Next Article in Journal
Spherical Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT)—Polycarbonate (PC) Blend Particles by Mechanical Alloying and Thermal Rounding
Next Article in Special Issue
Glass Fiber-Reinforced Phenol Formaldehyde Resin-Based Electrical Insulating Composites Fabricated by Selective Laser Sintering
Previous Article in Journal
Incorporation of Carbon Nanofillers Tunes Mechanical and Electrical Percolation in PHBV:PLA Blends
Previous Article in Special Issue
Manufacturing of Polymeric Substrates with Copper Nanofillers through Laser Stereolithography Technique
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Photocurable Bioinks for the 3D Pharming of Combination Therapies

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza, Room 5121, Engineering V, 951600 Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Division of Advanced Prosthodontics and the Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, University of California, 951600 Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2018, 10(12), 1372;
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymeric Materials)
PDF [4953 KB, uploaded 11 December 2018]


Combination therapies mediate drug synergy to improve treatment efficacy and convenience, leading to higher levels of compliance. However, there are challenges with their manufacturing as well as reduced flexibility in dosing options. This study reports on the design and characterization of a polypill fabricated through the combination of material jetting and binder jetting for the treatment of hypertension. The drugs lisinopril and spironolactone were loaded into hydrophilic hyaluronic acid and hydrophobic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) photocurable bioinks, respectively, and dispensed through a piezoelectric nozzle onto a blank preform tablet composed of two attachable compartments fabricated via binder jetting 3D printing. The bioinks were photopolymerized and their mechanical properties were assessed via Instron testing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to indicate morphological analysis. The polypill was ensembled and drug release analysis was performed. Droplet formation of bioinks loaded with hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was achieved and subsequently polymerized after a controlled dosage was dispensed onto preform tablet compartments. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed sustained release profiles for each of the loaded compounds. This study confirms the potential of material jetting in conjunction with binder jetting techniques (powder-bed 3D printing), for the production of combination therapy oral dosage forms involving both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; pharmaceutical tablets; poly(ethylene glycol); hyaluronic acid; photopolymerization; inkjet printing 3D printing; pharmaceutical tablets; poly(ethylene glycol); hyaluronic acid; photopolymerization; inkjet printing

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Acosta-Vélez, G.F.; Linsley, C.S.; Zhu, T.Z.; Wu, W.; Wu, B.M. Photocurable Bioinks for the 3D Pharming of Combination Therapies. Polymers 2018, 10, 1372.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top