Advances in Textile Structural Composites II

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 October 2023) | Viewed by 17536

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Guest Editor
Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 00 Prague 6, Suchdol, Czech Republic
Interests: bio-based composite materials; textile structural composites; fibrous material science; nanomaterials in composites; green composite
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The direction of fiber orientation plays a crucial role in deciding the mechanical performance of textile structural composites. Unlike conventional composite materials, geometrically oriented textile structures, e.g., woven, knitted, and braided constructions, can be designed and developed for load bearing in a particular direction. Their properties can be enhanced by modifying the geometry and material composition. One major challenge in producing textile structural composites with superior mechanical properties at a reasonably lower price is cost effective prepreg. Composites constructed with reinforcement from a well-defined geometry perform better than randomly oriented fibers at a reasonable cost. Their flex fatigue is superior to conventional preforms in specific applications. This Special Issue invites research as well as review articles dealing with different types of (2D, 3D, multiaxial) woven, knitted, and braided structures for load bearing structural composite applications. Use of industrial multifilament yarns of pure and hybrid composition in textile geometrical reinforcement structures can also be included. The methods of impregnation of such structures by thermoplastic and thermoset resins should be described. The superior performance in such structural composites must be highlighted. Methods of characterizing woven, knitted, and braided textile reinforced composites is the focus of this Special Issue. Current and future applications of advanced textile structural composites can be summarized in the submitted articles. Theoretical (computational, numerical simulation, etc.) as well as experimental work can be submitted with sufficient scientific innovation.

Prof. Dr. Rajesh Mishra
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • textile structures
  • woven
  • knitted
  • braided composites
  • 3D woven composites
  • multiaxial fabric composite
  • modeling of structural composites
  • mechanical performance
  • thermoset
  • thermoplastic

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 6154 KiB  
Article
Emulsion Nanofibres as a Composite for a Textile Touch Sensor
by David Mínguez-García, Pablo Díaz-García, Jaime Gisbert-Payá and Marilés Bonet-Aracil
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 3903; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15193903 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 861
Abstract
The combination of a nanofibre net and textile support represents an interesting composite capable of conferring various properties. Nanofibres are so thin that they can be easily damaged by human touch. In this study, we hypothesised that dyeing nanofibres with different colours from [...] Read more.
The combination of a nanofibre net and textile support represents an interesting composite capable of conferring various properties. Nanofibres are so thin that they can be easily damaged by human touch. In this study, we hypothesised that dyeing nanofibres with different colours from their textile supports would result in a colour difference upon their degradation, providing evidence that the composite has been touched and acting as a touch sensor. Two different methods were studied: directly inserting the dye into the polymer via electrospinning or creating a coloured liquid emulsion encapsulated by the polymer via electrospinning. Two black dyes were studied. Colour index (CI) Acid Black 194 was added directly to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the polymer. Sage oil was used for CI Solvent Black 3. The nanofibre nets were conveniently electrospun on a white polyester fabric; the fabrics were then characterised by colour coordinate analysis, FTIR, and SEM. The results showed that the dyed solution in oil was encapsulated, and the black colour could only be observed when rubbed, whereas the dyed polymer showed a black colour that was removed when rubbed. Therefore, the hypothesis was confirmed, and both samples demonstrated the desired touch sensor behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites II)
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16 pages, 5638 KiB  
Article
Dimensional Stability of Light-Activated Urethane Dimethacrylate Denture Base Resins
by Swati Mishra, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Mariyam Ali, Kaushik Kumar Pandey, Nasser M. Alqahtani, Mohammed A. Alfarsi, Mohamed Khaled Addas, Sunil Kumar Vaddamanu, Nasser M. Al Ahmari, Saeed M. Alqahtani, Ashfaq Yaqoob and Waleed M. S. Alqahtani
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030744 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
An accurate and dimensionally stable trial denture base is required for a successful denture. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the dimensional stability of a light-activated urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) visible light cure (VLC) denture base with three fabrication techniques [...] Read more.
An accurate and dimensionally stable trial denture base is required for a successful denture. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the dimensional stability of a light-activated urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) visible light cure (VLC) denture base with three fabrication techniques and different curing cycles. Forty-five VLC denture base samples were divided evenly into three groups. Group A used a conventional fabrication technique with a curing cycle of 5 min. Group B used a modified fabrication technique with two 4-min curing cycles. Group C used a multi-step fabrication technique with three curing cycles (4 min, plus 4 min, plus 2 min). The samples were sectioned and observed under a stereomicroscope to measure the discrepancy between the sample and the master cast. The mean dimensional discrepancy (mm) at the molar region at mid-palate, after 24 h in Group A, B and C was 0.790 mm, 0.741 mm and 0.379 mm, respectively; at the right ridge crest, it was 0.567, 0.408 and 0.185, while at the left ridge crest it was 0.475, 0.331 and 0.125, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significantly different dimensional discrepancies among the groups at all three sites; right ridge crest (F = 93.54, p < 0.001), left ridge crest (F = 105.96, p < 0.001) and mid-palate (F = 125.53, p < 0.001). Within the limitations of this laboratory study, it can be concluded that the denture base using a multi-step fabrication technique with three curing cycles provides better adaptation than the conventional technique. The significance of the study is that clinicians should consider performing denture base fabrication using a multi-step technique to enhance adaptation and hence the stability of the dentures for patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites II)
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16 pages, 5468 KiB  
Article
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Wood-Fiber-Based All-Cellulose Composites and Cellulose-Polypropylene Biocomposites
by Eija-Katriina Uusi-Tarkka, Mikael Skrifvars, Pooria Khalili, Henrik Heräjärvi, Nawar Kadi and Antti Haapala
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030475 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
This article explores wood-fiber-based fabrics containing Lyocell yarn in the warp and Spinnova–Lyocell (60%/40%) yarn in the weft, which are used to form unidirectional all-cellulose composites (ACC) through partial dilution in a NaOH–urea solution. The aim is to investigate the role of the [...] Read more.
This article explores wood-fiber-based fabrics containing Lyocell yarn in the warp and Spinnova–Lyocell (60%/40%) yarn in the weft, which are used to form unidirectional all-cellulose composites (ACC) through partial dilution in a NaOH–urea solution. The aim is to investigate the role of the yarn orientation in composites, which was conducted by measuring the tensile properties in both the 0° and 90° directions. As a reference, thermoplastic biocomposites were prepared from the same fabrics, with biobased polypropylene (PP) as the matrix. We also compared the mechanical and thermal properties of the ACC and PP biocomposites. The following experiments were carried out: tensile test, TGA, DSC, DMA, water absorption test and SEM. The study found no significant difference in tensile strength regarding the Spinnova–Lyocell orientation between ACC and PP biocomposites, while the composite tensile strength was clearly higher in the warp (Lyocell) direction for both composite variants. Elongation at break doubled in ACC in the Lyocell direction compared with the other samples. Thermal analysis showed that mass reduction started at a lower temperature for ACC, but the thermal stability was higher compared with the PP biocomposites. Maximum thermal degradation temperature was measured as being 352 °C for ACC and 466 °C for neat PP, and the PP biocomposites had two peaks in the same temperature range (340–474 °C) as ACC and neat PP combined. ACCs absorbed 93% of their own dry weight in water in just one hour, whereas the PP biocomposites BC2 and BC4 absorbed only 10% and 6%, respectively. The study highlights the different properties of ACC and PP reference biocomposites that could lead to further development and research of commercial applications for ACC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites II)
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18 pages, 7326 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Simulation of Mechanical Performance in Textile Structural Concrete Composites Reinforced with Basalt Fibers
by Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Bijoya Kumar Behera, Vijay Chandan, Shabnam Nazari and Miroslav Muller
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4108; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194108 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
This investigation deals with the prediction of mechanical behavior in basalt-fiber-reinforced concrete using the finite element method (FEM). The use of fibers as reinforcement in concrete is a relatively new concept which results in several advantages over steel-reinforced concrete with respect to mechanical [...] Read more.
This investigation deals with the prediction of mechanical behavior in basalt-fiber-reinforced concrete using the finite element method (FEM). The use of fibers as reinforcement in concrete is a relatively new concept which results in several advantages over steel-reinforced concrete with respect to mechanical performance. Glass and polypropylene (PP) fibers have been extensively used for reinforcing concrete for decades, but basalt fibers have gained popularity in recent years due to their superior mechanical properties and compatibility with concrete. In this study, the mechanical properties of basalt-fiber-reinforced concrete are predicted using FEM analysis, and the model results are validated by conducting experiments. The effect of fiber-volume fraction on the selected mechanical performance of concrete is evaluated in detail. Significant improvement is observed when the loading is increased. There are superior mechanical properties, e.g., load bearing and strain energy in basalt-fiber-reinforced concrete as compared to conventional concrete slabs reinforced with gravel or stones. The results of the simulations are correlated with experimental samples and show a very high similarity. Basalt-fiber-reinforced concrete (BFRC) offers a lightweight construction material as compared to steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC). Further, the problem of corrosion is overcome by using this novel fiber material in concrete composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites II)
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12 pages, 1706 KiB  
Article
Phase-Inverted Copolymer Membrane for the Enhancement of Textile Supercapacitors
by Sheng Yong, Nicholas Hillier and Stephen Paul Beeby
Polymers 2022, 14(16), 3399; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14163399 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
This paper presents a universal fabrication process for single-layer textile supercapacitors, independent of textile properties such as weave pattern, thickness and material. To achieve this, an engineered copolymer membrane was fabricated within these textiles with an automated screen printing, phase inversion and vacuum [...] Read more.
This paper presents a universal fabrication process for single-layer textile supercapacitors, independent of textile properties such as weave pattern, thickness and material. To achieve this, an engineered copolymer membrane was fabricated within these textiles with an automated screen printing, phase inversion and vacuum curing process. This membrane, together with the textile yarns, acts as a porous, flexible and mechanically durable separator. This process was applied to four textiles, including polyester, two polyester-cottons and silk. Carbon-based electrodes were subsequently deposited onto both sides of the textile to form the textile supercapacitors. These supercapacitors achieved a range of areal capacitances between 3.12 and 38.2 mF·cm−2, with energy densities between 0.279 and 0.681 mWh·cm−3 with average power densities of between 0.334 and 0.32 W·cm−3. This novel membrane facilitates the use of thinner textiles for single-layered textile supercapacitors without significantly sacrificing electrochemical performance and will enable future high energy density textile energy storage, from supercapacitors to batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites II)
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12 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Locally Administered 2% Gel Fabricated from Lemongrass Polymer and 10% Doxycycline Hyclate Gel as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis—A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Pooja Mittal, Shankar T. Gokhale, Shiva Manjunath, Saad M. Al-Qahtani, Mohammad Al. Magbol, Raghavendra Reddy Nagate, Shreyas Tikare, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Ashish Agarwal and Vatsala Venkataram
Polymers 2022, 14(14), 2766; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14142766 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
Background: Extracts of medicinal plant like lemongrass offer a new choice for optional antimicrobial therapy against various oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to assess, verify, and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of locally administered 2% lemongrass gel and 10% doxycycline hyclate [...] Read more.
Background: Extracts of medicinal plant like lemongrass offer a new choice for optional antimicrobial therapy against various oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to assess, verify, and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of locally administered 2% lemongrass gel and 10% doxycycline hyclate gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in treating chronic periodontitis. Method: This is a double-blind parallel arm randomized controlled study. Forty subjects were randomly divided into Group A and B for 2% lemongrass gel and 10% doxycycline hyclate gel, respectively. The clinical assessments of Gingival Index (GI), Plaque Index (PI), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) together with microbial colony counts for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Prevotella intermedia were done at baseline, 1st month, and 3rd month follow-ups. Results: The results showed there was a significant reduction in the mean scores of GI, PPD, and CAL clinical indices from baseline to the 1st and 3rd month follow-ups in both the 2% lemongrass gel and 10% doxycycline gel groups (p < 0.05). Similarly, there was significant reduction in mean CFU scores for all periodontal pathogens from baseline to 1st and 3rd month follow-ups in both the 2% lemongrass gel and 10% doxycycline gel groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: It could be concluded that the local delivery of 2% lemongrass gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing is effective and comparable to 10% doxycycline gel in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites II)
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14 pages, 1101 KiB  
Article
Post-Consumer Textile Waste Classification through Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Using an Advanced Deep Learning Approach
by Jordi-Roger Riba, Rosa Cantero, Pol Riba-Mosoll and Rita Puig
Polymers 2022, 14(12), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14122475 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3574
Abstract
The textile industry is generating great environmental concerns due to the exponential growth of textile products’ consumption (fast fashion) and production. The textile value chain today operates as a linear system (textile products are produced, used, and discarded), thus putting pressure on resources [...] Read more.
The textile industry is generating great environmental concerns due to the exponential growth of textile products’ consumption (fast fashion) and production. The textile value chain today operates as a linear system (textile products are produced, used, and discarded), thus putting pressure on resources and creating negative environmental impacts. A new textile economy based on the principles of circular economy is needed for a more sustainable textile industry. To help meet this challenge, an efficient collection, classification, and recycling system needs to be implemented at the end-of-life stage of textile products, so as to obtain high-quality recycled materials able to be reused in high-value products. This paper contributes to the classification of post-consumer textile waste by proposing an automatic classification method able to be trained to separate higher-quality textile fiber flows. Our proposal is the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with a mathematical treatment of the spectra by convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to classify and separate 100% pure samples and binary mixtures of the most common textile fibers. CNN is applied for the first time to the classification of textile samples. A total of 370 textile samples were studied—50% used for calibration and 50% for prediction purposes. The results obtained are very promising (100% correct classification for pure fibers and 90–100% for binary mixtures), showing that the proposed methodology is very powerful, able to be trained for the specific separation of flows, and compatible with the automation of the system at an industrial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites II)
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20 pages, 19286 KiB  
Article
Exploration of Effects of Graduated Compression Stocking Structures on Performance Properties Using Principal Component Analysis: A Promising Method for Simultaneous Optimization of Properties
by Hafsa Jamshaid, Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Naseer Ahmad, Muhammad Nadeem, Miroslav Muller and Viktor Kolar
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 2045; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14102045 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
This paper focuses on the comfort properties of graduated and preventive compression stockings for people who work long hours in standing postures and for athletes for proper blood circulation. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of the yarn [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the comfort properties of graduated and preventive compression stockings for people who work long hours in standing postures and for athletes for proper blood circulation. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of the yarn insertion density and inlaid stitches on the performance of the compression stockings. The effects of these parameters on the thermo-physiological comfort properties were tested with standard and developed methods of testing. All compression stockings were maintained with class 1 pressure as per German standards. The structural parameters of the knitted fabric structures were investigated. The stretching and recovery properties were also investigated to determine the performance properties. The theoretical pressure was predicated using the Laplace’s law by testing the stockings’ tensile properties. The compression interface pressures of all stockings were also investigated using a medical stocking tester (MST) from Salzmann AG, St. Gallen, Switzerland. Correlation between the theoretical pressures and pressures measured using the MST system were also assessed. The current research used a multi-response optimization technique, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), to identify the best structure based on the optimalization of the above-mentioned properties. The results also revealed that samples with higher insertion density levels exhibit better comfort properties. The results showed that sample R1 was the best sample, followed by R2 and P. In addition, all developed stocking samples exhibited better comfort properties than the control sample from the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites II)
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