Smart and Bio-Medical Polymers

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart and Functional Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 September 2024 | Viewed by 9889

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Interests: smart polymers; nanocomposites; biomedical polymers; hydrogels; polymer-based composites; elastomers; nanoenergy; tissue engineering; viscoelasticity; rheology; magnetorheological; electrorheological; carbon nanotube fibers; artificial muscles
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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, China
Interests: polymer chemistry; self-assembly; nanoparticle; hydrogel; scaffold; biomaterial; controlled drug delivery; immunotherapy; regenerative medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
State Key Lab of Metastable Materials and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
Interests: electrorheological fluids; electoactive elastomer; hydrogel; ionogel; flexible sensor; flexible actuator

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The intersection between materials science and bioscience is an interesting and intersecting topic. On the one hand, we can prepare smart materials, such as shape-memory materials, magnetostrictive materials, electrochromic materials, etc., to imitate the intelligence of life. Among these materials, smart polymers have become one of the most promising due to their diversity and flexibility in mechanical properties. On the other hand, these materials can be applied to repair human tissues or aid in the diagnosis and treatment of human health. Furthermore, polymers present in the human body include proteins, DNA, hair, etc. Therefore, biomedical polymers, such as biodegradable polymers, bioactive polymers, medical hydrogels, etc., have become exceeding promising biomedical materials. In the past few decades, the fields of smart polymers and biomedical polymers have developed rapidly, showing a trend of cross-fusion.

Recognizing the importance of smart polymers and biomedical polymers, this Special Issue of Polymers invites contributions addressing several aspects of smart polymers and composites, such as shape-memory polymers, magnetorheological elastomers, electrorheological elastomers, dielectric elastomers,  artificial muscles, 4D printing technology, etc., and topics related to biomedical polymers and composites, such as hydrogels, tissue engineering polymers, bioactive polymers and composites, degradable polymers, etc. The above list is by no means exhaustive; any original theoretical, experimental or application work, or review article on smart polymers and biomedical polymers is welcome.

Prof. Dr. Xufeng Dong
Prof. Dr. Jianxun Ding
Prof. Dr. Yingdan Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • smart polymers and composites
  • shape-memory polymers
  • piezoelectric polymers
  • magnetorheological elastomers
  • electrorheological elastomers
  • dielectric elastomers
  • magnetostrictive composites
  • artificial muscles
  • triboelectric nanogenerator
  • 4D printing
  • biomedical polymers and composites
  • hydrogels
  • ionogels
  • tissue engineering
  • bioactive polymers and composites
  • degradable polymers and composites

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2912 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cremophor RH40, Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose, and Mixing Speed on Physicochemical Properties of Films Containing Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Loaded with Furosemide Using the Box–Behnken Design
by Pakorn Kraisit, Namon Hirun, Premjit Limpamanoch, Yongthida Sawaengsuk, Narumol Janchoochai, Ornpreeya Manasaksirikul and Sontaya Limmatvapirat
Polymers 2024, 16(11), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16111605 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 374
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the characteristics of H-K4M hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films containing nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with furosemide. A hot homogenization technique and an ultrasonic probe were used to prepare and reduce the size of the NLCs. Films were made [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the characteristics of H-K4M hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films containing nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with furosemide. A hot homogenization technique and an ultrasonic probe were used to prepare and reduce the size of the NLCs. Films were made using the casting technique. This study used a Box–Behnken design to evaluate the influence of three key independent variables, specifically H-K4M concentration (X1), surfactant Cremophor RH40 concentration (X2), and mixing speed (X3), on the physicochemical properties of furosemide-loaded NLCs and films. The furosemide-loaded NLCs had a particle size ranging from 54.67 to 99.13 nm, and a polydispersity index (PDI) ranging from 0.246 to 0.670. All formulations exhibited a negative zeta potential, ranging from −7.05 to −5.61 mV. The prepared films had thicknesses and weights ranging from 0.1240 to 0.2034 mm and 0.0283 to 0.0450 g, respectively. The drug content was over 85%. Film surface wettability was assessed based on the contact angle, ranging from 32.27 to 68.94°. Film tensile strength varied from 1.38 to 7.77 MPa, and their elongation at break varied from 124.19 to 170.72%. The ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed the complete incorporation of the drug in the film matrix. Therefore, the appropriate selection of values for key parameters in the synthesis of HPMC films containing drug-loaded NLCs is important in the effective development of films for medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Bio-Medical Polymers)
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12 pages, 3125 KiB  
Article
Mussel-Inspired Calcium Alginate/Polyacrylamide Dual Network Hydrogel: A Physical Barrier to Prevent Postoperative Re-Adhesion
by Zekun Su, Beibei Xue, Chang Xu and Xufeng Dong
Polymers 2023, 15(23), 4498; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15234498 - 23 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Intrauterine adhesions (IUA) has become one of the main causes of female infertility. How to effectively prevent postoperative re-adhesion has become a clinical challenge. In this study, a mussel-inspired dual-network hydrogel was proposed for the postoperative anti-adhesion of IUA. First, a calcium alginate/polyacrylamide [...] Read more.
Intrauterine adhesions (IUA) has become one of the main causes of female infertility. How to effectively prevent postoperative re-adhesion has become a clinical challenge. In this study, a mussel-inspired dual-network hydrogel was proposed for the postoperative anti-adhesion of IUA. First, a calcium alginate/polyacrylamide (CA-PAM) hydrogel was prepared via covalent and Ca2+ cross-linking. Benefiting from abundant phenolic hydroxyl groups, polydopamine (PDA) was introduced to further enhance the adhesion ability and biocompatibility. This CA-PAM hydrogel immersed in 10 mg/mL dopamine solution possessed remarkable mechanical strength (elastic modulus > 5 kPa) and super stretchability (with a breaking elongation of 720%). At the same time, it showed excellent adhesion (more than 6 kPa). Surprisingly, the coagulation index of the hydrogel was 27.27 ± 4.91, demonstrating attractive coagulation performance in vitro and the potential for rapid hemostasis after surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Bio-Medical Polymers)
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10 pages, 6863 KiB  
Article
Self-Aware Artificial Coiled Yarn Muscles with Enhanced Electrical Conductivity and Durability via a Two-Step Process
by Yongqi Gong, Wanyi Chen, Jianyang Li, Shun Zhao, Luquan Ren, Kunyang Wang and Bingqian Li
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030552 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Muscles are capable of modulating the body and adapting to environmental changes with a highly integrated sensing and actuation. Inspired by biological muscles, coiled/twisted fibers are adopted that can convert volume expansion into axial contraction and offer the advantages of flexibility and light [...] Read more.
Muscles are capable of modulating the body and adapting to environmental changes with a highly integrated sensing and actuation. Inspired by biological muscles, coiled/twisted fibers are adopted that can convert volume expansion into axial contraction and offer the advantages of flexibility and light weight. However, the sensing-actuation integrated fish line/yarn-based artificial muscles are still barely reported due to the poor actuation-sensing interface with off-the-shelf fibers. We report herein artificial coiled yarn muscles with self-sensing and actuation functions using the commercially available yarns. Via a two-step process, the artificial coiled yarn muscles are proved to obtain enhanced electrical conductivity and durability, which facilitates the long-term application in human-robot interfaces. The resistivity is successfully reduced from 172.39 Ω·cm (first step) to 1.27 Ω·cm (second step). The multimode sense of stretch strain, pressure, and actuation-sensing are analyzed and proved to have good linearity, stability and durability. The muscles could achieve a sensitivity (gauge factor, GF) of the contraction strain perception up to 1.5. We further demonstrate this self-aware artificial coiled yarn muscles could empower non-active objects with actuation and real-time monitoring capabilities without causing damage to the objects. Overall, this work provides a facile and versatile tool in improving the actuation-sensing performances of the artificial coiled yarn muscles and has the potential in building smart and interactive soft actuation systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Bio-Medical Polymers)
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Review

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25 pages, 2318 KiB  
Review
PEEK for Oral Applications: Recent Advances in Mechanical and Adhesive Properties
by Chengfeng Luo, Ying Liu, Bo Peng, Menghao Chen, Zhaogang Liu, Zhanglong Li, Hai Kuang, Baijuan Gong, Zhimin Li and Hongchen Sun
Polymers 2023, 15(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15020386 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 6494
Abstract
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a thermoplastic material widely used in engineering applications due to its good biomechanical properties and high temperature stability. Compared to traditional metal and ceramic dental materials, PEEK dental implants exhibit less stress shielding, thus better matching the mechanical properties of [...] Read more.
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a thermoplastic material widely used in engineering applications due to its good biomechanical properties and high temperature stability. Compared to traditional metal and ceramic dental materials, PEEK dental implants exhibit less stress shielding, thus better matching the mechanical properties of bone. As a promising medical material, PEEK can be used as implant abutments, removable and fixed prostheses, and maxillofacial prostheses. It can be blended with materials such as fibers and ceramics to improve its mechanical strength for better clinical dental applications. Compared to conventional pressed and CAD/CAM milling fabrication, 3D-printed PEEK exhibits excellent flexural and tensile strength and parameters such as printing temperature and speed can affect its mechanical properties. However, the bioinert nature of PEEK can make adhesive bonding difficult. The bond strength can be improved by roughening or introducing functional groups on the PEEK surface by sandblasting, acid etching, plasma treatment, laser treatment, and adhesive systems. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the research progress on the mechanical properties of PEEK for dental applications in the context of specific applications, composites, and their preparation processes. In addition, the research on the adhesive properties of PEEK over the past few years is highlighted. Thus, this review aims to build a conceptual and practical toolkit for the study of the mechanical and adhesive properties of PEEK materials. More importantly, it provides a rationale and a general new basis for the application of PEEK in the dental field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Bio-Medical Polymers)
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