s yield, viability, and antioxidant activity (AA). Matrix I (33.3 IN:33.3 L:33.3 MX) and matrix II (33.3 A:33.3 G:33.3 X) exhibited the best yield; viability of 9.7 log10 CFU/g and 9.73 log10 CFU/g was found in matrix I (using a ratio of 33.3 IN:33.3 L:33.3 MX) and matrix II (50 G:50 X), respectively. Results for the antioxidant capacity of matrix I (100 IN:0 L:0M X) and matrix II (0 A:50 G:50 X) were 58.75 and 55.54 (DPPH* scavenging activity (10 µg/mL)), respectively. Synergy between matrices I and II with use of 100IN:0L:OMX and 0A:50G:50X resulted in 55.4 log10 CFU/g viability values; the antioxidant capacity was 9. 52 (DPPH* scavenging activity (10 µg/mL). The present work proposes use of a carrier agent mixture to produce a functional ingredient with antioxidant and probiotic properties that exceed the minimum viability, 6.0 log10 CFU/g, recommended by the FAO/WHO (2002) to be probiotic, and that contributes to the recommended daily quercetin intake of 10–16 mg/day or inulin intake of 10–20 g/day and dietary fibre intake of 25–38 g per day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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19 pages, 3301 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mixed Particulate Emulsifiers on Spray-Dried Avocado Oil-in-Water Pickering Emulsions
by Vicente Espinosa-Solis, Yunia Verónica García-Tejeda, Oscar Manuel Portilla-Rivera, Carolina Estefania Chávez-Murillo and Víctor Barrera-Figueroa
Polymers 2022, 14(15), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14153064 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2741
Abstract
Avocado oil is a very valuable agro-industrial product which can be perishable in a short time if it is not stored in the right conditions. The encapsulation of the oils through the spray drying technique protects them from oxidation and facilitates their incorporation [...] Read more.
Avocado oil is a very valuable agro-industrial product which can be perishable in a short time if it is not stored in the right conditions. The encapsulation of the oils through the spray drying technique protects them from oxidation and facilitates their incorporation into different pharmaceutical products and food matrices; however, the selection of environmentally friendly emulsifiers is a great challenge. Four formulations of the following solid particles: Gum Arabic, HI-CAP®100 starch, and phosphorylated waxy maize starch, were selected to prepare avocado oil Pickering emulsions. Two of the formulations have the same composition, but one of them was emulsified by rotor-stator homogenization. The rest of the emulsions were emulsified by combining rotor-stator plus ultrasound methods. The protective effect of mixed particle emulsifiers in avocado oil encapsulated by spray drying was based on the efficiency of encapsulation. The best results were achieved when avocado oil was emulsified with a mixture of phosphorylated starch/HI-CAP®100, where it presented the highest encapsulation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Polymers in Food Sciences)
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