Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 21798

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
Interests: nanomaterials synthesis; photocatalytic materials; photocatalysis applications; perovskite solar cells; VOC sensing materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is motivated by the growing interest in the design, fabrication, and application of polymer-based electronic devices and sensors. In recent years, a variety of polymer-based compounds have been developed. Their novel chemical and physical properties extend their application in different fields. As the external stimuli, including pH, light radiation, heat, etc., are further applied to polymer-based materials, they may have a reversible or irreversible change in their physical and chemical properties.

This Special Issue on “Polymer-Based Electronic Devices and Sensors” will collect new original research and review papers, with special emphasis on the improved properties, innovative fabrication processes, and novel applications of functional polymer composites. We warmly invite researchers in this field to submit relevant manuscripts to this Special Issue of Polymers.

Dr. Ming-Chung Wu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • conjugated/semiconducting polymers
  • conducting polymers
  • synthesis of conducting polymers
  • structure of conducting polymers
  • polymer electrolytes
  • polymer electronic devices
  • polymer solar cells
  • sensors

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 3317 KiB  
Article
Non-Conjugated Poly(Diphenylene Phthalide)—New Electroactive Material
by Danfis D. Karamov, Azat F. Galiev, Alexey A. Lachinov, Khalim I. Davlyatgareev, Sergey N. Salazkin, Artur R. Yakhin and Alexey N. Lachinov
Polymers 2023, 15(16), 3366; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15163366 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 882
Abstract
In organic electronics, conjugated conductive polymers are most widely used. The scope of their application is currently very wide. Non-conjugated polymers are used much less in electronics and are usually used as insulation materials or materials for capacitors. However, the potential of non-conjugated [...] Read more.
In organic electronics, conjugated conductive polymers are most widely used. The scope of their application is currently very wide. Non-conjugated polymers are used much less in electronics and are usually used as insulation materials or materials for capacitors. However, the potential of non-conjugated polymers is much wider, due to the fact that new electronic materials with unique electronic properties can be created on the basis of non-conjugated polymers, as well as other inorganic dielectrics. This article demonstrates the possibilities of creating electrically conductive materials with unique electronic parameters based on non-conjugated polymers. The results of the study of the sensory properties of humidity are given as examples of the practical application of the structure. The abnormal electronic properties are realized along the interface of two polymer dielectrics with functional polar groups. The submicron films of polydiphenylenephthalide were used as a dielectric. It is shown that a quasi-two-dimensional electronic structure with abnormally large values of conductivity and mobility of charge carriers occurs along the interface. These structures are often called quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (Q2DEG). This article describes the manufacturing processes of multielectrode devices. Polymer films are deposited via the spin-coating method with polymer solutions in cyclohexanone. The metal electrodes were manufactured through thermal deposition in a vacuum. Three types of metal electrodes made of aluminum, copper and chromium were used. The influence of the electron work function of contacting metals on the electronic parameters of the structure was studied. It was established that the work function decrease leads to an increase in the conductivity and mobility of charge carriers. The charge carrier parameters were estimated based on the analysis of the current-voltage characteristics within the space-charge-limited current technique. The Richardson-Schottky thermionic emission model was used to evaluate values a potential barrier at metal/organic interfaces. It was established that the change in ambient humidity strongly affects the electronic transport properties along the polymer/polymer interface. It is demonstrated that the increase in conductivity with an increase in humidity occurs due to an increase in the mobility of charge carriers and a decrease in the height of the potential barrier at the three-dimensional metal contact with two-dimensional polymer interface. The potential barrier between the electrode and the bulk of the polymer film is significantly higher than between the electrode and the quasi-two-dimensional polymer structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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12 pages, 2366 KiB  
Article
Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Stretchable Conducting Polymer Electrodes
by Wen Wang, Jie Cao, Jiawen Yu, Fajuan Tian, Xiaoyu Luo, Yiting Hao, Jiyan Huang, Fucheng Wang, Weiqiang Zhou, Jingkun Xu, Ximei Liu and Hanjun Yang
Polymers 2023, 15(8), 1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15081856 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Supercapacitors are widely used in various fields due to their high power density, fast charging and discharging speeds, and long service life. However, with the increasing demand for flexible electronics, integrated supercapacitors in devices are also facing more challenges, such as extensibility, bending [...] Read more.
Supercapacitors are widely used in various fields due to their high power density, fast charging and discharging speeds, and long service life. However, with the increasing demand for flexible electronics, integrated supercapacitors in devices are also facing more challenges, such as extensibility, bending stability, and operability. Despite many reports on stretchable supercapacitors, challenges still exist in their preparation process, which involves multiple steps. Therefore, we prepared stretchable conducting polymer electrodes by depositing thiophene and 3-methylthiophene on patterned 304 stainless steel (SS 304) through electropolymerization. The cycling stability of the prepared stretchable electrodes could be further improved by protecting them with poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfuric acid (PVA/H2SO4) gel electrolyte. Specifically, the mechanical stability of the polythiophene (PTh) electrode was improved by 2.5%, and the stability of the poly(3-methylthiophene (P3MeT) electrode was improved by 7.0%. As a result, the assembled flexible supercapacitors maintained 93% of their stability even after 10,000 cycles of strain at 100%, which indicates potential applications in flexible electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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12 pages, 5817 KiB  
Article
Electrospun Fibrous Nanocomposite Sensing Materials for Monitoring Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath
by Yin-Hsuan Chang, Ting-Hung Hsieh, Kai-Chi Hsiao, Ting-Han Lin, Kai-Hsiang Hsu and Ming-Chung Wu
Polymers 2023, 15(8), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15081833 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Human−exhaled breath mainly contains water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and endogenous gases closely related to human metabolism. The linear relationship between breath acetone and blood glucose concentration has been revealed when monitoring diabetes patients. Considerable attention has been directed toward developing a highly sensitive [...] Read more.
Human−exhaled breath mainly contains water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and endogenous gases closely related to human metabolism. The linear relationship between breath acetone and blood glucose concentration has been revealed when monitoring diabetes patients. Considerable attention has been directed toward developing a highly sensitive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sensing material that can detect breath acetone. In this study, we propose a tungsten oxide/tin oxide/silver/poly (methyl methacrylate) (WO3/SnO2/Ag/PMMA) sensing material fabricated using the electrospinning technique. By monitoring the evolution of sensing materials’ extinction spectra, low concentrations of acetone vapor can be detected. Moreover, the interfaces between SnO2 and WO3 nanocrystals construct n−n junctions, which generate more electron–hole pairs than those without such structure when the light strikes. This helps to improve the sensitivity of sensing materials when they are subjected to acetone surroundings. The established sensing materials (WO3/SnO2/Ag/PMMA) exhibit a sensing limit of 20 ppm for acetone vapor and show specificity for acetone even in ambient humidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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14 pages, 2801 KiB  
Article
Development of Benzobisoxazole-Based Novel Conjugated Polymers for Organic Thin-Film Transistors
by WonJo Jeong, Kyumin Lee, Jaeyoung Jang and In Hwan Jung
Polymers 2023, 15(5), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15051156 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d′]bis(oxazole) (BBO) is a heterocyclic aromatic ring composed of one benzene ring and two oxazole rings, which has unique advantages on the facile synthesis without any column chromatography purification, high solubility on the common organic solvents and planar fused aromatic ring structure. However, [...] Read more.
Benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d′]bis(oxazole) (BBO) is a heterocyclic aromatic ring composed of one benzene ring and two oxazole rings, which has unique advantages on the facile synthesis without any column chromatography purification, high solubility on the common organic solvents and planar fused aromatic ring structure. However, BBO conjugated building block has rarely been used to develop conjugated polymers for organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Three BBO-based monomers, BBO without π-spacer, BBO with non-alkylated thiophene π-spacer and BBO with alkylated thiophene π-spacer, were newly synthesized and they were copolymerized with a strong electron-donating cyclopentadithiophene conjugated building block to give three p-type BBO-based polymers. The polymer containing non-alkylated thiophene π-spacer showed the highest hole mobility of 2.2 × 10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1, which was 100 times higher than the other polymers. From the 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction data and simulated polymeric structures, we found that the intercalation of alkyl side chains on the polymer backbones was crucial to determine the intermolecular ordering in the film states, and the introduction of non-alkylated thiophene π-spacer to polymer backbone was the most effective to promote the intercalation of alkyl side chains in the film states and hole mobility in the devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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15 pages, 3091 KiB  
Article
Thin Films of Polyaniline-Based Nanocomposites with CeO2 and WO3 Metal Oxides Applied to the Impedimetric and Capacitive Transducer Stages in Chemical Sensors
by Beatriz Cotting Rossignatti, Amanda Portes Vieira, Martin Schwellberger Barbosa, Luís Miguel Gomes Abegão and Hugo José Nogueira Pedroza Dias Mello
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030578 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
There is a recognized need for the development of cost-effective, stable, fast, and optimized novel materials for technological applications. Substantial research has been undertaken on the role of polymeric nanocomposites in sensing applications. However, the use of PANI-based nanocomposites in impedimetric and capacitive [...] Read more.
There is a recognized need for the development of cost-effective, stable, fast, and optimized novel materials for technological applications. Substantial research has been undertaken on the role of polymeric nanocomposites in sensing applications. However, the use of PANI-based nanocomposites in impedimetric and capacitive electrochemical sensors has yet to be understood. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between the sensitivity and linearity of electrochemical pH sensors and the composition of nanocomposites. Thin films of PANI/CeO2 and PANI/WO3 were deposited via spin coating for characterization and application during the electrochemical impedance and capacitance spectroscopy (EIS and ECS) transduction stages. The findings showed that the optimized performance of the devices was extended not only to the sensitivity but also to the linearity. An increase of 213% in the ECS sensitivity of the PANI/CeO2 compared to the metal oxide and an increase of 64% in the ECS linearity of the PANI/WO3 compared to the polymeric sensitivity were reported. This study identified the structure–property relationship of nanocomposite thin films of PANI with metal oxides for use in electrochemical sensors. The developed materials could be applied in devices to be used in different fields, such as food, environment, and biomedical monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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15 pages, 3405 KiB  
Article
High Multi-Environmental Mechanical Stability and Adhesive Transparent Ionic Conductive Hydrogels Used as Smart Wearable Devices
by Yuxuan Wu, Jing Liu, Zhen Chen, Yujie Chen, Wenzheng Chen, Hua Li and Hezhou Liu
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5316; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235316 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Ionic conductive hydrogels used as flexible wearable sensor devices have attracted considerable attention because of their easy preparation, biocompatibility, and macro/micro mechanosensitive properties. However, developing an integrated conductive hydrogel that combines high mechanical stability, strong adhesion, and excellent mechanosensitive properties to meet practical [...] Read more.
Ionic conductive hydrogels used as flexible wearable sensor devices have attracted considerable attention because of their easy preparation, biocompatibility, and macro/micro mechanosensitive properties. However, developing an integrated conductive hydrogel that combines high mechanical stability, strong adhesion, and excellent mechanosensitive properties to meet practical requirements remains a great challenge owing to the incompatibility of properties. Herein, we prepare a multifunctional ionic conductive hydrogel by introducing high-modulus bacterial cellulose (BC) to form the skeleton of double networks, which exhibit great mechanical properties in both tensile (83.4 kPa, 1235.9% strain) and compressive (207.2 kPa, 79.9% strain) stress–strain tests. Besides, the fabricated hydrogels containing high-concentration Ca2+ show excellent anti-freezing (high ionic conductivities of 1.92 and 0.36 S/m at room temperature and −35 C, respectively) properties. Furthermore, the sensing mechanism based on the conductive units and applied voltage are investigated to the benefit of the practical applications of prepared hydrogels. Therefore, the designed and fabricated hydrogels provide a novel strategy and can serve as candidates in the fields of sensors, ionic skins, and soft robots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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13 pages, 3554 KiB  
Article
3D Carbon Nanonetwork Coated Composite Electrode with Multi-Heteroatom Doping for High-Rate Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
by Wei Ling, Xiongwei Wu and Funian Mo
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5269; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235269 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1362
Abstract
With the advantages of benign mechanical property, electrochemical stability, and low cost, graphite fibers (GFs) have been widely used as electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). However, GFs usually possess inferior electrochemical activity and ion diffusion kinetics for electrode reaction, vastly limiting [...] Read more.
With the advantages of benign mechanical property, electrochemical stability, and low cost, graphite fibers (GFs) have been widely used as electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). However, GFs usually possess inferior electrochemical activity and ion diffusion kinetics for electrode reaction, vastly limiting their application in VRFBs. Here, a 3D carbon nanonetwork coated GFs with multi-heteroatom doping was constructed for application in VRFBs via low temperature polymerization between linear polymer monomer and phytic acid, and subsequent carbonization (900 °C) on the GFs (GF@PCNs-900). Benefiting from the 3D structural features and multi-heteroatom doping (O, N and P), the composite electrode displayed sufficient diffusion of vanadium ions, rapid electron conduction, and highly enhanced electrochemical activity of reactive site on the electrodes. As a result, the GF@PCNs-900 delivered a high discharge capacity of 21 Ah L−1 and energy efficiency of above 70% with extraordinary stability during 200 cycles at 200 mA cm−2. Even at a huge current density of 400 mA cm−2, the GF@PCNs-900 still maintained a discharge capacity of 5.0 Ah L−1, indicating an excellent rate of performance for VRFBs. Such design strategy opens up a clear view for further development of energy storage field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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12 pages, 4233 KiB  
Article
Low Power Consumption Hybrid-Integrated Thermo-Optic Switch with Polymer Cladding and Silica Waveguide Core
by Yuqi Xie, Jiachen Han, Tian Qin, Xuyang Ge, Xihan Wu, Lu Liu, Xubin Wu and Yunji Yi
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5234; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235234 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Taking advantage of the large thermo-optical coefficient of polymer materials, a hybrid-integrated thermo-optic switch was designed and simulated. It is also compatible with the existing silica-based planar light-wave circuit (PLC) platform. To further reduce the power consumption, we introduced the air trench structure [...] Read more.
Taking advantage of the large thermo-optical coefficient of polymer materials, a hybrid-integrated thermo-optic switch was designed and simulated. It is also compatible with the existing silica-based planar light-wave circuit (PLC) platform. To further reduce the power consumption, we introduced the air trench structure and optimized the structural parameters of the heating region. This scheme is beneficial to solving the problem of the large driving power of silica-based thermo-optic switches at this stage. Compared with the switching power of all-silica devices, the power consumption can be reduced from 116.11 mW (TE) and 114.86 mW (TM) to 5.49 mW (TE) and 5.96 mW (TM), which is close to the driving power of the reported switches adopting polymer material as the core. For the TE mode, the switch’s rise and fall times were 121 µs and 329 µs. For the TM mode, the switch times were simulated to be 118 µs (rise) and 329 µs (fall). This device can be applied to hybrid integration fields such as array switches and reconfigurable add/drop multiplexing (ROADM) technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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Review

Jump to: Research

31 pages, 4933 KiB  
Review
Advances in Electrospun Materials and Methods for Li-Ion Batteries
by Sri Harini Senthilkumar, Brindha Ramasubramanian, Rayavarapu Prasada Rao, Vijila Chellappan and Seeram Ramakrishna
Polymers 2023, 15(7), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071622 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3118
Abstract
Electronic devices commonly use rechargeable Li-ion batteries due to their potency, manufacturing effectiveness, and affordability. Electrospinning technology offers nanofibers with improved mechanical strength, quick ion transport, and ease of production, which makes it an attractive alternative to traditional methods. This review covers recent [...] Read more.
Electronic devices commonly use rechargeable Li-ion batteries due to their potency, manufacturing effectiveness, and affordability. Electrospinning technology offers nanofibers with improved mechanical strength, quick ion transport, and ease of production, which makes it an attractive alternative to traditional methods. This review covers recent morphology-varied nanofibers and examines emerging nanofiber manufacturing methods and materials for battery tech advancement. The electrospinning technique can be used to generate nanofibers for battery separators, the electrodes with the advent of flame-resistant core-shell nanofibers. This review also identifies potential applications for recycled waste and biomass materials to increase the sustainability of the electrospinning process. Overall, this review provides insights into current developments in electrospinning for batteries and highlights the commercialization potential of the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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27 pages, 9816 KiB  
Review
Electrical Heaters for Anti/De-Icing of Polymer Structures
by Aleksei V. Shiverskii, Mohammad Owais, Biltu Mahato and Sergey G. Abaimov
Polymers 2023, 15(6), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15061573 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3493
Abstract
The problem of icing for surfaces of engineering structures requires attention more and more every year. Active industrialization in permafrost zones is currently underway; marine transport in Arctic areas targets new goals; the requirements for aerodynamically critical surfaces of wind generators and aerospace [...] Read more.
The problem of icing for surfaces of engineering structures requires attention more and more every year. Active industrialization in permafrost zones is currently underway; marine transport in Arctic areas targets new goals; the requirements for aerodynamically critical surfaces of wind generators and aerospace products, serving at low temperatures, are increasing; and fiber-reinforced polymer composites find wide applicability in these structural applications demanding the problem of anti/de-icing to be addressed. The traditional manufacturing approaches are superimposed with the new technologies, such as 3D printers and robotics for laying heat wires or cheap and high-performance Thermal Sprayed methods for metallic cover manufacturing. Another next step in developing heaters for polymer structures is nano and micro additives to create electrically conductive heating networks within. In our study, we review and comparatively analyze the modern technologies of structure heating, based on resistive heating composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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24 pages, 3619 KiB  
Review
Combination of Polymer Gate Dielectric and Two-Dimensional Semiconductor for Emerging Field-Effect Transistors
by Junhwan Choi and Hocheon Yoo
Polymers 2023, 15(6), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15061395 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2693
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are considered attractive semiconducting layers for emerging field-effect transistors owing to their unique electronic and optoelectronic properties. Polymers have been utilized in combination with 2D semiconductors as gate dielectric layers in field-effect transistors (FETs). Despite their distinctive advantages, the applicability [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are considered attractive semiconducting layers for emerging field-effect transistors owing to their unique electronic and optoelectronic properties. Polymers have been utilized in combination with 2D semiconductors as gate dielectric layers in field-effect transistors (FETs). Despite their distinctive advantages, the applicability of polymer gate dielectric materials for 2D semiconductor FETs has rarely been discussed in a comprehensive manner. Therefore, this paper reviews recent progress relating to 2D semiconductor FETs based on a wide range of polymeric gate dielectric materials, including (1) solution-based polymer dielectrics, (2) vacuum-deposited polymer dielectrics, (3) ferroelectric polymers, and (4) ion gels. Exploiting appropriate materials and corresponding processes, polymer gate dielectrics have enhanced the performance of 2D semiconductor FETs and enabled the development of versatile device structures in energy-efficient ways. Furthermore, FET-based functional electronic devices, such as flash memory devices, photodetectors, ferroelectric memory devices, and flexible electronics, are highlighted in this review. This paper also outlines challenges and opportunities in order to help develop high-performance FETs based on 2D semiconductors and polymer gate dielectrics and realize their practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors II)
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