Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Physics and Theory".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 July 2022) | Viewed by 38374

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
Interests: nanomaterials synthesis; photocatalytic materials; photocatalysis applications; perovskite solar cells; VOC sensing materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is motivated by the growing interest in the design, fabrication, and application of polymer-based electronic devices and sensors. In recent years, a variety of polymer-based compounds have been developed. Their novel chemical and physical properties extend their application in different fields. As the external stimuli, including pH, light radiation, heat, etc., are further applied on polymer-based materials, they may have a reversibly or irreversibly change in their physical and chemical properties.

This Special Issue on “Polymer-Based Electronic Devices and Sensors” will collect new original research and review papers, with special emphasis on the improved properties, innovative fabrication processes, and novel applications of functional polymer composite. We warmly invite researchers in this field to submit relevant manuscripts to this Special Issue of the journal Polymers.

Prof. Dr. Ming-Chung Wu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Conjugated/semiconducting polymers 
  • Conducting polymers 
  • Synthesis of conducting polymers 
  • Structure of conducting polymers 
  • Polymer electrolytes 
  • Polymer electronic devices 
  • Polymer solar cells 
  • Sensors

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

19 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
Asymmetric Monomer Design Enables Structural Control of M(Salen)-Type Polymers
by Maria Novozhilova, Julia Polozhentseva and Mikhail Karushev
Polymers 2023, 15(5), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15051127 - 23 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Conductive and electrochemically active polymers consisting of Salen-type metal complexes as building blocks are of interest for energy storage and conversion applications. Asymmetric monomer design is a powerful tool for fine-tuning the practical properties of conductive electrochemically active polymers but has never been [...] Read more.
Conductive and electrochemically active polymers consisting of Salen-type metal complexes as building blocks are of interest for energy storage and conversion applications. Asymmetric monomer design is a powerful tool for fine-tuning the practical properties of conductive electrochemically active polymers but has never been employed for polymers of M(Salen)]. In this work, we synthesize a series of novel conducting polymers composed of a nonsymmetrical electropolymerizable copper Salen-type complex (Cu(3-MeOSal–Sal)en). We show that asymmetrical monomer design provides easy control of the coupling site via polymerization potential control. With in-situ electrochemical methods such as UV-vis-NIR (ultraviolet-visible-near infrared) spectroscopy, EQCM (electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance), and electrochemical conductivity measurements, we elucidate how the properties of these polymers are defined by chain length, order, and cross-linking. We found that the highest conductivity in the series has a polymer with the shortest chain length, which emphasizes the importance of intermolecular iterations in polymers of [M(Salen)]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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16 pages, 6133 KiB  
Article
Grating Assembly Dissected in Periodic Bands of Poly (Butylene Adipate) Modulated with Poly (Ethylene Oxide)
by Chia-I. Chang, Eamor M. Woo and Selvaraj Nagarajan
Polymers 2022, 14(21), 4781; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14214781 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Polarized optical microscopy (POM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and synchrotron microbeam wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were used to investigate the mechanisms of periodic assemblies leading to ring-banded crystal aggregates with light-grating capacity for iridescence in poly (1,4-butylene adipate) (PBA) modulated with poly (ethylene [...] Read more.
Polarized optical microscopy (POM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and synchrotron microbeam wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were used to investigate the mechanisms of periodic assemblies leading to ring-banded crystal aggregates with light-grating capacity for iridescence in poly (1,4-butylene adipate) (PBA) modulated with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO). A critical finding is that the PBA crystal assembly on the top surface and in the interior constitutes a grating architecture, with a cross-bar pitch equaling the inter-band spacing. The inner lamellae are arranged perpendicularly to the substrate under the ridge region, where they scroll, bend, and twist 90° to branch out newly spawned lamellae to form the parallel lamellae under the valley region. The cross-hatch grating with a fixed inter-spacing in the PBA aggregated crystals is proved in this work to perfectly act as light-interference entities capable of performing iridescence functions, which can be compared to those widely seen in many of nature’s organic bio-species or inorganic minerals such as opals. This is a novel breakthrough finding for PBA or similar polymers, such as photonic crystals, especially when the crystalline morphology could be custom-made and modulated with a second constituent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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11 pages, 2463 KiB  
Article
Pilot Scale Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings on a Polyolefin Separator to Enhance Dimensional Stability for Thermally Stable Long-Life Rechargeable Batteries
by Hyoungwoo Choi and Byoung-Sun Lee
Polymers 2022, 14(21), 4474; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14214474 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
The electric vehicle and energy storage markets have grown rapidly in recent years. Thermal runaway caused by malfunctioning Li-ion batteries is an urgent issue with many causes (e.g., mechanical, electrical, and thermal abuse). The most common cause of thermal runaway is the formation [...] Read more.
The electric vehicle and energy storage markets have grown rapidly in recent years. Thermal runaway caused by malfunctioning Li-ion batteries is an urgent issue with many causes (e.g., mechanical, electrical, and thermal abuse). The most common cause of thermal runaway is the formation of an internal short circuit because of damage to the separator. There has been significant effort to improve the design of separators, but to our knowledge, only inorganic nanoparticle coatings are used in commercial Li-ion batteries. Here, hybrid organic/inorganic coating layers are synthesized in a pilot-scale process that was developed from a crosslinkable polyamide-imide synthesis technique. The fabrication process is optimized to achieve reproducible hybrid organic/inorganic coating layers that are thin (≤4 μm), permeable (≤250 s/100 cc), and thermally stable beyond 150 °C. The hybrid coating layer is applied to mini-18650 Li-ion cells to show that the discharge capacity did not change at low discharge rates, and the retention capacity after 500 cycles was better than that of the reference cells used for comparison. This work demonstrates that a novel hybrid coating layer has the potential to improve the stability of commercial Li-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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20 pages, 3764 KiB  
Article
Biomimetic Synthesis of PANI/Graphitic Oxidized Carbon Nitride for Supercapacitor Applications
by Manuel Eduardo Martínez-Cartagena, Juan Bernal-Martínez, Arnulfo Banda-Villanueva, Javier Enríquez-Medrano, Víctor D. Lechuga-Islas, Ilse Magaña, Teresa Córdova, Diana Morales-Acosta, José Luis Olivares-Romero and Ramón Díaz-de-León
Polymers 2022, 14(18), 3913; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14183913 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
Polyaniline (PANI) composites have gained momentum as supercapacitive materials due to their high energy density and power density. However, some drawbacks in their performance remain, such as the low stability after hundreds of charge-discharge cycles and limitations in the synthesis scalability. Herein, we [...] Read more.
Polyaniline (PANI) composites have gained momentum as supercapacitive materials due to their high energy density and power density. However, some drawbacks in their performance remain, such as the low stability after hundreds of charge-discharge cycles and limitations in the synthesis scalability. Herein, we report for the first time PANI-Graphitic oxidized carbon nitride composites as potential supercapacitor material. The biomimetic polymerization of aniline assisted by hematin, supported by phosphorous and oxygen-modified carbon nitrides (g-POCN and g-OCN, respectively), achieved up to 89% yield. The obtained PAI/g-POCN and PANI/g-OCN show enhanced electrochemical properties, such as conductivity of up to 0.0375 S/cm, specific capacitances (Cs) of up to 294 F/g (at high current densities, 5 A/g) and a stable operation after 500 charge-discharge cycles (at 3 A/g). In contrast, the biomimetic synthesis of Free PANI, assisted by stabilized hematin in cosolvents, exhibited lower performance properties (65%). Due to their structural differences, the electrochemical properties of Free PANI (conductivity of 0.0045 S/cm and Cs of up to 82 F/g at 5 A/g) were lower than those of nanostructured PANI/g-POCN and g-OCN supports, which provide stability and improve the properties of biomimetically synthesized PANI. This work reveals the biomimetic synthesis of PANI, assisted by hematin supported by modified carbon nitrides, as a promising strategy to produce nanostructured supercapacitors with high performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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15 pages, 2639 KiB  
Article
Electron Transport Layer Optimization for Efficient PTB7:PC70BM Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells
by Syed Abdul Moiz, Mohammed Saleh Alzahrani and Ahmed N. M. Alahmadi
Polymers 2022, 14(17), 3610; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14173610 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2373
Abstract
Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells have received a great deal of attention mainly due to the possibility of higher power conversion efficiency for photovoltaic applications. Therefore, in this study, relatively novel polymer BHJ solar cells are proposed (ITO/ETL/PTB7:PC70BM/PEDOT:PSS/Au) with various electron [...] Read more.
Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells have received a great deal of attention mainly due to the possibility of higher power conversion efficiency for photovoltaic applications. Therefore, in this study, relatively novel polymer BHJ solar cells are proposed (ITO/ETL/PTB7:PC70BM/PEDOT:PSS/Au) with various electron transport layers (ETL) such as zinc oxysulfide (Zn(O,S)), zinc selenide (ZnSe), and poly[(9,9-bis(3′-((N,N-dimethyl)-N-ethylammonium)-propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] dibromide (PFN-Br). Here, each ETL material is selected based on the energy bandgap compatibility with ITO as well as the PTB7:PC70BM active layer and is based on other physical properties, which are generally required for efficient photovoltaic responses. Each proposed device is comprehensively optimized and then photovoltaic responses are simulated and compared using the software SCAPS-1D. It was observed that the ITO/Zn(O,S)/PTB7:PC70BM/PEDOT:PSS/Au device offered the highest power-conversion efficiency of up to 17.15% with an open-circuit voltage of 0.85 volts, a short-circuit current of 28.23 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 70.69%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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10 pages, 1748 KiB  
Article
Soft Liquid Metal-Based Conducting Composite with Robust Electrical Durability for a Wearable Electrocardiogram Sensor
by Yewon Kim, Jihyang Song, Soojung An, Mikyung Shin and Donghee Son
Polymers 2022, 14(16), 3409; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14163409 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2744
Abstract
Liquid metals not only have the electrical property of conductivity, but they also have a unique characteristic of existing in a liquid state at room temperature, unlike ordinary stiff solid metals. However, in bioelectronics, the modulus matching well between a device and skin [...] Read more.
Liquid metals not only have the electrical property of conductivity, but they also have a unique characteristic of existing in a liquid state at room temperature, unlike ordinary stiff solid metals. However, in bioelectronics, the modulus matching well between a device and skin or tissue is considered very advantageous, because high-quality biological signals can be recorded. Therefore, it is possible to implement soft electronics with stable and robust electrical characteristics by using LM as a conductive liquid-state filler. In this study, we changed a type of liquid metal, Eutectic Gallium Indium (EGaIn), into a particle form via tip sonication and mixed it with a solution that dissolved Styrene-Ethylene-Butylene-Styrene (SEBS) in toluene to fabricate a composite. The EGaIn-SEBS composite has high conductivity, excellent electrical durability under mechanically harsh conditions, and a degree of modulus similar to that of bare SEBS, which is lower than that of solid-filler-based SEBS composite. Finally, we demonstrated electrocardiogram signal monitoring using an EGaIn-Alginate two-layer electrode (EATE) that was fabricated by simply coating the surface of the composite with alginate hydrogel, which demonstrates excellent performance in bioelectronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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18 pages, 7755 KiB  
Article
Accurate Electroadhesion Force Measurements of Electrostrictive Polymers: The Case of High Performance Plasticized Terpolymers
by Amaury Fimbel, Thierry Abensur, Minh-Quyen Le, Jean-Fabien Capsal and Pierre-Jean Cottinet
Polymers 2022, 14(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14010024 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3071
Abstract
Electroadhesion is a phenomenon ruled by many characteristic intrinsic parameters. To achieve a good adhesion, efficient and durable, a particular attention must be provided to the adhesion forces between the involved parts. In addition to the size and geometry of electrodes, parameters of [...] Read more.
Electroadhesion is a phenomenon ruled by many characteristic intrinsic parameters. To achieve a good adhesion, efficient and durable, a particular attention must be provided to the adhesion forces between the involved parts. In addition to the size and geometry of electrodes, parameters of materials such as dielectric constant, breakdown electric field, and Young’s modulus are key factors in the evaluation of electroadhesion efficiency for electrostrictive polymers and electroactive devices. By analyzing these material parameters, a method is proposed to justify the choice of polymer matrices that are fit to specific electroadhesion applications. Another purpose of this work aims to demonstrate a possibility of accurately measuring the electroadhesion force. This physical parameter has been usually estimated through equations instead, because of the complexity in setup implementation to achieve highly precise measure. Comparisons based on the parameters criterion reveal that besides the intrinsic properties of material, some other parameters relating to its physical phenomena (e.g., saturation of dipolar orientation under high electric field leads to decrease dielectric constant), or physical behavior of the system (i.e., surface roughness reduces the active electrode area) must be thoroughly considered. Experimental results pointed out that plasticized terpolymer leads boosted electroadhesion performance compared to the other counterparts, up to 100 times higher than conventional polymers. The developed materials show high potential in applications of active displacement control for electrostrictive actuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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7 pages, 1713 KiB  
Communication
Laser Diode Pumped Polymer Lasers with Tunable Emission Based on Microfluidic Channels
by Ben Niu, Kun Ge, Zhiyang Xu, Xiaoyu Shi, Dan Guo and Tianrui Zhai
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3511; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203511 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Tunable whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) lasers have been paid lots of attention for their potential applications in the photonic field. Here, a tunable polymer WGM laser based on laser diode pumping is realized with a threshold of 0.43 MW/cm2 per pulse. The WGM laser [...] Read more.
Tunable whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) lasers have been paid lots of attention for their potential applications in the photonic field. Here, a tunable polymer WGM laser based on laser diode pumping is realized with a threshold of 0.43 MW/cm2 per pulse. The WGM laser is realized by a microfluidic microcavity, which consists of a quartz capillary and gain materials. The laser performance keeps stable for a long time (3.5 h), pumped by a 50-ns 50 Hz laser diode with a pumping peak power density of 1.08 MW/cm2 per pulse. The lasing wavelength can be tuned over 15 nm by changing the gain material concentration from 3.5 mg/mL to 12.5 mg/mL in the microfluidic channel. Moreover, the lasing mode can be switched between transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes by adjusting the pump polarization. These results provide the basis for designing nanophotonic devices with laser diode pumping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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8 pages, 3566 KiB  
Article
Skin-like Transparent Polymer-Hydrogel Hybrid Pressure Sensor with Pyramid Microstructures
by Kyumin Kang, Hyunjin Jung, Soojung An, Hyoung Won Baac, Mikyung Shin and Donghee Son
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3272; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193272 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3868
Abstract
Soft biomimetic electronic devices primarily comprise an electronic skin (e-skin) capable of implementing various wearable/implantable applications such as soft human–machine interfaces, epidermal healthcare systems, and neuroprosthetics owing to its high mechanical flexibility, tissue conformability, and multifunctionality. The conformal contact of the e-skin with [...] Read more.
Soft biomimetic electronic devices primarily comprise an electronic skin (e-skin) capable of implementing various wearable/implantable applications such as soft human–machine interfaces, epidermal healthcare systems, and neuroprosthetics owing to its high mechanical flexibility, tissue conformability, and multifunctionality. The conformal contact of the e-skin with living tissues enables more precise analyses of physiological signals, even in the long term, as compared to rigid electronic devices. In this regard, e-skin can be considered as a promising formfactor for developing highly sensitive and transparent pressure sensors. Specifically, to minimize the modulus mismatch at the biotic–abiotic interface, transparent-conductive hydrogels have been used as electrodes with exceptional pressing durability. However, critical issues such as dehydration and low compatibility with elastomers remain a challenge. In this paper, we propose a skin-like transparent polymer-hydrogel hybrid pressure sensor (HPS) with microstructures based on the polyacrylamide/sodium-alginate hydrogel and p-PVDF-HFP-DBP polymer. The encapsulated HPS achieves conformal contact with skin due to its intrinsically stretchable, highly transparent, widely sensitive, and anti-dehydrative properties. We believe that the HPS is a promising candidate for a robust transparent epidermal stretchable-skin device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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19 pages, 3198 KiB  
Article
Design of Promising Heptacoordinated Organotin (IV) Complexes-PEDOT: PSS-Based Composite for New-Generation Optoelectronic Devices Applications
by María Elena Sánchez-Vergara, Leon Hamui, Elizabeth Gómez, Guillermo M. Chans and José Miguel Galván-Hidalgo
Polymers 2021, 13(7), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071023 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2413
Abstract
The synthesis of four mononuclear heptacoordinated organotin (IV) complexes of mixed ligands derived from tridentated Schiff bases and pyrazinecarboxylic acid is reported. This organotin (IV) complexes were prepared by using a multicomponent reaction, the reaction proceeds in moderate to good yields (64% to [...] Read more.
The synthesis of four mononuclear heptacoordinated organotin (IV) complexes of mixed ligands derived from tridentated Schiff bases and pyrazinecarboxylic acid is reported. This organotin (IV) complexes were prepared by using a multicomponent reaction, the reaction proceeds in moderate to good yields (64% to 82%). The complexes were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, 1H, 13C, and 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. The spectroscopic analysis revealed that the tin atom is seven-coordinate in solution and that the carboxyl group acts as monodentate ligand. To determine the effect of the substituent on the optoelectronic properties of the organotin (IV) complexes, thin films were deposited, and the optical bandgap was obtained. A bandgap between 1.88 and 1.98 eV for the pellets and between 1.23 and 1.40 eV for the thin films was obtained. Later, different types of optoelectronic devices with architecture “contacts up/base down” were manufactured and analyzed to compare their electrical behavior. The design was intended to generate a composite based on the synthetized heptacoordinated organotin (IV) complexes embedded on the poly(3,4-ethylenedyoxithiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). A Schottky curve at low voltages (<1.5 mV) and a current density variation of as much as ~3 × 10−5 A/cm2 at ~1.1 mV was observed. A generated photocurrent was of approximately 10−7 A and a photoconductivity between 4 × 10−9 and 7 × 10−9 S/cm for all the manufactured structures. The structural modifications on organotin (IV) complexes were focused on the electronic nature of the substituents and their ability to contribute to the electronic delocalization via the π system. The presence of the methyl group, a modest electron donor, or the non-substitution on the aromatic ring, has a reduced effect on the electronic properties of the molecule. However, a strong effect in the electronic properties of the material can be inferred from the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents like chlorine, able to reduce the gap energies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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38 pages, 2591 KiB  
Article
Transference Number Determination in Poor-Dissociated Low Dielectric Constant Lithium and Protonic Electrolytes
by Maciej Siekierski, Marcin Bukat, Marcin Ciosek, Michał Piszcz and Maja Mroczkowska-Szerszeń
Polymers 2021, 13(6), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13060895 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3425
Abstract
Whereas the major potential of the development of lithium-based cells is commonly attributed to the use of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) to replace liquid ones, the possibilities of the improvement of the applicability of the fuel cell is often attributed to the novel [...] Read more.
Whereas the major potential of the development of lithium-based cells is commonly attributed to the use of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) to replace liquid ones, the possibilities of the improvement of the applicability of the fuel cell is often attributed to the novel electrolytic materials belonging to various structural families. In both cases, the transport properties of the electrolytes significantly affect the operational parameters of the galvanic and fuel cells incorporating them. Amongst them, the transference number (TN) of the electrochemically active species (usually cations) is, on the one hand, one of the most significant descriptors of the resulting cell operational efficiency while on the other, despite many years of investigation, it remains the worst definable and determinable material parameter. The paper delivers not only an extensive review of the development of the TN determination methodology but as well tries to show the physicochemical nature of the discrepancies observed between the values determined using various approaches for the same systems of interest. The provided critical review is supported by some original experimental data gathered for composite polymeric systems incorporating both inorganic and organic dispersed phases. It as well explains the physical sense of the negative transference number values resulting from some more elaborated approaches for highly associated systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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Review

Jump to: Research

33 pages, 5016 KiB  
Review
Contribution of Polymers to Electronic Memory Devices and Applications
by Subin Lee, Somi Kim and Hocheon Yoo
Polymers 2021, 13(21), 3774; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213774 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4175
Abstract
Electronic memory devices, such as memristors, charge trap memory, and floating-gate memory, have been developed over the last decade. The use of polymers in electronic memory devices enables new opportunities, including easy-to-fabricate processes, mechanical flexibility, and neuromorphic applications. This review revisits recent efforts [...] Read more.
Electronic memory devices, such as memristors, charge trap memory, and floating-gate memory, have been developed over the last decade. The use of polymers in electronic memory devices enables new opportunities, including easy-to-fabricate processes, mechanical flexibility, and neuromorphic applications. This review revisits recent efforts on polymer-based electronic memory developments. The versatile contributions of polymers for emerging memory devices are classified, providing a timely overview of such unconventional functionalities with a strong emphasis on the merits of polymer utilization. Furthermore, this review discusses the opportunities and challenges of polymer-based memory devices with respect to their device performance and stability for practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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43 pages, 21737 KiB  
Review
Mechanical Energy Sensing and Harvesting in Micromachined Polymer-Based Piezoelectric Transducers for Fully Implanted Hearing Systems: A Review
by Rhonira Latif, Mimiwaty Mohd Noor, Jumril Yunas and Azrul Azlan Hamzah
Polymers 2021, 13(14), 2276; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142276 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6648
Abstract
The paper presents a comprehensive review of mechanical energy harvesters and microphone sensors for totally implanted hearing systems. The studies on hearing mechanisms, hearing losses and hearing solutions are first introduced to bring to light the necessity of creating and integrating the in [...] Read more.
The paper presents a comprehensive review of mechanical energy harvesters and microphone sensors for totally implanted hearing systems. The studies on hearing mechanisms, hearing losses and hearing solutions are first introduced to bring to light the necessity of creating and integrating the in vivo energy harvester and implantable microphone into a single chip. The in vivo energy harvester can continuously harness energy from the biomechanical motion of the internal organs. The implantable microphone executes mechanoelectrical transduction, and an array of such structures can filter sound frequency directly without an analogue-to-digital converter. The revision of the available transduction mechanisms, device configuration structures and piezoelectric material characteristics reveals the advantage of adopting the polymer-based piezoelectric transducers. A dual function of sensing the sound signal and simultaneously harvesting vibration energy to power up its system can be attained from a single transducer. Advanced process technology incorporates polymers into piezoelectric materials, initiating the invention of a self-powered and flexible transducer that is compatible with the human body, magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI) and the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. The polymer-based piezoelectric is a promising material that satisfies many of the requirements for obtaining high performance implantable microphones and in vivo piezoelectric energy harvesters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Based Electronic Devices and Sensors)
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