Physiological Aspects of Plant Response to Pathogens and Abiotic Stress–Volume II

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2024 | Viewed by 2095

Special Issue Editors


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Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bialystok, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland
Interests: abiotic stress; plant growth and development; phosphorus and nitrogen deficiency; sugar metabolism under stress
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The reprogramming of metabolic pathways during regular plant growth and development is well documented in the literature; however, environmental biotic and abiotic stimuli cause changes in plant primary and secondary metabolites and the functioning of various physiological processes. Plant pathogens, i.e., viruses, bacteria, and fungi-causing diseases, trigger different immune responses and influence the physiological state of host plants. Similarly, abiotic stresses, such as heavy metals, fluctuations in temperature, light intensity, or deficiencies in macro- and micronutrients can cause changes in plant physiological processes, redirecting them to a defensive mode. Moreover, so-called cross-stress or multi-stress, caused by the simultaneous influence of more than one stress factor, e.g., a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses, can also affect plant physiology, triggering various host responses at the qualitative and quantitative metabolome levels.

In this Special Issue, we welcome original research papers and reviews on all aspects of plant physiology under the influence of various biotic and/or abiotic stresses.

Dr. Violetta Katarzyna Macioszek
Prof. Dr. Iwona Ciereszko
Prof. Dr. Andrzej K. Kononowicz
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • biotic and abiotic stresses
  • plant physiology
  • plant disease
  • photosynthesis
  • primary and secondary metabolites
  • plant hormones
  • plant pathogens

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2610 KiB  
Article
Supplemental Silicon and Boron Alleviates Aluminum-Induced Oxidative Damage in Soybean Roots
by Shuwei Wang, Haijing Cheng and Yunmin Wei
Plants 2024, 13(6), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13060821 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Aluminum (Al) toxicity in acidic soils is a major abiotic stress that negatively impacts plant growth and development. The toxic effects of Al manifest primarily in the root system, leading to inhibited root elongation and functionality, which impairs the above-ground organs of the [...] Read more.
Aluminum (Al) toxicity in acidic soils is a major abiotic stress that negatively impacts plant growth and development. The toxic effects of Al manifest primarily in the root system, leading to inhibited root elongation and functionality, which impairs the above-ground organs of the plant. Recent research has greatly improved our understanding of the applications of small molecule compounds in alleviating Al toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the role of boron (B), silicon (Si), and their combination in alleviating Al toxicity in soybeans. The results revealed that the combined application significantly improved the biomass and length of soybean roots exposed to Al toxicity compared to B and Si treatments alone. Our results also indicated that Al toxicity causes programmed cell death (PCD) in soybean roots, while B, Si, and their combination all alleviated the PCD induced by Al toxicity. The oxidative damage induced by Al toxicity was noticeably alleviated, as evidenced by lower MAD and H2O2 accumulation in the soybean roots treated with the B and Si combination. Moreover, B, Si, and combined B and Si significantly enhanced plant antioxidant systems by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes including CAT, POD, APX, and SOD. Overall, supplementation with B, Si, and their combination was found to alleviate oxidative damage and reduce PCD caused by Al toxicity, which may be one of the mechanisms by which they alleviate root growth inhibition due to Al toxicity. Our results suggest that supplementation with B, Si, and their combination may be an effective strategy to improve soybean growth and productivity against Al toxicity. Full article
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14 pages, 2925 KiB  
Article
A Physiological and Molecular Focus on the Resistance of “Filippo Ceo” Almond Tree to Xylella fastidiosa
by Mariarosaria De Pascali, Davide Greco, Marzia Vergine, Giambattista Carluccio, Luigi De Bellis and Andrea Luvisi
Plants 2024, 13(5), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13050576 - 20 Feb 2024
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Abstract
The impact of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) subsp. pauca on the environment and economy of Southern Italy has been devastating. To restore the landscape and support the local economy, introducing new crops is crucial for restoring destroyed olive groves, and the almond [...] Read more.
The impact of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) subsp. pauca on the environment and economy of Southern Italy has been devastating. To restore the landscape and support the local economy, introducing new crops is crucial for restoring destroyed olive groves, and the almond tree (Prunus dulcis Mill. D. A. Webb) could be a promising candidate. This work focused on the resistance of the cultivar “Filippo Ceo” to Xf and evaluated its physiological and molecular responses to individual stresses (drought or pathogen stress) and combined stress factors under field conditions over three seasons. Filippo Ceo showed a low pathogen concentration (≈103 CFU mL−1) and a lack of almond leaf scorch symptoms. Physiologically, an excellent plant water status was observed (RWC 82–89%) regardless of the stress conditions, which was associated with an increased proline content compared to that of the control plants, particularly in response to Xf stress (≈8-fold). The plant’s response did not lead to a gene modulation that was specific to different stress factors but seemed more indistinct: upregulation of the LEA and DHN gene transcripts by Xf was observed, while the PR transcript was upregulated by drought stress. In addition, the genes encoding the transcription factors (TFs) were differentially induced by stress conditions. Filippo Ceo could be an excellent cultivar for coexistence with Xf subps. pauca, confirming its resistance to both water stress and the pathogen, although this similar health status was achieved differently due to transcriptional reprogramming that results in the modulation of genes directly or indirectly involved in defence strategies. Full article
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