Special Issue "Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 April 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Kun Zhou

School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Additive manufacturing; Computational materials science; Micromechanics; Contact mechanics and tribology
Guest Editor
Prof. Hong Wu

State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, China
E-Mail
Interests: additive manufacturing; biomedical materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Yusheng Shi

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Rapid prototyping manufacturing ; Near-net shape manufacturing; Rapid development of agricultural water saving products; optical electromechanical integration, etc.
Guest Editor
Prof. Chunze Yan

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Additive Manufacturing; Graphene/CNTs
Guest Editor
Prof. Jiaming Bai

Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China
E-Mail
Interests: Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing)

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of fabricating three-dimensional (3D) components, layer on layer, from 3D model data. AM allows the production of customized parts from metals, ceramics, and polymers without the need for molds or machining typical for conventional formative and subtractive fabrication. Polymers and their composites are one of the most widely used materials in today’s industry and are of great interest in AM due to the vast potential for various applications, such as in the medical, aerospace and automotive industries. The range of polymers used in AM encompasses thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, hydrogels, functional polymers, polymer blends, composites, and biological systems. Over the past decade, many studies have been done on developing new polymeric materials for AM processes such as selective laser sintering, fused deposition modeling, vat photopolymerization and material jetting.

This Special Issue is aimed at collecting cutting-edge original research papers and reviews on the latest advances in AM of polymeric materials. The topic themes include advanced polymeric materials development, processing parameter optimization, characterization techniques, structure-property relationships, process modelling, etc., specifically for AM.

Prof. Kun Zhou
Prof. Hong Wu
Prof. Yusheng Shi
Prof. Chunze Yan
Prof. Jiaming Bai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Additive manufacturing
  • 3D printing
  • Polymeric materials
  • Process modelling

Published Papers (12 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
In Situ WAXD and SAXS during Tensile Deformation Of Moulded and Sintered Polyamide 12
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11061001
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
PDF Full-text (1738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To provide knowledge to improve the mechanical performance of Polyamide 12 (PA12) sintered products, we have studied experimentally the mechanical response and structure development under constant strain rate of compression moulded and laser sintered PA12 by means of in situ small-angle X-ray scattering [...] Read more.
To provide knowledge to improve the mechanical performance of Polyamide 12 (PA12) sintered products, we have studied experimentally the mechanical response and structure development under constant strain rate of compression moulded and laser sintered PA12 by means of in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) experiments. It is found that at low temperatures, i.e., below the glass transition temperature, the brittle failure of laser sintered samples is determined by the fast formation of voids that originate at the beginning of the macroscopic plastic deformation. This effect appears to be faster at temperatures below room temperature and it is less effective at higher temperatures. When tested at 120 C, sintered PA12 shows a better mechanical response in terms of yield stress and a comparable strain at break with respect to moulded PA12. This can be explained by considering that sintered samples have slightly thicker crystals that can sustain higher stress at high temperature. However, this also leads to the formation of a larger number of voids at low testing temperatures. This work does not attempt to quantify the micromechanics behind crystals deformation and disruption, but it provides a deeper insight in the difference between the mechanical response of moulded and sintered PA12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
3D Printing of an Oil/Water Mixture Separator with In Situ Demulsification and Separation
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050774
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
PDF Full-text (3164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Currently, many meshes, membranes, and fabrics with extreme wettability of superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity, or superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity are promising candidates for oil/water mixture separation. Nevertheless, a facile yet effective way to design and fabricate porous mesh still remains challenging. In this work, fused deposition [...] Read more.
Currently, many meshes, membranes, and fabrics with extreme wettability of superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity, or superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity are promising candidates for oil/water mixture separation. Nevertheless, a facile yet effective way to design and fabricate porous mesh still remains challenging. In this work, fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing of Fe/polylactic acid (PLA) composites was employed to fabricate superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic mesh (S-USM) with hydrogel coatings via the surface polymerization of Fe(II)-mediated redox reaction. In addition, salt of aluminum chloride was incorporated within the hydrogel coating, which was attributed to strengthening the demulsification of oil-in-water emulsions, resulting in efficient separation of oil-in-water mixtures. The S-USM was efficient for a wide range of oil-in-water mixtures, such as dodecane, diesel, vegetable oil, and even crude oil, with a separation efficiency of up to 85%. In this study, the flexible design and fabrication of 3D printing were used for the facile creation of spherical oil skimmers with hydrogel coatings that were capable of removing the floating oil. Most importantly, this work is expected to promote post-treatment processes using 3D printing as a new manufacturing technology and, in this way, a series of devices of specific shape and function will be expanded to satisfy desired requirements and bring great convenience to personal life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
PA12 Powder Recycled from SLS for FDM
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040727
Received: 17 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
PDF Full-text (2836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, Polyamide 12 (PA12) powder recycled after selective laser sintering (SLS) was made into filaments for fused deposition modelling (FDM). Compared with fresh PA12, the melt flow rate (MFR) of the recycled PA12 powder decreased by 77%, but the mechanical properties [...] Read more.
In this study, Polyamide 12 (PA12) powder recycled after selective laser sintering (SLS) was made into filaments for fused deposition modelling (FDM). Compared with fresh PA12, the melt flow rate (MFR) of the recycled PA12 powder decreased by 77%, but the mechanical properties were only slightly reduced. In FDM, the printing speed and building orientation were changed, and the performance of the printed parts was tested. If the printing speed is too fast or too slow, the mechanical properties of the parts will be affected, and there is an optimal speed range. The tensile strength, flexural modulus, and impact strength of a printed test sample made from recycled powder reached 95%, 85%, and 87% of an x-direction test sample made from fresh PA12, respectively. For test samples printed from different orientations, the mechanical properties of the test samples printed in the x-direction were the best, while the crystallization performance was the opposite. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the printed test sample had good compactness and mechanical properties, and the delamination phenomenon was basically not observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Coaxial Printing of Silicone Elastomer Composite Fibers for Stretchable and Wearable Piezoresistive Sensors
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040666
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
PDF Full-text (6059 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the tremendous efforts dedicated to developing various wearable piezoresistive sensors with sufficient stretchability and high sensitivity, challenges remain pertaining to fabrication scalability, cost, and efficiency. In this study, a facile, scalable, and low-cost coaxial printing strategy is employed to fabricate stretchable and [...] Read more.
Despite the tremendous efforts dedicated to developing various wearable piezoresistive sensors with sufficient stretchability and high sensitivity, challenges remain pertaining to fabrication scalability, cost, and efficiency. In this study, a facile, scalable, and low-cost coaxial printing strategy is employed to fabricate stretchable and flexible fibers with a core–sheath structure for wearable strain sensors. The highly viscous silica-modified silicone elastomer solution is used to print the insulating sheath layer, and the silicone elastomer solutions containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as the core inks to print the conductive inner layer. With the addition of silica powders as viscosifiers, silica-filled silicone ink (sheath ink) converts to printable ink. The dimensions of the printed coaxial fibers can be flexibly controlled via adjusting the extrusion pressure of the inks. In addition, the electro-mechanical responses of the fiber-shaped strain sensors are investigated. The printed stretchable and wearable fiber-like CNT-based strain sensor exhibits outstanding sensitivities with gauge factors (GFs) of 1.4 to 2.5 × 106, a large stretchability of 150%, and excellent waterproof performance. Furthermore, the sensor can detect a strain of 0.1% and showed stable responses for over 15,000 cycles (high durability). The printed fiber-shaped sensor demonstrated capabilities of detecting and differentiating human joint movements and monitoring balloon inflation. These results obtained demonstrate that the one-step printed fiber-like strain sensors have potential applications in wearable devices, soft robotics, and electronic skins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Flexural Properties and Fracture Behavior of CF/PEEK in Orthogonal Building Orientation by FDM: Microstructure and Mechanism
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040656
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
PDF Full-text (4631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fused deposition modeling possesses great advantages in fabricating high performance composites with controllable structural designs. As such, it has attracted attention from medical, automatic, and aerospace fields. In this paper, the influence of short carbon fibers (SCFs) and the orthogonal building orientation on [...] Read more.
Fused deposition modeling possesses great advantages in fabricating high performance composites with controllable structural designs. As such, it has attracted attention from medical, automatic, and aerospace fields. In this paper, the influence of short carbon fibers (SCFs) and the orthogonal building orientation on the flexural properties of printed polyether ether ketone (PEEK) composites are systematically studied. The results show that the addition of SCFs raises the uniform nucleation process of PEEK during 3D printing, decreases the layer-to-layer bonding strength, and greatly changes the fracture mode. The flexural strength of vertically printed PEEK and its CF-reinforced composites show strengths that are as high as molded composites. X-ray micro-computed tomography reveals the microstructure of the printed composites and the transformation of pores during bending tests, which provides evidence for the good mechanical properties of the vertically printed composites. The effect of multi-scale factors on the mechanical properties of the composites, such as crystallization in different positions, layer-by-layer bonding, and porosity, provide a successful interpretation of their fracture modes. This work provides a promising and cost-effective method to fabricate 3D printed composites with tailored, orientation-dependent properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Glass Fiber-Reinforced Phenol Formaldehyde Resin-Based Electrical Insulating Composites Fabricated by Selective Laser Sintering
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010135
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, glass fiber (GF)/phenol formaldehyde resin (PF)/epoxy resin (EP) three-phase electrical insulating composites were fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS) additive manufacturing technology and subsequent infiltration. In the three-phase composites, glass fibers modified by a silane coupling agent (KH-550) were used [...] Read more.
In this study, glass fiber (GF)/phenol formaldehyde resin (PF)/epoxy resin (EP) three-phase electrical insulating composites were fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS) additive manufacturing technology and subsequent infiltration. In the three-phase composites, glass fibers modified by a silane coupling agent (KH-550) were used as reinforcements, phenol formaldehyde resin acted as the binder and matrix, and infiltrated epoxy resin was the filler. Mechanical and electrical properties such as tensile strength, bending strength, dielectric constant, electrical conductivity, and electric breakdown strength of the GF/PF/EP three-phase composite parts were investigated. The results indicated that after being infiltrated with EP, the bending strength and tensile strength of the GF/PF/EP composites increased by 30% and 42.8%, respectively. Moreover, the flexural strength and tensile strength of the GF/PF/EP composite increased with the increase of the glass fiber content. More importantly, the three-phase composites showed high electrical properties. Significant improvement in the dielectric constant, electric breakdown strength, and resistivity with the increase in the content of glass fiber was observed. This enables the prepared GF/PF/EP composites to form complex structural electrical insulation devices by SLS, which expands the materials and applications of additive manufacturing technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Photocurable Bioinks for the 3D Pharming of Combination Therapies
Polymers 2018, 10(12), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10121372
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
PDF Full-text (4953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Combination therapies mediate drug synergy to improve treatment efficacy and convenience, leading to higher levels of compliance. However, there are challenges with their manufacturing as well as reduced flexibility in dosing options. This study reports on the design and characterization of a polypill [...] Read more.
Combination therapies mediate drug synergy to improve treatment efficacy and convenience, leading to higher levels of compliance. However, there are challenges with their manufacturing as well as reduced flexibility in dosing options. This study reports on the design and characterization of a polypill fabricated through the combination of material jetting and binder jetting for the treatment of hypertension. The drugs lisinopril and spironolactone were loaded into hydrophilic hyaluronic acid and hydrophobic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) photocurable bioinks, respectively, and dispensed through a piezoelectric nozzle onto a blank preform tablet composed of two attachable compartments fabricated via binder jetting 3D printing. The bioinks were photopolymerized and their mechanical properties were assessed via Instron testing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to indicate morphological analysis. The polypill was ensembled and drug release analysis was performed. Droplet formation of bioinks loaded with hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was achieved and subsequently polymerized after a controlled dosage was dispensed onto preform tablet compartments. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed sustained release profiles for each of the loaded compounds. This study confirms the potential of material jetting in conjunction with binder jetting techniques (powder-bed 3D printing), for the production of combination therapy oral dosage forms involving both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Manufacturing of Polymeric Substrates with Copper Nanofillers through Laser Stereolithography Technique
Polymers 2018, 10(12), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10121325
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents the additive manufacture of objects using mass-functionalized photo-resins, which are additively photopolymerized using the laser stereolithography technique. The mass functionalization is based on the incorporation of copper nanowires used as fillers at different concentrations. Cylindrical and tensile test probes are [...] Read more.
This study presents the additive manufacture of objects using mass-functionalized photo-resins, which are additively photopolymerized using the laser stereolithography technique. The mass functionalization is based on the incorporation of copper nanowires used as fillers at different concentrations. Cylindrical and tensile test probes are designed and manufactured in a layer-by-layer approach using a low-cost laser stereolithography system working with a layer thickness of 100   µ m . The morphological, mechanical, thermal and chemical results help to show the viability and potential that this combination of mass-functionalized resins and technological processes may have in the near future, once key challenges are solved. Finally, some potential applications are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Mechanical, Thermal, and Shape Memory Properties of Three-Dimensional Printing Biomass Composites
Polymers 2018, 10(11), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10111234
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a series of heat-induced shape memory composites was prepared by the hot-melt extrusion and three-dimensional (3D) printing of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) using wood flour (WF) with different contents of EPDM-g-MAH. The mechanical properties, microtopography, thermal property analysis, and [...] Read more.
In this study, a series of heat-induced shape memory composites was prepared by the hot-melt extrusion and three-dimensional (3D) printing of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) using wood flour (WF) with different contents of EPDM-g-MAH. The mechanical properties, microtopography, thermal property analysis, and heat-induced shape memory properties of the composites were examined. The results showed that, when the EPDM-g-MAH content was 4%, the tensile elongation and tensile strength of the composites reached the maximum value. The scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis results revealed a good interface bonding between TPU and WF when the EPDM-g-MAH content was 4%. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of TPU/WF composites was enhanced by the addition of 4% EPDM-g-MAH. Heat-induced shape memory test results showed that the shape memory performance of composites with 4% EPDM-g-MAH was better than that of unmodified-composites. The composites’ shape recovery performance at a temperature of 60 °C was higher than that of the composites at ambient temperature. It was also found that, when the filling angle of the specimen was 45°, the recovery angle of the composites was larger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication
Fabrication of Conducting Polyacrylate Resin Solution with Polyaniline Nanofiber and Graphene for Conductive 3D Printing Application
Polymers 2018, 10(9), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10091003
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three-dimensional printing based on the digital light processing (DLP) method offers solution processability, fast printing time, and high-quality printing through selective light curing of photopolymers. This research relates to a method of dispersing polyaniline nanofibers (PANI NFs) and graphene sheets in a polyacrylate [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional printing based on the digital light processing (DLP) method offers solution processability, fast printing time, and high-quality printing through selective light curing of photopolymers. This research relates to a method of dispersing polyaniline nanofibers (PANI NFs) and graphene sheets in a polyacrylate resin solution for optimizing the conductive solution suitable for DLP-type 3D printing. Dispersion and morphology of the samples with different filler contents were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and optical microscope (OM) analyses. The polyacrylate composite solution employing the PANI NFs and graphene was printed well with various shapes and sizes through the 3D printing of DLP technology. In addition, the electrical properties of the printed sculptures have been investigated using a 4-point probe measurement system. The printed sculpture containing the PANI NFs and graphene sheets exhibited electrical conductivity (4.00 × 10−9 S/cm) up to 107 times higher than the pure polyacrylate (1.1 × 10−16 S/cm). This work suggests potential application of the PANI NF/graphene cofiller system for DLP-type 3D printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Extrusion 3D Printing of Polybutyrate-Adipate-Terephthalate-Polymer Composites in the Pellet Form
Polymers 2018, 10(8), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10080922
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (19265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fused deposition modelling is a common 3D printing technique used for the freeform fabrication of complex shapes based on polymers. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is the common material option, though polylactide (PLA) has also proved to be a successful candidate. There is an [...] Read more.
Fused deposition modelling is a common 3D printing technique used for the freeform fabrication of complex shapes based on polymers. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is the common material option, though polylactide (PLA) has also proved to be a successful candidate. There is an ever increasing demand to harness new materials as possible candidates for fused deposition. The current research is focused on evaluating polybutyrate-adipate-terephthalate–polymer (PBAT) for fused deposition modelling. Both neat and composite PBAT filled with varying wood flour fillers were experimentally analyzed for 3D printing by extrusion from the pellet forms. The results are positive and the addition of small quantities of the wood flour filler material was found to improve the thixotropic nature of the polymer composite and consequently the inter-strand and inter-layer coalescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Natural Polymers for Organ 3D Bioprinting
Polymers 2018, 10(11), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10111278
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, known as a promising technology for bioartificial organ manufacturing, has provided unprecedented versatility to manipulate cells and other biomaterials with precise control their locations in space. Over the last decade, a number of 3D bioprinting technologies have been explored. Natural [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, known as a promising technology for bioartificial organ manufacturing, has provided unprecedented versatility to manipulate cells and other biomaterials with precise control their locations in space. Over the last decade, a number of 3D bioprinting technologies have been explored. Natural polymers have played a central role in supporting the cellular and biomolecular activities before, during and after the 3D bioprinting processes. These polymers have been widely used as effective cell-loading hydrogels for homogeneous/heterogeneous tissue/organ formation, hierarchical vascular/neural/lymphatic network construction, as well as multiple biological/biochemial/physiological/biomedical/pathological functionality realization. This review aims to cover recent progress in natural polymers for bioartificial organ 3D bioprinting. It is structured as introducing the important properties of 3D printable natural polymers, successful models of 3D tissue/organ construction and typical technologies for bioartificial organ 3D bioprinting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top