Special Issue "Starch Metabolism in Plants"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Ángel Mérida Berlanga Website E-Mail
Institute of Plant Biochemistry and Photosynthesis (IBVF) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad de Sevilla (US), 41092 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: starch metabolism; starch granule initiation; carbon metabolism in plants; photosynthesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Collegues,

Starch is the most abundant storage polyglucan in nature. Two types of starch can be found depending on the length of time of storage: transitory starch, found mainly in photosynthetic tissues, where it undergoes fluctuations of synthesis and degradation along the day/night cycle; and long-term storage starch, accumulated in heterotrophic tissues such as endosperms, roots or tubers. Both types share common features with respect to the structure of the polymer, their localization in plastids or the general enzymatic machinery involved in their synthesis and degradation. However, they display specific characteristics that differentiate both types of starch in the processes of initiation, elongation and degradation of the polymer. Long-term storage starch provides carbon skeletons and energy to some developmental events such as sprouting or seed germination. This is the most relevant starch for humankind as it is the raw material used for multiple applications, ranging from sweeteners or component of desserts, puddings or ice creams in the food industry, to be used in coatings, glues, and the production of cardboard or ethanol fuel. Transitory starch is not relevant for industrial uses. However, it is essential for the physiology of the plant, fuelling its growth during dark periods when photosynthesis is inactive.

Many advances in the knowledge of the starch metabolism have been achieved during the last years. These studies have shed light on different processes that remained unknown, such as the phylogenetic origin of starch, the role of the different classes of starch branching and starch synthase enzymes in the determination of the structure of the polymer or the identification of new players in the synthesis and degradation of starch. However, other questions remain to be addressed, such as the mechanism that regulates the control of the starch accumulation by the circadian clock, the identification of transcription factors that regulate the starch genes and their interplay with plant hormones or external stimuli, or a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of initiation of the starch granule (both the transitory and the long-term storage starch) and how the number of granules per chloroplast is controlled.

This Special Issue is devoted to providing an up-to-date vision of the progress in the study of the different aspects of starch metabolism. Therefore, original research papers, perspectives, hypotheses, opinions, reviews, modelling approaches and methods are most welcome.

Dr. Ángel Mérida Berlanga
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • carbon metabolism
  • starch synthesis
  • starch degradation
  • photosynthesis
  • starch metabolism regulation
  • starch granule initiation

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Intra-Sample Heterogeneity of Potato Starch Reveals Fluctuation of Starch-Binding Proteins According to Granule Morphology
Plants 2019, 8(9), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090324 - 04 Sep 2019
Abstract
Starch granule morphology is highly variable depending on the botanical origin. Moreover, all investigated plant species display intra-tissular variability of granule size. In potato tubers, the size distribution of starch granules follows a unimodal pattern with diameters ranging from 5 to 100 µm. [...] Read more.
Starch granule morphology is highly variable depending on the botanical origin. Moreover, all investigated plant species display intra-tissular variability of granule size. In potato tubers, the size distribution of starch granules follows a unimodal pattern with diameters ranging from 5 to 100 µm. Several evidences indicate that granule morphology in plants is related to the complex starch metabolic pathway. However, the intra-sample variability of starch-binding metabolic proteins remains unknown. Here, we report on the molecular characterization of size-fractionated potato starch granules with average diameters of 14.2 ± 3.7 µm, 24.5 ± 6.5 µm, 47.7 ± 12.8 µm, and 61.8 ± 17.4 µm. In addition to changes in the phosphate contents as well as small differences in the amylopectin structure, we found that the starch-binding protein stoichiometry varies significantly according to granule size. Label-free quantitative proteomics of each granule fraction revealed that individual proteins can be grouped according to four distinct abundance patterns. This study corroborates that the starch proteome may influence starch granule growth and architecture and opens up new perspectives in understanding the dynamics of starch biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Metabolism in Plants)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Article:

NTRC and thioredoxin f overexpression differentially induces starch accumulation in tobacco leaves

María Ancín1, Luis Larraya1, Alicia Fernández-San Millán1, Jon Veramendi1, Tessa Burch-Smith2 and Inmaculada Farran1*

Affiliations: 1Dpto. Agronomía, Biotecnología y Alimentación, Institute for Multidisciplinary Applied Biology - UPNA, Campus Arrosadía, 31006, Pamplona, Spain.

2Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, U.S.A.

Abstract: Both NADPH-dependent Trx reductase C (NTRC) and thioredoxin (Trx) f have been proposed as valuable redox regulators of starch metabolism in chloroplasts. However, little is known about the specific role of each protein in this complex mechanism. To address this point, tobacco plants genetically engineered to overexpress the NTRC protein from the chloroplast genome were obtained and compared to transplastomic plants overexpressing Trx f. Likewise, we investigated the impact of NTRC and Trx f deficiency on starch metabolism by generating Nicotiana benthamiana plants silenced for both genes. Our results demonstrated that NTRC overexpression, as occurred with Trx f, induced enhanced starch accumulation in tobacco leaves. However, only Trx f silenced plants showed a significant decrease on starch accumulation. Quantitative analysis of enzyme activities related to starch synthesis and degradation were determined in all the genotypes. Zymographic analyses were additionally performed to compare the amylolytic enzyme profiles of both transplastomic tobacco plants. Our findings indicated that NTRC overexpression promotes the accumulation of transitory leaf starch as a consequence of a diminished starch turnover during the dark period, that seems to be related to a significantly increase of AGPase reduction and a redox deactivation of a putative debranching enzyme. On the other hand, increased starch content in Trx f overexpressing plants was connected to an increase in the capacity of soluble starch synthases during the light period. Taken together, these results point out that NTRC and the Fd-Trx system plays distinct roles in starch turnover.

Title: Intra-sample analysis of potato starch reveals fluctuation of phosphate contents and starch-binding proteins according to granule diameter

Author: Nicolas Szydlowski

Affiliation: University of Lille, Villeneuve-d'Ascq, France

ABSTRACT: Starch granule morphology is highly variable according the botanical origin. Moreover, all investigated plant species display intra-tissular variability of granule size. In potato tubers, size distribution of starch granules usually follows a unimodal pattern with diameters ranging from 5 m to 100 m. Several evidences indicate that granule morphology in plants is related to the complex starch metabolic pathway. However, the intra-sample variability of starch-binding metabolic proteins remains unknown. Here, we report on the molecular characterization of size-fractionated potato starch granules populations with average diameters of 14.2 ± 3.7 m, 24.5 ± 6.5 m, 47.7 ± 12.8 m and 61.8 ± 17.4 m. In addition to changes in the starch phosphate contents as well as subtle differences of the amylopectine structure, we found that starch-binding protein stoichiometry varies significantly according to granule size. Label-free quantitative proteomics of each granule fraction revealed that individual proteins can be grouped according to four distinct abundance patterns. This study corroborates that the starch proteome may influence starch granule growth and architecture and opens new perspectives in understanding the dynamics of starch biosynthesis.

 

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