Advances in Textile Structural Composites

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2022) | Viewed by 22369

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Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 00 Prague 6, Suchdol, Czech Republic
Interests: bio-based composite materials; textile structural composites; fibrous material science; nanomaterials in composites; green composite
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Dear Colleagues,

The direction of fiber orientation plays a crucial role in deciding the mechanical performance of textile structural composites. Unlike conventional composite materials, geometrically oriented textile structures, e.g., woven, knitted, and braided constructions, can be designed and developed for load bearing in a particular direction. Their properties can be enhanced by modifying the geometry and material composition. One major challenge in producing textile structural composites with superior mechanical properties at a reasonably lower price is cost effective prepreg. Composites constructed from reinforcement having a well-defined geometry perform better than randomly oriented fibers at a reasonable cost. Their flex fatigue is superior to conventional preforms in specific applications. This Special Issue invites research as well as review articles dealing with different types of (2D, 3D, multiaxial) woven, knitted, and braided structures for load bearing structural composite applications. Use of industrial multifilament yarns of pure and hybrid composition in textile geometrical reinforcement structures can also be included. The methods of impregnation of such structures by thermoplastic and thermoset resins should be described. The superior performance in such structural composites must be highlighted. Methods of characterizing woven, knitted, and braided textile reinforced composites is the focus of this issue. Current and future applications of advanced textile structural composites can be summarized in the submitted articles. Theoretical (computational, numerical simulation etc.) as well as experimental work can be submitted with sufficient scientific innovation.

Prof. Dr. Rajesh Mishra
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • textile structures
  • woven
  • knitted
  • braided composites
  • 3D woven composites
  • multiaxial fabric composite
  • modeling of structural composites
  • mechanical performance
  • thermoset
  • thermoplastic

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Textile Structural Composites
by Rajesh Kumar Mishra
Polymers 2023, 15(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15040808 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Textile-reinforced structural composites are a major discipline of modern-day research and development [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)

Research

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11 pages, 2170 KiB  
Article
Low-Velocity Impact Response of Auxetic Seamless Knits Combined with Non-Newtonian Fluids
by Vânia Pais, Pedro Silva, João Bessa, Hernâni Dias, Maria Helena Duarte, Fernando Cunha and Raul Fangueiro
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14102065 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
Low-velocity impact can cause serious damage to the person or structure that is hit. The development of barriers that can absorb the energy of the impact and, therefore, protect the other side of the impact is the ideal solution for the pointed situation. [...] Read more.
Low-velocity impact can cause serious damage to the person or structure that is hit. The development of barriers that can absorb the energy of the impact and, therefore, protect the other side of the impact is the ideal solution for the pointed situation. Auxetic materials and shear thickening fluids are two types of technologies that have great capabilities to absorb high levels of energy when an impact happens. Accordingly, within this study, the combination of auxetic knits with shear thickening fluids by the pad-dry-cure process was investigated. It was observed that, by applying knits with auxetic patterns produced with denser materials and combined with the shear thickening fluids, high performance in terms of absorbed energy from puncture impact is obtained. The increment rates obtained are higher than 100% when comparing the structures with and without shear thickening fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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13 pages, 3688 KiB  
Article
Layered-Fabric Materiality Fibre Reinforced Polymers (L-FMFRP): Hysteretic Behavior in Architectured FRP Material
by Arielle Blonder and Maurizio Brocato
Polymers 2022, 14(6), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14061141 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
L_FMFRP is an architectural fiber composite surface element with an airy internal structure and variable section. This architectured material is the product of an alternative design and fabrication process that integrates fabric materiality, suggesting moldless shaping of the material through pleating and [...] Read more.
L_FMFRP is an architectural fiber composite surface element with an airy internal structure and variable section. This architectured material is the product of an alternative design and fabrication process that integrates fabric materiality, suggesting moldless shaping of the material through pleating and layering. Initial study of the mechanical properties of the element showed a structural behavior that would satisfy the requirement for schematic architectural cladding configurations, indicating a unique hysteretic behavior of the material. This paper further investigates the hysteretic capacities of L-FMFRP, examining the behavior under repeated loading and the effect of its internal material architecture. Parallels to entangled materials are suggested for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon, and the potential future application as an energy-absorbent material for façade cladding is outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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25 pages, 13009 KiB  
Article
3D Woven Textile Structural Polymer Composites: Effect of Resin Processing Parameters on Mechanical Performance
by Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Michal Petru, Bijoya Kumar Behera and Promoda Kumar Behera
Polymers 2022, 14(6), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14061134 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2876
Abstract
This work presents the manufacture of polymer composites using 3D woven structures (orthogonal, angle interlock and warp interlock) with glass multifilament tows and epoxy as the resin. The mechanical properties were analyzed by varying the processing parameters, namely, add-on percentage, amount of hardener, [...] Read more.
This work presents the manufacture of polymer composites using 3D woven structures (orthogonal, angle interlock and warp interlock) with glass multifilament tows and epoxy as the resin. The mechanical properties were analyzed by varying the processing parameters, namely, add-on percentage, amount of hardener, curing time, curing temperature and molding pressure, at four different levels during the composite fabrication for three different 3D woven structures. The mechanical properties of composites are affected by resin infusion or resin impregnation. Resin infusion depends on many processing conditions (temperature, pressure, viscosity and molding time), the structure of the reinforcement and the compatibility of the resin with the reinforcement. The samples were tested for tensile strength, tensile modulus, impact resistance and flexural strength. Optimal process parameters were identified for different 3D-woven-structure-based composites for obtaining optimal results for tensile strength, tensile modulus, impact resistance and flexural strength. The tensile strength, elongation at break and tensile modulus were found to be at a maximum for the angle interlock structure among the various 3D woven composites. A composition of 55% matrix (including 12% of hardener added) and 45% fiber were found to be optimal for the tensile and impact performance of 3D woven glass–epoxy composites. A curing temperature of about 140 °C seemed to be optimal for glass–epoxy composites. Increasing the molding pressure up to 12 bar helped with better penetration of the resin, resulting in higher tensile strength, modulus and impact performance. The optimal conditions for the best flexural performance in 3D woven glass–epoxy composites were 12% hardener, 140 °C curing temperature, 900 s curing time and 12 bar molding pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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22 pages, 12076 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Mechanical and Preforming Behaviors of Carbon-Kevlar Hybrid Woven Reinforcement
by Zhengtao Qu, Sasa Gao, Yunjie Zhang and Junhong Jia
Polymers 2021, 13(23), 4088; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13234088 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Carbon-Kevlar hybrid reinforcement is increasingly used in the domains that have both strength and anti-impact requirements. However, the research on the preforming behaviors of hybrid reinforcement is very limited. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical and preforming behaviors of carbon-Kevlar hybrid reinforcement. [...] Read more.
Carbon-Kevlar hybrid reinforcement is increasingly used in the domains that have both strength and anti-impact requirements. However, the research on the preforming behaviors of hybrid reinforcement is very limited. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical and preforming behaviors of carbon-Kevlar hybrid reinforcement. The results show that carbon-Kevlar hybrid woven reinforcement presents a unique “double-peak” tensile behavior, which is significantly different from that of single fiber type reinforcement, and the in-plane shear deformation demonstrates its large in-plane shear deformability. Both the tensile and in-plane shear behaviors present insensitivity to loading rate. In the preforming process, yarn slippage and out-of-plane yarn buckling are the two primary types of defects. Locations of these defects are closely related to the punch shape and the initial yarn direction. These defects cannot be alleviated or removed by just increasing the blank holder pressure. In the multi-layer preforming, the compaction between the plies and the friction between yarns simultaneously affect the quality of final preforms. The defect location of multi-layer preforms is the same as that of single-layer, while its defect range is much wider. The results found in this paper could provide useful guidance for the engineering application and preforming modeling of hybrid woven reinforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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22 pages, 101167 KiB  
Article
Design, Development, and Characterization of Advanced Textile Structural Hollow Composites
by Zunjarrao Kamble, Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Bijoya Kumar Behera, Martin Tichý, Viktor Kolář and Miroslav Müller
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3535; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203535 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3438
Abstract
The research is focused on the design and development of woven textile-based structural hollow composites. E-Glass and high tenacity polyester multifilament yarns were used to produce various woven constructions. Yarn produced from cotton shoddy (fibers extracted from waste textiles) was used to develop [...] Read more.
The research is focused on the design and development of woven textile-based structural hollow composites. E-Glass and high tenacity polyester multifilament yarns were used to produce various woven constructions. Yarn produced from cotton shoddy (fibers extracted from waste textiles) was used to develop hybrid preforms. In this study, unidirectional (UD), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) fabric preforms were designed and developed. Further, 3D woven spacer fabric preforms with single-layer woven cross-links having four different geometrical shapes were produced. The performance of the woven cross-linked spacer structure was compared with the sandwich structure connected with the core pile yarns (SPY). Furthermore, three different types of cotton shoddy yarn-based fabric structures were developed. The first is unidirectional (UD), the second is 2D all-waste cotton fabric, and the third is a 2D hybrid fabric with waste cotton yarn in the warp and glass multifilament yarn in the weft. The UD, 2D, and 3D woven fabric-reinforced composites were produced using the vacuum-assisted resin infusion technique. The spacer woven structures were converted to composites by inserting wooden blocks with an appropriate size and wrapped with a Teflon sheet into the hollow space before resin application. A vacuum-assisted resin infusion technique was used to produce spacer woven composites. While changing the reinforcement from chopped fibers to 3D fabric, its modulus and ductility increase substantially. It was established that the number of crossover points in the weave structures offered excellent association with the impact energy absorption and formability behavior, which are important for many applications including automobiles, wind energy, marine and aerospace. Mechanical characterization of honeycomb composites with different cell sizes, opening angles and wall lengths revealed that the specific compression energy is higher for regular honeycomb structures with smaller cell sizes and a higher number of layers, keeping constant thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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17 pages, 6883 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Impacts on Printed Circuit Board Laminated Composites Caused by Surface Finish Application
by Denis Froš, Karel Dušek and Petr Veselý
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3203; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193203 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the strength of the bond between resin and glass cloth for various composites (laminates) and its dependence on utilized soldering pad surface finishes. Moreover, the impact of surface finish application on the thermomechanical properties of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare the strength of the bond between resin and glass cloth for various composites (laminates) and its dependence on utilized soldering pad surface finishes. Moreover, the impact of surface finish application on the thermomechanical properties of the composites was evaluated. Three different laminates with various thermal endurances were included in the study. Soldering pads were covered with OSP and HASL surface finishes. The strength of the cohesion of the resin upper layer was examined utilizing a newly established method designed for pulling tests. Experiments studying the bond strength were performed at a selection of laminate temperatures. Changes in thermomechanical behavior were observed by thermomechanical and dynamic mechanical analyses. The results confirmed the influence of the type of laminate and used surface finish on bond strength. In particular, permanent polymer degradation caused by thermal shock during HASL application was observed in the least thermally resistant laminate. A response to thermal shock was detected in thermomechanical properties of other laminates as well, but it does not seem to be permanent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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19 pages, 7201 KiB  
Article
Thermoplastic Composites for Integrally Woven Pressure Actuated Cellular Structures: Design Approach and Material Investigation
by Michael Vorhof, Cornelia Sennewald, Philipp Schegner, Patrick Meyer, Christian Hühne, Chokri Cherif and Michael Sinapius
Polymers 2021, 13(18), 3128; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183128 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
The use of pressure-actuated cellular structures (PACS) is an effective approach for the application of compliant mechanisms. Analogous to the model in nature, the Venus flytrap, they are made of discrete pressure-activated rows and can be deformed with high stiffness at a high [...] Read more.
The use of pressure-actuated cellular structures (PACS) is an effective approach for the application of compliant mechanisms. Analogous to the model in nature, the Venus flytrap, they are made of discrete pressure-activated rows and can be deformed with high stiffness at a high deformation rate. In previous work, a new innovative approach in their integral textile-based manufacturing has been demonstrated based on the weaving technique. In this work, the theoretical and experimental work on the further development of PACS from simple single-row to double-row PACS with antagonistic deformation capability is presented. Supported by experimental investigations, the necessary adaptations in the design of the textile preform and the polymer composite design are presented and concretized. Based on the results of pre-simulations of the deformation capacity of the new PACS, their performance was evaluated, the results of which are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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16 pages, 6573 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Wavy-Lap Bonds with Natural Cotton Fabric Reinforcement under Cyclic Loading
by Viktor Kolář, Miroslav Müller, Martin Tichý, Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Petr Hrabě, Kristýna Hanušová and Monika Hromasová
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13172872 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1983
Abstract
This study is focused on the mechanical properties and service life (safety) evaluation of hybrid adhesive bonds with shaped overlapping geometry (wavy-lap) and 100% natural cotton fabric used as reinforcement under cyclic loading using various intensities. Cyclic loading were implemented between 5–50% (267–2674 [...] Read more.
This study is focused on the mechanical properties and service life (safety) evaluation of hybrid adhesive bonds with shaped overlapping geometry (wavy-lap) and 100% natural cotton fabric used as reinforcement under cyclic loading using various intensities. Cyclic loading were implemented between 5–50% (267–2674 N) and 5–70% (267–3743 N) from the maximum strength (5347 N) measured by static tensile test. The adhesive bonds were loaded by 1000 cycles. The test results demonstrated a positive influence of the used reinforcement on the mechanical properties, especially during the cyclic loading. The adhesive bonds Tera-Flat withstood the cyclic load intensity from 5–70% (267–3743 N). The shaped overlapping geometry (wavy-lap bond) did not have any positive influence on the mechanical performance, and only the composite adhesive bonds Erik-WH1 and Tera-WH1 withstood the complete 1000 cycles with cyclic loading values between 5–50% (267–2674 N). The SEM analysis results demonstrated a positive influence on the fabric surface by treatment with 10% NaOH aqueous solution. The unwanted compounds (lignin) were removed. Furthermore, a good wettability has been demonstrated by the bonded matrix material. The SEM analysis also demonstrated micro-cracks formation, with subsequent delamination of the matrix/reinforcement interface caused by cyclic loading. The experimental research was conducted for the analysis of hybrid adhesive bonds using curved/wavy overlapping during both static and cyclic loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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21 pages, 5013 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Performance of Knitted Hollow Composites from Recycled Cotton and Glass Fibers for Packaging Applications
by Hafsa Jamshaid, Rajesh Mishra, Muhammad Zeeshan, Bilal Zahid, Sikandar Abbas Basra, Martin Tichy and Miroslav Muller
Polymers 2021, 13(14), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142381 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
This research deals with the development of knitted hollow composites from recycled cotton fibers (RCF) and glass fibers (GF). These knitted hollow composites can be used for packaging of heavy weight products and components in aircrafts, marine crafts, automobiles, civil infrastructure, etc. They [...] Read more.
This research deals with the development of knitted hollow composites from recycled cotton fibers (RCF) and glass fibers (GF). These knitted hollow composites can be used for packaging of heavy weight products and components in aircrafts, marine crafts, automobiles, civil infrastructure, etc. They can also be used in medical prosthesis or in sports equipment. Glass fiber-based hollow composites can be used as an alternative to steel or wooden construction materials for interior applications. Developed composite samples were subjected to hardness, compression, flexural, and impact testing. Recycled cotton fiber, which is a waste material from industrial processes, was chosen as an ecofriendly alternative to cardboard-based packaging material. The desired mechanical performance of knitted hollow composites was achieved by changing the tube diameter and/or thickness. Glass fiber-reinforced knitted hollow composites were compared with RC fiber composites. They exhibited substantially higher compression strength as compared to cotton fiber-reinforced composites based on the fiber tensile strength. However, RC fiber-reinforced hollow composites showed higher compression modulus as compared to glass fiber-based composites due to much lower deformation during compression loading. Compression strength of both RCF- and GF-reinforced hollow composites decreases with increasing tube diameter. The RCF-based hollow composites were further compared with double-layered cardboard packaging material of similar thickness. It was observed that cotton-fiber-reinforced composites show higher compression strength, as well as compression modulus, as compared to the cardboard material of similar thickness. No brittle failure was observed during the flexural test, and samples with smaller tube diameter exhibited higher stiffness. The flexural properties of glass fiber-reinforced composites were compared with RCF composites. It was observed that GF composites exhibit superior flexural properties as compared to the cotton fiber-based samples. Flexural strength of RC fiber-reinforced hollow composites was also compared to that of cardboard packaging material. The composites from recycled cotton fibers showed substantially higher flexural stiffness as compared to double-layered cardboard material. Impact energy absorption was measured for GF and RCF composites, as well as cardboard material. All GF-reinforced composites exhibited higher absorption of impact energy as compared to RCF-based samples. Significant increase in absorption of impact energy was achieved by the specimens with higher tube thickness in the case of both types of reinforcing fibers. By comparing the impact performance of cotton fiber-based composites with cardboard packaging material, it was observed that the RC fiber-based hollow composites absorb much higher impact energy as compared to the cardboard-based packaging material. The current paper summarizes a comparative analysis of mechanical performance in the case of glass fiber-reinforced hollow composites vis-à-vis recycled cotton fiber-reinforced hollow composites. The use of recycled fibers is a positive step in the direction of ecofriendly materials and waste utilization. Their performance is compared with commercial packaging material for a possible replacement and reducing burden on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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24 pages, 5098 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Hybrid Composites with Polyester Waste Fibers, Olive Root Fibers and Coir Pith Micro-Particles Using Mixture Design Analysis for Structural Applications
by Muhammad Rizwan Tufail, Hafsa Jamshaid, Rajesh Mishra, Uzair Hussain, Martin Tichy and Miroslav Muller
Polymers 2021, 13(14), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142291 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
In the present work, hybrid composites were developed by using polyester waste fibers along with natural origin materials: olive root fibers and coir pitch filler. Such composite panels can be used as a potential alternative for fiber glass sunshade panels and room dividers [...] Read more.
In the present work, hybrid composites were developed by using polyester waste fibers along with natural origin materials: olive root fibers and coir pitch filler. Such composite panels can be used as a potential alternative for fiber glass sunshade panels and room dividers in buildings. Hybrid composites were fabricated by mixing polyester waste fibers and olive root fibers in different ratios (0:100, 33:67, 67:33 and 100:0). Coir pith micro-particles with an average size of 312 d.nm were used as filler in the polyester matrix at three different levels (0%, 5%, and 10%) of the overall matrix weight. Mechanical properties, e.g., tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength, thermal properties, e.g., coefficient of linear thermal expansion, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and environmental properties, e.g., water absorption, loss of density after exposure to weathering were characterized. For comparison purposes, a commercially available fiber glass sunshades sample was also investigated. Mixture design analysis was used to optimize the ratio of all components in the composite. Graphical comparison of experimental results using regression models showed a high degree of correlation. An optimized formulation of composite with an objective of maximization of tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength and minimization of water absorption, density loss, as well as coefficient of linear thermal expansion, was determined at 70.83 wt%, 15.15 wt%, and 14.01 wt% of polyester waste fibers, olive root fibers and coir pith micro-fillers, respectively. Overall, it can be concluded that the developed hybrid composites from waste fibrous materials can be used as a promising alternative and a value-added application in buildings and construction purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Textile Structural Composites)
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