Research Progress on Chitosan Applications

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 September 2024 | Viewed by 16503

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Aveiro Institute of Materials, CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: biobased polymers; biomaterials; nanomaterials; NMR methods; photodynamic therapy; micro/nanomotors; conjugated polymers; polymer recycling; polymer chemistry; circular economy
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Guest Editor
São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, IQSC/USP, Ave. Trabalhador são-carlense, 400, São Carlos 13560-970, SP, Brazil
Interests: chitin; chitosan; chemical derivatization; structural and physcochemical characterization; chitosan-based materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

You are invited to submit a research paper to this Special Issue entitled “Research Progress in Chitosan Applications”. During the past few decades, novel functional materials based on chitosan have been exploited for the most essential and challenging research fields. Owing to the notable versatility of chitosan, meaningful outcomes and applications have emerged, leading the progress and development of new perspectives in the controlled delivery of pharmaceuticals, plant biocontrol agents and tissue engineering as active platforms for electronic and wound healing devices, food packaging, flame retardant and the removal of toxic organic effluents and heavy metals. As a result, unprecedented opportunities are continuously arising and opening the path for advanced chitosan-based developments. We dedicate this Special Issue to highlighting the most recent achievements regarding chitosan applications and impactful knowledge for further innovative studies.

Dr. William Facchinatto
Prof. Dr. Sérgio Paulo Campana-Filho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • chitosan
  • biopolymers
  • chitin
  • nanotechnology
  • biomaterial
  • chemically modified derivatives
  • biomedical applications
  • environmental remediation
  • spectroscopy characterization
  • biosensing
  • micro/nanomotors

Published Papers (14 papers)

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28 pages, 7359 KiB  
Article
Surface Modifications of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Chitosan, Polyethylene Glycol, Polyvinyl Alcohol, and Polyvinylpyrrolidone as Methylene Blue Adsorbent Beads
by Linh Doan, Tam T. T. Nguyen, Khoa Tran and Khanh G. Huynh
Polymers 2024, 16(13), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16131839 - 27 Jun 2024
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Due to the negative impacts the dye may have on aquatic habitats and human health, it is often found in industrial effluent and poses a threat to public health. Hence, to solve this problem, this study developed magnetic adsorbents that can remove synthetic [...] Read more.
Due to the negative impacts the dye may have on aquatic habitats and human health, it is often found in industrial effluent and poses a threat to public health. Hence, to solve this problem, this study developed magnetic adsorbents that can remove synthetic dyes like methylene blue. The adsorbent, in the form of beads, consists of a polymer blend of chitosan, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (average size of 19.03 ± 4.25 nm). The adsorption and desorption of MB from beads were carried out at pH values of 7 and 3.85, respectively. At a concentration of 9 mg/L, the loading capacity and the loading amount of MB after 5 days peaked at 29.75 ± 1.53% and 297.48 ± 15.34 mg/g, respectively. Meanwhile, the entrapment efficiency of MB reached 29.42 ± 2.19% at a concentration of 8 mg/L. The cumulative desorption capacity of the adsorbent after 13 days was at its maximum at 7.72 ± 0.5%. The adsorption and desorption kinetics were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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14 pages, 4560 KiB  
Article
Surface Modifications of Silver Nanoparticles with Chitosan, Polyethylene Glycol, Polyvinyl Alcohol, and Polyvinylpyrrolidone as Antibacterial Agents against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica
by Linh Doan, Quynh N. Le, Khoa Tran and An H. Huynh
Polymers 2024, 16(13), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16131820 - 27 Jun 2024
Viewed by 477
Abstract
In medicine, the occurrence of antibiotic resistance was becoming a critical concern. At the same time, traditional synthesis methods of antibacterial agents often lead to environmental pollution due to the use of toxic chemicals. To address these problems, this study applies the green [...] Read more.
In medicine, the occurrence of antibiotic resistance was becoming a critical concern. At the same time, traditional synthesis methods of antibacterial agents often lead to environmental pollution due to the use of toxic chemicals. To address these problems, this study applies the green synthesis method to create a novel composite using a polymer blend (M8) consisting of chitosan (CS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and silver nanoparticles. The results show that the highest ratio of AgNO3:M8 was 0.15 g/60 mL, which resulted in a 100% conversion of Ag+ to Ag0 after 10 h of reaction at 80 °C. Hence, using M8, Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized at the average size of 42.48 ± 10.77 nm. The AgNPs’ composite (M8Ag) was used to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Salmonella enterica (SAL). At 6.25% dilution of M8Ag, the growth of these mentioned bacteria was inhibited. At the same dilution percentage of M8Ag, PA was killed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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13 pages, 2137 KiB  
Article
Effect of Chitosan–Riboflavin Bioconjugate on Green Mold Caused by Penicillium digitatum in Lemon Fruit
by Brenda M. Ipinza-Concha, Luciano Dibona-Villanueva, Denis Fuentealba, Alexander Pinilla-Quispe, Daniel Schwantes, María A. Garzón-Nivia, Mario A. Herrera-Défaz and Héctor A. Valdés-Gómez
Polymers 2024, 16(7), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16070884 - 23 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
Penicillium digitatum is the causal agent of green mold, a primary postharvest disease of citrus fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel photoactive chitosan–riboflavin bioconjugate (CH-RF) to control green mold in vitro and in lemon fruit. The results showed total inhibition [...] Read more.
Penicillium digitatum is the causal agent of green mold, a primary postharvest disease of citrus fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel photoactive chitosan–riboflavin bioconjugate (CH-RF) to control green mold in vitro and in lemon fruit. The results showed total inhibition of P. digitatum growth on APDA supplemented with CH-RF at 0.5% (w/v) and a significant reduction of 84.8% at 0.25% (w/v). Lemons treated with CH-RF and kept under controlled conditions (20 °C and 90–95% relative humidity) exhibited a noteworthy reduction in green mold incidence four days post-inoculation. Notably, these effects persisted, with all treatments remaining significantly distinct from the control group until day 14. Furthermore, CH-RF showed high control of green mold in lemons after 20 days of cold storage (5 ± 1 °C). The disease incidence five days after cold storage indicated significant differences from the values observed in the control. Most CH-RF treatments showed enhanced control of green mold when riboflavin was activated by white-light exposure. These findings suggest that this novel fungicide could be a viable alternative to conventional synthetic fungicides, allowing more sustainable management of lemon fruit diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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15 pages, 3620 KiB  
Article
Rhodamine B-Containing Chitosan-Based Films: Preparation, Luminescent, Antibacterial, and Antioxidant Properties
by Omar M. Khubiev, Anton R. Egorov, Daria I. Semenkova, Darina S. Salokho, Roman A. Golubev, Nkumbu D. Sikaona, Nikolai N. Lobanov, Ilya S. Kritchenkov, Alexander G. Tskhovrebov, Anatoly A. Kirichuk, Victor N. Khrustalev and Andreii S. Kritchenkov
Polymers 2024, 16(6), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16060755 - 9 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
In this study, Rhodamine B-containing chitosan-based films were prepared and characterized using their mechanical, photophysical, and antibacterial properties. The films were synthesized using the casting method and their mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation at break, were found to be dependent [...] Read more.
In this study, Rhodamine B-containing chitosan-based films were prepared and characterized using their mechanical, photophysical, and antibacterial properties. The films were synthesized using the casting method and their mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation at break, were found to be dependent on the chemical composition and drying process. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to examine the chemical structure and degree of structural perfection of the films. The photophysical properties of the films, including absorption spectra, fluorescence detection, emission quantum yields, and lifetimes of excited states, were studied in detail. Rhodamine B-containing films exhibited higher temperature sensitivity and showed potential as fluorescent temperature sensors in the physiological range. The antibacterial activity of the films was tested against Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, with Rhodamine B-containing films demonstrating more pronounced antibacterial activity compared to blank films. The findings suggest that the elaborated chitosan-based films, particularly those containing Rhodamine B can be of interest for further research regarding their application in various fields such as clinical practice, the food industry, and agriculture due to their mechanical, photophysical, and antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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21 pages, 7563 KiB  
Article
Specific FRET Probes Sensitive to Chitosan-Based Polymeric Micelles Formation, Drug-Loading, and Fine Structural Features
by Igor D. Zlotnikov, Ivan V. Savchenko and Elena V. Kudryashova
Polymers 2024, 16(6), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16060739 - 8 Mar 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes are a promising tool for studying numerous biochemical processes. In this paper, we show the application of the FRET phenomenon to observe the micelle formation from surfactants, micelles self-assembling from chitosan grafted with fatty acid (oleic—OA, or [...] Read more.
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes are a promising tool for studying numerous biochemical processes. In this paper, we show the application of the FRET phenomenon to observe the micelle formation from surfactants, micelles self-assembling from chitosan grafted with fatty acid (oleic—OA, or lipoic—LA), cross-linking of SH groups in the micelle’s core, and inclusion and release of the model drug cargo from the micelles. Using the carbodiimide approach, amphiphilic chitosan-based polymers with (1) SH groups, (2) crosslinked with S-S between polymer chains, and (3) without SH and S-S groups were synthesized, followed by characterization by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Two pairs of fluorophores were investigated: 4-methylumbelliferon-trimethylammoniocinnamate—rhodamine (MUTMAC–R6G) and fluorescein isothiocyanate—rhodamine (FITC–R6G). While FITC–R6G has been described before as an FRET-producing pair, for MUTMAC–R6G, this has not been described. R6G, in addition to being an acceptor fluorophore, also serves as a model cytostatic drug in drug-release experiments. As one could expect, in aqueous solution, FRET effect was poor, but when exposed to the micelles, both MUTMAC–R6G and FITC–R6G yielded a pronounced FRET effect. Most likely, the formation of micelles is accompanied by the forced convergence of fluorophores in the hydrophobic micelle core by a donor-to-acceptor distance (r) significantly closer than in the aqueous buffer solution, which was reflected in the increase in the FRET efficiency (E). Therefore, r(E) could be used as analytical signal of the micelle formation, including critical micelle concentration (CMC) and critical pre-micelle concentration (CPMC), yielding values in good agreement with the literature for similar systems. We found that the r-function provides analytically valuable information about the nature and mechanism of micelle formation. S-S crosslinking between polymer chains makes the micelle more compact and stable in the normal physiological conditions, but loosens in the glutathione-rich tumor microenvironment, which is considered as an efficient approach in targeted drug delivery. Indeed, we found that R6G, as a model cytostatic agent, is released from micelles with initial rate of 5%/h in a normal tissue microenvironment, but in a tumor microenvironment model (10 mM glutathione), the release of R6G from S-S stitched polymeric micelles increased up to 24%/h. Drug-loading capacity differed substantially: from 75–80% for nonstitched polymeric micelles to ~90% for S-S stitched micelles. Therefore, appropriate FRET probes can provide comprehensive information about the micellar system, thus helping to fine-tune the drug delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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17 pages, 3242 KiB  
Article
Activity of a Recombinant Chitinase of the Atta sexdens Ant on Different Forms of Chitin and Its Fungicidal Effect against Lasiodiplodia theobromae
by Katia Celina Santos Correa, William Marcondes Facchinatto, Filipe Biagioni Habitzreuter, Gabriel Henrique Ribeiro, Lucas Gomes Rodrigues, Kelli Cristina Micocci, Sérgio Paulo Campana-Filho, Luiz Alberto Colnago and Dulce Helena Ferreira Souza
Polymers 2024, 16(4), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16040529 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
This study evaluates the activity of a recombinant chitinase from the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (AsChtII-C4B1) against colloidal and solid α- and β-chitin substrates. 1H NMR analyses of the reaction media showed the formation of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as the hydrolysis product. Viscometry [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the activity of a recombinant chitinase from the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (AsChtII-C4B1) against colloidal and solid α- and β-chitin substrates. 1H NMR analyses of the reaction media showed the formation of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as the hydrolysis product. Viscometry analyses revealed a reduction in the viscosity of chitin solutions, indicating that the enzyme decreases their molecular masses. Both solid state 13C NMR and XRD analyses showed minor differences in chitin crystallinity pre- and post-reaction, indicative of partial hydrolysis under the studied conditions, resulting in the formation of GlcNAc and a reduction in molecular mass. However, the enzyme was unable to completely degrade the chitin samples, as they retained most of their solid-state structure. It was also observed that the enzyme acts progressively and with a greater activity on α-chitin than on β-chitin. AsChtII-C4B1 significantly changed the hyphae of the phytopathogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, hindering its growth in both solid and liquid media and reducing its dry biomass by approximately 61%. The results demonstrate that AsChtII-C4B1 could be applied as an agent for the bioproduction of chitin derivatives and as a potential antifungal agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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19 pages, 3196 KiB  
Article
Hydrogel Based on Chitosan/Gelatin/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) for In Vitro Human Auricular Chondrocyte Culture
by Carmina Ortega-Sánchez, Yaaziel Melgarejo-Ramírez, Rogelio Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Armando Jiménez-Ávalos, David M. Giraldo-Gomez, Claudia Gutiérrez-Gómez, Jacobo Rodriguez-Campos, Gabriel Luna-Bárcenas, Cristina Velasquillo, Valentín Martínez-López and Zaira Y. García-Carvajal
Polymers 2024, 16(4), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16040479 - 8 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels provide tissue-like complexities and allow for the spatial orientation of cells, leading to more realistic cellular responses in pathophysiological environments. There is a growing interest in developing multifunctional hydrogels using ternary mixtures for biomedical applications. This study examined the biocompatibility [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels provide tissue-like complexities and allow for the spatial orientation of cells, leading to more realistic cellular responses in pathophysiological environments. There is a growing interest in developing multifunctional hydrogels using ternary mixtures for biomedical applications. This study examined the biocompatibility and suitability of human auricular chondrocytes from microtia cultured onto steam-sterilized 3D Chitosan/Gelatin/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) (CS/Gel/PVA) hydrogels as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Hydrogels were prepared in a polymer ratio (1:1:1) through freezing/thawing and freeze-drying and were sterilized by autoclaving. The macrostructure of the resulting hydrogels was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing a heterogeneous macroporous structure with a pore size between 50 and 500 μm. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that the three polymers interacted through hydrogen bonding between the amino and hydroxyl moieties. The profile of amino acids present in the gelatin and the hydrogel was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), suggesting that the majority of amino acids interacted during the formation of the hydrogel. The cytocompatibility, viability, cell growth and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were evaluated to demonstrate the suitability and functionality of the 3D hydrogels for the culture of auricular chondrocytes. The cytocompatibility of the 3D hydrogels was confirmed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reaching 100% viability after 72 h. Chondrocyte viability showed a high affinity of chondrocytes for the hydrogel after 14 days, using the Live/Dead assay. The chondrocyte attachment onto the 3D hydrogels and the formation of an ECM were observed using SEM. Immunofluorescence confirmed the expression of elastin, aggrecan and type II collagen, three of the main components found in an elastic cartilage extracellular matrix. These results demonstrate the suitability and functionality of a CS/Gel/PVA hydrogel as a 3D support for the auricular chondrocytes culture, suggesting that these hydrogels are a potential biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering applications, aimed at the regeneration of elastic cartilage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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16 pages, 3516 KiB  
Article
Thermosensitive Chitosan Hydrogels: A Potential Strategy for Prolonged Iron Dextran Parenteral Supplementation
by Emerson Durán, Andrónico Neira-Carrillo, Felipe Oyarzun-Ampuero and Carolina Valenzuela
Polymers 2024, 16(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16010139 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) presents a global health challenge, impacting crucial development stages in humans and other mammals. Pigs, having physiological and metabolic similarities with humans, are a valuable model for studying and preventing anemia. Commonly, a commercial iron dextran formulation (CIDF) with [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) presents a global health challenge, impacting crucial development stages in humans and other mammals. Pigs, having physiological and metabolic similarities with humans, are a valuable model for studying and preventing anemia. Commonly, a commercial iron dextran formulation (CIDF) with iron dextran particles (IDPs) is intramuscularly administered for IDA prevention in pigs, yet its rapid metabolism limits preventive efficacy. This study aimed to develop and evaluate chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels (CTHs) as a novel parenteral iron supplementation strategy, promoting IDPs’ prolonged release and mitigating their rapid metabolism. These CTHs, loaded with IDPs (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g of theoretical iron/g of chitosan), were characterized for IM iron supplementation. Exhibiting thermosensitivity, these formulations facilitated IM injection at ~4 °C, and its significant increasing viscosity at 25–37 °C physically entrapped the IDPs within the chitosan’s hydrophobic gel without chemical bonding. In vitro studies showed CIDF released all the iron in 6 h, while CTH0.4 had a 40% release in 72 h, mainly through Fickian diffusion. The controlled release of CTHs was attributed to the physical entrapment of IDPs within the CTHs’ gel, which acts as a diffusion barrier. CTHs would be an effective hydrogel prototype for prolonged-release parenteral iron supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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11 pages, 1391 KiB  
Article
Influence of Chitosan 0.2% in Various Final Cleaning Methods on the Bond Strength of Fiberglass Post to Intrarradicular Dentin
by Naira Geovana Camilo, Alex da Rocha Gonçalves, Larissa Pinzan Flauzino, Cristiane Martins Rodrigues Bernardes, Andreza Maria Fábio Aranha, Priscilla Cardoso Lazari-Carvalho, Marco Aurélio de Carvalho and Helder Fernandes de Oliveira
Polymers 2023, 15(22), 4409; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15224409 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 838
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of Chitosan 0.2% in various final cleaning methods on the bond strength of fiberglass post (FP) to intrarradicular dentin. Ninety bovine incisors were sectioned to obtain root remnants measuring 18 mm in length. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of Chitosan 0.2% in various final cleaning methods on the bond strength of fiberglass post (FP) to intrarradicular dentin. Ninety bovine incisors were sectioned to obtain root remnants measuring 18 mm in length. The roots were divided: G1: EDTA 17%; G2: EDTA 17% + PUI; G3: EDTA 17% + EA; G4: EDTA 17% + XPF; G5: Chitosan 2%; G6: Chitosan 2% + PUI; G7: Chitosan 2% + EA; G8: Chitosan 2% +XPF. After carrying out the cleaning methods, the posts were installed, and the root was cleaved to generate two disks from each root third. Bond strength values (MPa) obtained from the micro push-out test data were assessed by using Kruskal–Wallis and Dwass–Steel–Critchlow–Fligner tests for multiple comparisons (α = 5%). Differences were observed in the cervical third between G1 and G8 (p = 0.038), G4 and G8 (p = 0.003), G6 and G8 (p = 0.049), and Control and G8 (p = 0.019). The final cleaning method influenced the adhesion strength of cemented FP to intrarradicular dentin. Chitosan 0.2% + XPF positively influenced adhesion strength, with the highest values in the cervical third. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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12 pages, 8770 KiB  
Article
Supramolecular Responsive Chitosan Microcarriers for Cell Detachment Triggered by Adamantane
by Lixia Huang, Yifei Jiang, Xinying Chen, Wenqi Zhang, Qiuchen Luo, Siyan Chen, Shuhan Wang, Fangqing Weng and Lin Xiao
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 4024; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15194024 - 8 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Supramolecular responsive microcarriers based on chitosan microspheres were prepared and applied for nonenzymatic cell detachment. Briefly, chitosan microspheres (CSMs) were first prepared by an emulsion crosslinking approach, the surface of which was then modified with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by chemical grafting. Subsequently, gelatin was [...] Read more.
Supramolecular responsive microcarriers based on chitosan microspheres were prepared and applied for nonenzymatic cell detachment. Briefly, chitosan microspheres (CSMs) were first prepared by an emulsion crosslinking approach, the surface of which was then modified with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by chemical grafting. Subsequently, gelatin was attached onto the surface of the CSMs via the host–guest interaction between β-CD groups and aromatic residues in gelatin. The resultant microspheres were denoted CSM-g-CD-Gel. Due to their superior biocompatibility and gelatin niches, CSM-g-CD-Gel microspheres can be used as effective microcarriers for cell attachment and expansion. L-02, a human fetal hepatocyte line, was used to evaluate cell attachment and expansion with these microcarriers. After incubation for 48 h, the cells attached and expanded to cover the entire surface of microcarriers. Moreover, with the addition of adamantane (AD), cells can be detached from the microcarriers together with gelatin because of the competitive binding between β-CD and AD. Overall, these supramolecular responsive microcarriers could effectively support cell expansion and achieve nonenzymatic cell detachment and may be potentially reusable with a new cycle of gelatin attachment and detachment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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19 pages, 10669 KiB  
Article
Chitosan Coatings Modified with Nanostructured ZnO for the Preservation of Strawberries
by Dulce J. García-García, G. F. Pérez-Sánchez, H. Hernández-Cocoletzi, M. G. Sánchez-Arzubide, M. L. Luna-Guevara, E. Rubio-Rosas, Rambabu Krishnamoorthy and C. Morán-Raya
Polymers 2023, 15(18), 3772; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15183772 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Strawberries are highly consumed around the world; however, the post-harvest shelf life is a market challenge to mitigate. It is necessary to guarantee the taste, color, and nutritional value of the fruit for a prolonged period of time. In this work, a nanocoating [...] Read more.
Strawberries are highly consumed around the world; however, the post-harvest shelf life is a market challenge to mitigate. It is necessary to guarantee the taste, color, and nutritional value of the fruit for a prolonged period of time. In this work, a nanocoating based on chitosan and ZnO nanoparticles for the preservation of strawberries was developed and examined. The chitosan was obtained from residual shrimp skeletons using the chemical method, and the ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the close-spaced sublimation method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersion analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the hybrid coating. The spaghetti-like ZnO nanoparticles presented the typical wurtzite structure, which was uniformly distributed into the chitosan matrix, as observed by the elemental mapping. Measurements of color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, humidity content, and microbiological tests were performed for the strawberries coated with the Chitosan/ZnO hybrid coating, which was uniformly impregnated on the strawberries’ surface. After eight days of storage, the fruit maintained a fresh appearance. The microbial load was reduced because of the synergistic effect between chitosan and ZnO nanoparticles. Global results confirm that coated strawberries are suitable for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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12 pages, 1604 KiB  
Article
Chitosan Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement Containing Epidermal Growth Factor Promotes Pulp Cell Proliferation with a Minimum Effect on Fluoride and Aluminum Release
by Chanothai Hengtrakool, Supreya Wanichpakorn and Ureporn Kedjarune-Leggat
Polymers 2023, 15(17), 3511; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15173511 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
The development of biomaterials that are able to control the release of bioactive molecules is a challenging task for regenerative dentistry. This study aimed to enhance resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) for the release of epidermal growth factor (EGF). This RMGIC was formulated [...] Read more.
The development of biomaterials that are able to control the release of bioactive molecules is a challenging task for regenerative dentistry. This study aimed to enhance resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) for the release of epidermal growth factor (EGF). This RMGIC was formulated from RMGIC powder supplemented with 15% (w/w) chitosan at a molecular weight of either 62 or 545 kDa with 5% bovine serum albumin mixed with the same liquid component as the Vitrebond. EGF was added while mixing. ELISA was used to determine EGF release from the specimen immersed in phosphate-buffered saline at 1 h, 3 h, 24 h, 3 d, 1 wk, 2 wks, and 3 wks. Fluoride and aluminum release at 1, 3, 5, and 7 d was measured by electrode and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Pulp cell viability was examined through MTT assays and the counting of cell numbers using a Coulter counter. The RMGIC with 65 kDa chitosan is able to prolong the release of EGF for significantly longer than RMGIC for at least 3 wks due to its retained bioactivity in promoting pulp cell proliferation. This modified RMGIC can prolong the release of fluoride, with a small amount of aluminum also released for a limited time. This biomaterial could be useful in regenerating pulp–dentin complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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15 pages, 2555 KiB  
Article
Injectable Lyophilized Chitosan-Thrombin-Platelet-Rich Plasma (CS-FIIa-PRP) Implant to Promote Tissue Regeneration: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Solidification Properties
by Fiona Milano, Anik Chevrier, Gregory De Crescenzo and Marc Lavertu
Polymers 2023, 15(13), 2919; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15132919 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Freeze-dried chitosan formulations solubilized in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are currently evaluated as injectable implants with the potential for augmenting the standard of care for tissue repair in different orthopedic conditions. The present study aimed to shorten the solidification time of such implants, leading [...] Read more.
Freeze-dried chitosan formulations solubilized in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are currently evaluated as injectable implants with the potential for augmenting the standard of care for tissue repair in different orthopedic conditions. The present study aimed to shorten the solidification time of such implants, leading to an easier application and a facilitated solidification in a wet environment, which were direct demands from orthopedic surgeons. The addition of thrombin to the formulation before lyophilization was explored. The challenge was to find a formulation that coagulated fast enough to be applied in a wet environment but not too fast, which would make handling/injection difficult. Four thrombin concentrations were analyzed (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 NIH/mL) in vitro (using thromboelastography, rheology, indentation, syringe injectability, and thrombin activity tests) as well as ex vivo (by assessing the implant’s adherence to tendon tissue in a wet environment). The biomaterial containing 0.5 NIH/mL of thrombin significantly increased the coagulation speed while being easy to handle up to 6 min after solubilization. Furthermore, the adherence of the biomaterial to tendon tissues was impacted by the biomaterial-tendon contact duration and increased faster when thrombin was present. These results suggest that our biomaterial has great potential for use in regenerative medicine applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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17 pages, 916 KiB  
Review
Chitosan-Based Nanoencapsulated Essential Oils: Potential Leads against Breast Cancer Cells in Preclinical Studies
by Wen-Nee Tan, Benedict Anak Samling, Woei-Yenn Tong, Nelson Jeng-Yeou Chear, Siti R. Yusof, Jun-Wei Lim, Joseph Tchamgoue, Chean-Ring Leong and Surash Ramanathan
Polymers 2024, 16(4), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16040478 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Since ancient times, essential oils (EOs) derived from aromatic plants have played a significant role in promoting human health. EOs are widely used in biomedical applications due to their medicinal properties. EOs and their constituents have been extensively studied for treating various health-related [...] Read more.
Since ancient times, essential oils (EOs) derived from aromatic plants have played a significant role in promoting human health. EOs are widely used in biomedical applications due to their medicinal properties. EOs and their constituents have been extensively studied for treating various health-related disorders, including cancer. Nonetheless, their biomedical applications are limited due to several drawbacks. Recent advances in nanotechnology offer the potential for utilising EO-loaded nanoparticles in the treatment of various diseases. In this aspect, chitosan (CS) appears as an exceptional encapsulating agent owing to its beneficial attributes. This review highlights the use of bioactive EOs and their constituents against breast cancer cells. Challenges associated with the use of EOs in biomedical applications are addressed. Essential information on the benefits of CS as an encapsulant, the advantages of nanoencapsulated EOs, and the cytotoxic actions of CS-based nanoencapsulated EOs against breast cancer cells is emphasised. Overall, the nanodelivery of bioactive EOs employing polymeric CS represents a promising avenue against breast cancer cells in preclinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Chitosan Applications)
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